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HPC Impacts Automotive Aerodynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics HPC demands. Kevin Golsch Aerodynamics – Energy Center 1 October 2010. Stability and Control At around 150 mph, vehicle aerodynamics are equal to chassis forces, at 200 mph they are nearly double. Speed

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HPC Impacts Automotive Aerodynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics HPC demands

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Hpc impacts automotive aerodynamics computational fluid dynamics hpc demands l.jpg

HPC Impacts Automotive AerodynamicsComputational Fluid Dynamics HPC demands

Kevin Golsch

Aerodynamics – Energy Center

1 October 2010


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Stability and Control

At around 150 mph, vehicle aerodynamics are equal to chassis forces, at 200 mph they are nearly double.

Speed

At 200 mph, aerodynamics drag is over 75% of the engine load

At 200 mph, a 1% drag reduction will increase vehicle speed almost 1 mph

At Daytona, the aerodynamic drag separating the pole sitter from the first vehicle going home is around 5%.

Importance of Aerodynamics for Race Vehicles


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Wind Tunnel Correlation

Not only can computational analysis help solve issues difficult to visualize during experimental testing, it can also help correlate data from one wind tunnel test to the next or to actual road conditions


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Championships

Analytical and Experimental development when combined together effectively, can yield record breaking results.

2007 Chevrolet Impala was the first drag race vehicle developed using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Vehicle won the 2007 NHRA championship in its debut year


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Average passenger cars push enough air at highway speed to consume over 1 gallon per hour, average full size trucks over 2 gallons per hour.

At highway speeds, aerodynamic drag is around 2/3 of the engine load

A 10% aerodynamic drag improvement will improve an average passenger car’s efficiency by around 2 - 3 MPG on the highway.

Importance of Aerodynamics to Production Vehicles


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Importance of Aerodynamic Integration

Average passenger vehicle pays a fuel economy penalty of approximately 2 – 3 MPG on the highway for power train cooling.

Front end airflow (FEAF) is the majority of work performed by today’s CFD engineer Front end airflow (FEAF) is the majority of work performed by today’s CFD engineer

CFD is used to optimize the flow for cooling performance.

Proper flow predictions require full vehicle geometry, grille detail, and heat exchanger and fan modeling.

Typical models are around 20M cells.


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Inductions and Exhaust

Induction and exhaust systems require only 5 – 10M cells and may be the only type of CFD capable of desktop simulation.

Inputs for these small models still require large full vehicle simulations

Final designs still need full vehicle simulations for validation


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Importance of Aerodynamic Integration

Any diverted airflow, such as brake cooling, can also impact fuel economy

Both aerodynamic and heat transfer effects can be modeled simultaneously and studied to provide for optimal use of diverted air


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High level of integration

Flow areas that are nearly impossible to study experimentally can easily be visualized at studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics

Many flow paths are studied in detail during a vehicle’s development


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Acoustic Modeling

Customer dissatisfies such as unwelcome acoustics can be modeled:

Exhaust flow noise propagation

Interior noise predictions

Mirrors

Windshield wipers

Window and sunroof buffeting

Vehicle shapes


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To gather this invaluable computational data, highly detailed models are required.

Models contain nearly all the parts of the automobile that contact the air

Volume meshing has been steadily increasing in size to more accurately predict the airflow

Typical aerodynamic computational fluid dynamic models have approached 50M volume cells

Each 1M cells requires just under 1 GB of memory to solve

What it takes to study aerodynamics on automobiles.


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HPC requirements

Typical transient full vehicle aerodynamic simulation requires 40 - 50 GB of memory and consume up to 3,500 CPU-hour

Typical cases are run on 128 to 256 process clusters

Typical full vehicle acoustic simulation require HPC of around twice that of an aerodynamics run

Steady-state flow rate simulations require only around 30 - 50 CPU-hours, but are still too large to run on a desktop


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Summary

Aerodynamics is important to automotive companies and the racing industry as it directly impacts fuel economy and vehicle performance

Large computing resources are required to properly simulate full vehicles

Full vehicle simulations and accurate vehicle geometry are required to properly integrate the various demands for airflow with aerodynamic drag and lift

CFD is expected to become increasingly important to automotive companies as areas of opportunity to improve fuel economy and vehicle performance are reduced.


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