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Topic 2, Section A. A brief introduction to climate change and forests. Objectives. In this presentation you will learn the basic facts about climate change. You will also learn about: The difference between mitigation and adaptation International responses to climate change.

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objectives
Objectives

In this presentation you will learn the basic facts about climate change. You will also learn about:

  • The difference between mitigation and adaptation
  • International responses to climate change

Topic 2, Section A, slide 2 of 30

outline
Outline
  • A brief introduction to climate change
  • The difference between mitigationand adaptation
  • International responses to climate change

Topic 2, Section A, slide 3 of 30

1 a brief introduction to climate change
1. A Brief Introduction to Climate Change

The role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • Created in 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change :
    • Reviews and assesses existing scientific literature
    • Publishes reports
    • Provides a scientific basis for policy making
  • Three working groups:
    • Science of Climate Change
    • Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
    • Mitigation
  • Reports:
    • Assessment Reports (1990, 1995, 2001, 2007)
    • Special and Methodology Reports, such as Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (2000), Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (2003)

Learn more at: www.ipcc.ch

Topic 2, Section A, slide 4 of 30

global mean temperature
Global Mean Temperature

Source: IPCC, 2007 Source: IPCC, 2001

Topic 2, Section A, slide 5 of 30

global mean temperature1
Global Mean Temperature

Source: IPCC, 2007 Source: IPCC, 2001

Topic 2, Section A, slide 6 of 30

the greenhouse effect
The Greenhouse Effect

A natural phenomenon, essential for life on Earth

various of the reflected energy is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. These are known as greenhouse gases.

Gases

Gases

Topic 2, Section A, slide 7 of 30

greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases

NO2

CO2

CH4

All

Source: IPCC, 2007

Topic 2, Section A, slide 8 of 30

global radiative forcing
Global Radiative Forcing

CO2

N20

CH4

Halocarbons

CH4

Source: IPCC, 2007

Topic 2, Section A, slide 9 of 30

world ghg emision
World GHG Emision

Source: WRI, 2005. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policies

Topic 2, Section A, slide 10 of 30

main sources of ghg by countries 2007
Main Sources of GhG by Countries (2007)

Source: IPCC, 2007

Topic 2, Section A, slide 11 of 30

the business as usual scenario
The “business as usual” scenario

By 2030, the emissions from the BRIC’s (Brazil, Russia, India and China) will equal those from the 30 developed countries that belong to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Total greenhouse gas emissions by country groups 1970-2050

OECD = 30 OECD countries

BRIC = Brazil, Russia, India, China

ROW = Rest of the World

Source: OECD 2008

Topic 2, Section A, slide 12 of 30

what is a ton of co 2
What is a ton of CO2?

Examples from daily life footprint:

  • Flying round-trip from New York to Los Angeles = 0.9 tonnes CO2/person
  • Driving an average car in the US = 5.4 tonnes CO2/year
  • Living in a detached family home with 4 bedrooms

In California = 20 tonnes CO2/yr/family In Michigan = 51 tonnes CO2/yr/family

National averages:

  • One person in the US = 25 tonnes CO2/yr
  • One person in India = 1 tonne CO2/yr

www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ind_calculator.html

www.nature.org/initiatives/climatechange/calculator/

Topic 2, Section A, slide 13 of 30

climate change scenarios
Climate Change Scenarios

Source: IPCC, 2007

Topic 2, Section A, slide 14 of 30

climate change impacts
Climate Change Impacts

Source: GRID Arenal

Topic 2, Section A, slide 15 of 30

2 mitigation vs adaptation
2. Mitigation vs. Adaptation

The problem

The solutions

Increasing Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Mitigation

Climate Change

Adaptation

Impacts

Complementary Measures

Topic 2, Section A, slide 16 of 30

mitigation vs adaptation
Mitigation vs. Adaptation

Sectoral approach

For many sectors, the emphasis is on adaptation OR mitigation

    • Water or health Adaptation
    • Energy or transportation Mitigation
  • For forestry and agriculture Mitigation AND adaptation

Topic 2, Section A, slide 17 of 30

3 international responses
3. International Responses

Main international agreements on climate change:

  • 1992: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

Creates the Conference of Parties and subsidiary bodies

Regular meetings

  • 1997: Kyoto Protocol

Complemented by other Conference of Parties agreements

To date, there has been an emphasis on mitigation in international agreements

Adaptation in international agreements:

