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The Methods of Science Vocabulary . 1. A statement to investigate a claim or the cause(s) or effect(s) of an observed phenomenon through experimentation. . Problem Statement. Example 1: Does Jolly fruit juice contain the 100% daily value of Vitamin C as claimed.

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problem statement

1

A statement to investigate a claim or the cause(s) or effect(s) of an observed phenomenon through experimentation.

Problem Statement

Example 1: Does Jolly fruit juice contain the 100% daily value of Vitamin C as claimed.

Example 2: What is causing the massive fish kill off of the Oregon coastline?

Example 3: What effect does zero gravity have on bone density?

observations

2

Process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful and orderly way.

Observations

Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, Sight, Sound

inferences

3

Logical conclusions based on available information.

Inferences

Observe

Infer

State Cause & Effect

rationale based hypothesis

4

Based on logical reasoning, it is a possible explanation for a set of observations that can be tested.

Rationale-based hypothesis

Fairy Rings

rationale based hypothesis1

4

Based on logical reasoning, it is a possible explanation for a set of observations that can be tested.

Rationale-based hypothesis

Observation: Leaves change color in the Fall, when daylight steadily decreases and temperatures get cooler.

H1: Cooler temperatures trigger the color change.

H2: Decreasing daylight triggers the color change.

prediction

5

A statement of what outcomes to expect prior running an experiment.

Prediction

Before After

Counterintuitive result: Time to rethink the Hypothesis!

null hypothesis

6

The proposition that implies any effect or relationship between phenomena is purely accidental and is not due to systematic causes.

Null hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant difference in the way boys and girls carry books.

manipulated variable

7

The independent variable. The factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed.

Manipulated Variable

What might be the manipulated variable?

Fertilizer concentration

responding variable

8

The dependent variable. The variable that is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable.

Responding Variable

What might be the Responding variable?

Rate of growth

controlled varia bles

9

AKA constants. Factors that do not change when other variables change.

Controlled variables

All of these samples have the same …

-type of container

-amount of water

-kind of soil

-species of plant

-amount of light

-temperature

controlled experiment

10

An experiment in which only one variable is changed.

Controlled experiment

Fertilizer concentration

experimental set up

11

AKA experimental group. The part of a controlled experiment which contains the manipulated variable.

Experimental set-up

Arabidopis seedlings

Normal strain

Mutant strain

control set up

12

AKA control group or experimental control: The part of an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental set-up except for one independent variable.

Control set-up

Arabidopis seedlings

Normal strain

Mutant strain

procedure

13

A detailed, step-by-step set of directions to recreate the experiment for anyone.

Procedure

experimental levels

14

The values of a factor to be sampled in an experiment.

How many levels are in this experiment?

Experimental levels

Five: There appear to be five different levels or concentrations of fertilizer used.

trials

15

The act of running an experiment and collecting data.

Trials

Look carefully. How many trials are in this experiment?

Two. There are two rows of pots.

apparatus

16

Equipment used in a laboratory or elsewhere for experiments or scientific study.

Apparatus

uncertainty

17

This refers to any error that can occur in an experiment.

Sample size

Uncertainty

Parallax

Reaction

time

Instrument calibration

Instrument precision

quantitative data

18

Data which can be measured and expressed as a number.

Quantitative data

qualitative data

19

Data which can be observed and described, but not measured.

Qualitative data

data processing

20

The process of using data to make calculations.

Data Processing

data presentation

21

Displaying data in the form of tables and charts.

Tables Charts

Data Presentation

experimental results

22

Describing trends and observations in data by comparing and contrasting charts.

Experimental results

As time continues, what trend is evident?

conclusion

23

Interpreting data for cause and effect relationships. This involves accepting, rejecting, or modifying hypotheses.

Conclusion

What conclusion can be made if the experiment below were based on a null hypothesis?

Air removed

Air present

evaluation

24

Assessing the procedure and methods used, identifying sources of error, and suggesting modifications to improve the investigation.

Evaluation

model

25

Used to represent an idea, an object, or event that is too big, too small, too complex, or too dangerous to observe and test directly.

Model

Too small

Too big

Too complex

Too dangerous

theory

26

A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses, and enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations.

Theory

House cat

Lion

Cougar

Tiger

Cheetah

Bobcat

Inactive TAS1R2

“Sweet tooth” gene

6.7 mya

Cat Evolution

7.2 mya

10.8 mya

scientific law

27

A statement or description about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time; does not explain why or how something happens.

Scientific Law

Laws of Motion

Law of Gravity

Laws of Planetary Motion

Law of Segregation

Law of Natural Selection

technology

28

The application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems, especially in industry and commerce.

Technology

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