  • Not well addressed
  • Impacts and adaptation must be in National Communications
  • Least Developed Countries are drawing up National Adaptation Programmes of Action

Topic 2, Section A, slide 18 of 30

the kyoto protocol at a glance

Emission

Trading

(ET)

tC

tC

JointImplementation(JI)

tC

$

$

$

Clean Development

Mechanism

(CDM)

Project

Non-Annex I

country

The Kyoto Protocol at a Glance

Emission reduction commitment(for 2008-2012:95% on average of 1990 level)

Flexibility mechanisms

Annex I country

Annex I country

Project

Annex I country

National Efforts

Topic 2, Section A, slide 19 of 30

kyoto protocol status of ratification
Kyoto Protocol Status of Ratification

Source: Wikipedia, 2008, permission granted under the GNU Free Documentation license

Topic 2, Section A, slide 20 of 30

forests and the clean development mechanism
Forests and the Clean Development Mechanism
  • Eligible activities
    • Only Afforestation and Reforestation (may include Agroforestry)
    • Land without forest on December 31, 1989
  • Modalities and procedures
    • Additionality and baseline
    • Methodologies
    • Permanence and temporary credits
  • Complexity and transaction costs
    • Scale issues
  • Current status (April 2009)
    • 3 registered forestry project (among 1593 CDM projects in total)
    • 17 approved methodologies

Topic 2, Section A, slide 21 of 30

avoided deforestation
Avoided Deforestation
  • Also called
    • REDD (Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation)
  • Tropical deforestation = 17.4% emissions
  • Not included in any agreement (e.g. not in the CDM)
  • In 2005: start of new discussions on RED
    • Main issues:
      • Links with cap-and-trade agreement and carbon markets
      • What to reward (efforts, reductions compared to a baseline…)?
      • Impacts on sustainable development, redistribution of benefits)
      • Monitoring
    • Bali 2007: agreement on pilot actions
    • World Bank\'s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
    • Many bilateral initiatives

Topic 2, Section A, slide 22 of 30

diversity of carbon markets
Diversity of Carbon Markets

Kyoto: ET and JI (between Annex I countries)

European Market ETS

Canada

Oregon

JVETS (Japan)

RGGI

CCX

WRCAI

Clean Development Mechanism(*)

Voluntary markets (*)

Kyoto market

Other cap-and-trade markets

Voluntary markets

GGAS (New South Wales)

Annex I

Non Annex I

Topic 2, Section A, slide 23 of 30

forests in the carbon markets
Forests in the Carbon Markets

But the share of forestry

projects is very low

(<1% for the CDM)

Transactions with projects

(forest and non-forest) are growing fast

Reasons: no connection with CDM-ETS, delay in forest-related CDM decisions, lack of awareness of markets, complexity of CDM rules

(Capoor & Ambrosi, 2007)

Topic 2, Section A, slide 24 of 30

voluntary markets
Voluntary Markets
  • Comparative advantage for forestry projects
    • 37% of transactions are with forestry projects (Hamilton et al., 2007)
    • Survey on 71 brokers (Gardette et Locatelli 2007)
      • 61% deal with forestry projects
      • 24% exclusively with forestry projects
  • No restrictions on activity types
    • Avoided Deforestation, Reforestation, Agroforestry…
  • No well-defined modalities
    • But standards are emerging
      • Climate, Community, Biodiversity (CCB)
      • Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS)

Topic 2, Section A, slide 25 of 30

references
References
  • General documents on climate change
    • Huq, S. and Toulmin, C. 2006 Three eras of climate change. IISD.
    • Joanna, Depledge. 2005 The organization of international negotiations: constructing the climate change regime. Earthscan.
    • National Academy of Science. 2008 Understanding and responding to climate change. http://dels.nas.edu/basc/
    • OECD. 2008.OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030. http://www.oecd.org/document/20/0,3343,en_2649_34305_39676628_1_1_1_37465,00.html
    • The Stern Review. 2007 The Economics of Climate Change. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/stern_review_report.htm
    • UNFCCC. 2004 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: The First Ten Years.
  • IPCC
    • IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007 Synthesis Report. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf
    • Working Group I Report "The Physical Science Basis". http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm
    • Working Group II Report "Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg2.htm
    • Working Group III Report "Mitigation of Climate Change". http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg3.htm

Topic 2, Section A, slide 26 of 30

the clean development mechanism
The Clean Development Mechanism
  • Cd4Cdm. 2004a CDM Information and Guidebook. Second Edition. UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. www.cd4cdm.org
  • Cd4Cdm. 2004b CDM Sustainable Development Impacts. UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. www.cd4cdm.org
  • Cd4Cdm. 2005a Clean Development Mechanism PDD Guidebook: Navigating the Pitfalls. UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. www.cd4cdm.org
  • Cd4Cdm. 2005b Baseline Methodologies for Clean Development Mechanism Projects: a Guidebook. UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. www.cd4cdm.org
  • Executive Board. 2005 Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality in A/R CDM project activities. Report of the 21st meeting of the CDM Executive Board, Sept. 2005, Annex 16. http://cdm.unfccc.int/EB
  • Jung, M. 2004 The History of Sinks – An Analysis of Negotiating Positions in the Climate Regime. HWWA. Discussion Paper 293.
  • Methodologies for AR CDM Projects. http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/ARmethodologies/approved_ar.html
  • Pearson, T., Walker, S. and Brown, S. 2006 Guidebook for the Formulation of Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism. ITTO Technical Series 25. International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama, Japan. www.itto.or.jp

Topic 2, Section A, slide 27 of 30

slide28
REDD
  • Brown et al. 2006 Can payments for avoided deforestation to tackle climate change also benefit the poor? ODI Forestry Briefing. www.odi.org.uk/publications/forestry-briefings.asp
  • Grieg-Gran, M. 2006 The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation—Report Prepared for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change. IIED, London. 20p.
  • Kremen, C. et al. 2000 Economic incentives for rain forest conservation across scales. Science 288: 1828-1832.
  • Luttrell et al. 2007 The implications of carbon financing for pro-poor community forestry. ODI Forestry Briefing. www.odi.org.uk/publications/forestry-briefings.asp
  • Peskett, L. and Harkin, Z. 2007 Risk and responsibility in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation. ODI Forestry Briefing. www.odi.org.uk/publications/forestry-briefings.asp
  • Rubio Alvarado, L.R. and Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. 2007 Why are we seeing REDD? An analysis of the international debate on reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries. IDDRI. www.iddri.org
  • Santilli, M. et al. 2005 Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. Climatic Change 71:267-276.
  • Schlamadinger, B. 2007 Options for including land use in a climate agreement post-2012: improving the Kyoto Protocol approach. Environmental Science and Policy 10: 295-305.
  • UNFCCC. 2006 Issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries and recommendations on any further process - submissions by Parties. 122p.
  • UNFCCC. 2007 Report on the second workshop on reduction emissions from deforestation in developing countries, FCC/SBSTA/2007/3 du 17 avril 2007. 18p.
  • UNFCCC. 2007 Views on the range of topics and others relevant information relating to reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, submissions by Parties. 109p.

Topic 2, Section A, slide 28 of 30

carbon markets
Carbon markets
  • Bosquet, B. 2006 The Market for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry: the BioCarbon Fund. The World Bank-UNESCO-ProNatura International Forum, March 15, 2006. http://www.unesco.org/mab/climat/bioCarbonFiles/Bosquet.pdf
  • Capoor, K. and Ambrosi, P. 2007 State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2007. Carbon Finance Business. World Bank, Washington DC. www.carbonfinance.org
  • Harris, E. 2006 The voluntary Carbon Market: current & future market status, and implications for development benefits. Working paper, round table discussion: Can voluntary carbon offset assist development? IIED.
  • Neeff, T. and Henders, S. 2006 Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of Forestry CDM Projects. Ecosecurities Consult, Report for FORMA project, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica. www.proyectoforma.com
  • Peskett et al. 2006 Making Voluntary Carbon Markets Work for the Poor: The case of forestry offsets. ODI Forestry Briefing. www.odi.org.uk/publications/forestry-briefings.asp
  • Peskett et al. 2007 Can standards for voluntary carbon offsets ensure development benefits? ODI Forestry Briefing. www.odi.org.uk/publications/forestry-briefings.asp
  • Taiyab, N. 2006 Exploring the market for voluntary carbon offsets. IIED. 42p.
  • Walker, S.M., Pearson, T.R.H., Munishi, P. and Petrova, S. 2008 Carbon market opportunities for the forestry sector of Africa. Winrock International. FAO African Forestry. www.fao.org
  • World Bank. 2006 Carbon Finance at the World Bank, Carbon finance for sustainable development - rapport 2006. 88p. www.carbonfinance.org

Topic 2, Section A, slide 29 of 30

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