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### Space and Time

From infinite singularity to infinite galaxy

Let’s see what Einstein\'s special relativity said about time:

- Time begin with the big bang
- End with the black hole
- Get faster if we travel faster
- May go to the future of future if we are in the future

You may confuse about some of the above, before the understanding of Einstein\'s special relativity.

Special relativity

Different Frames of Reference

View from the sailor

Same scenario

View from the other ship

So, motions are relative. You can run 500m/s but only 10m/s relative to the ground.

Special relativity

The time is different relative to 2 observers who has different motion relative to each other.

Time Dilation

3 atomic clock is put on a east-going plane, origin place and a west-going plane. After they went around the earth, one clock is quicker than the origin and another is slower.

Time Dilation

In the experiment, the time dilation on each plane is exactly what Einstein’s equation predicted

- - time interval of a moving observer
- - time interval of a stationary observer
- v - speed of the moving observer.
- c - speed of light.

Relativistic Momentum

Based on the conservation of momentum and the time dilation equation, Einstein came up with the equation of momentum in different velocity relative to the stationary.

Special relativity

- Nothing can travel faster than light
- Light has the speed of m/s with all observers

Einstein 1905

Speed of Light

Nothing can get faster than the speed of light

It’s experiment proved again!!

Protons are accelerate to 0.99999999 speed of light

Fermilab accelerator

Time Travel

Review the time dilation equation

What if we travel at almost the speed of light?

Then while we travel 1 seconds on the spaceship, the earth might has gone through many years.

But only in the future, we can have the technology to travel at high speed and go to the future of future.

Mass–energy equivalence

Do you still remember the nuclear bomb in Japan?

How can such a big amount of energy was released by a small mass bomb?

Mass–energy equivalence

Einstein came up with one of the most important equation in physics.

Because of the huge value of c, small amount of mass can have huge amount of energy.

Space-time relationship

Space-time can be seen as a inverse proportion relationship

The car stand still, the time goes at normal speed

The car tar to move in space, the time gets slower

General Relativity

Newton’s theory works, but he never find the reason of gravity, because …

There is no gravity

General Relativity

Einstein’s space view:

Einstein’s ideas:

Space is a fabric and matters make it warp

The reason why the earth go around the sun is because the curve made by the sun.

And if sun disappear, earth still remain its motion until the wave come, which is exactly the speed of light.

This again, proved the theory of special relativity.

General Relativity

So, we can say that the thing we called Gravity is just the object\'s reaction to the bends on space-time fabric.

Although there is no gravity, since that we have use the term for many years and the awesome job done by newton, we will keep using it reluctantly…

General Relativity

Not only space, light also, is bend by gravity.

It’s easy to try and demonstrate also, when eclipse happens, the stars place change a little bit when the moon completely hide the sun.

General Relativity

Visualization of black hole

- Time stand still near black hole because the bend of it.
- Even light is trapped forever and we can’t see it.
- Every galaxy has a enormous blackhole

General Relativity

Einstein 1923

Time might begin at the big bang , or before our big bang, there is another big big bang.

String Theory

After the discover of quarks, we believe that there is a smaller particle and try to find it.

And here comes the string theory

Which try to define everything in the universe

String Theory

The idea is that, at all the end of smaller particle finding, it is actually similar type of string that form this particles.

The only difference between them is the different vibrations they make.

String Theory

Strings are everywhere, but we just can’t see it, because it has several more dimensions.

When we see a line far away, it’s a 1d shape line

When we go closer and inside, we found out that it’s actually a tube and has 3 dimension on it.

String Theory

Right now, when we think back, string may exist in our world and we didn’t notice, or we may exist in string’s world and didn’t notice neither.

String Theory

Singularity

Singularity has the infinite density, infinite mass and infinite gravity.

It is a point and doesn’t really has a volume.

Because of this special chrematistics, space and time get trapped in it and end.

Quezt

This is a multiple choice question.

Jobs sold out all his iPhones and built a spaceship in case of 2012.

Right now he is on the beautiful spaceship and traveling at 0.5c away from the earth.

Another ship from Bill Gates is traveling toward Jobs at a lower speed of 0.4c

Jobs throw a stone to Gates\' spaceship at a speed of 3m/s

What’s the speed of the message?

- 0.1c D.0.7c
- c E.0.3c
- 0.4c

B. c

Because speed of light is constant relative to all observer.

Constant box:

g=9.8m/

c=3m/s

[email protected]?!&*$%@

Quezt

This is a multiple choice question.

Jobs sold out all his iPhones again and built a spaceship in case of 2012.

Right now he is on the beautiful spaceship and traveling at 0.5c away from the earth.

Another ship from Bill Gates is traveling toward Jobs at a lower speed of 0.4c

Jobs sent a hello message to Bill gates.

What’s the speed of the message?

- 0.1c D.0.7c
- c E.0.3c
- 0.4c

Constant box:

g=9.8m/

c=3m/s

[email protected]?!&*$%@

All of them are correct.

Because the speed is relative to different frame of reference.

Quezt

This is a multiple choice question.

Jobs sold out all his iPhones again!!!!! and built a spaceship in case of Oct 2011. why is it Oct?... Siri tells him that bad things happens to him at 8 Oct, and good things happens in earth at 12 Oct, but time always has a sequence, so…

He decided to launch the spaceship at 2 Oct and come backtomeet good thing first.

What speed relative to earth should him travel to make everything work?

- 0.8c D.0.7c
- 0.6c E.0.5c
- 0.4c F. c

0.8c

Jobs\' time interval is maximum 7 days

Good thing’s time interval is minimum 11 days

Since we know each variables in time dilation equation, we can calculate the most suitable solution

Constant box:

g=9.8m/

c=3m/s

[email protected]?!&*$%@

Quezt

This is a multiple choice question.

Jobs failed eventually, because you didn’t send the answer to him as the speed of light..

Finally, 2012 came and the sun disappear, what will happen?

A. As soon as it happen, gravity of the sun disappear and earth start to do uniform motion.

B. After several minutes, earth start to go along a line.

C. After several minutes, earth start its circular motion, just like JJ Thomson Experiment, is affected by the electric field in the solar system.

D. As soon as it happen, gravity of the sun disappear and earth slowly stopped its spinning.

Constant box:

g=9.8m/

c=3m/s

[email protected]?!&*$%@

B

Gravity can not be faster than light.

Quezt

This is a multiple choice question.

Based on string theory and it’s dimensions Choose the right one.

- String is the basic of particles, vibration differentiate them.
- Particles form different materials by the vibration of strings which is not only man-made string, but also anything that can vibrate.
- String theory explained singularity and the beginning of time, and illustrate how singularity is massless before the big bang.
- String is in extra dimensions because when we see a string, we may think it’s a line, but actually it may consist a bunch of string , it just too thin that we can not find out about it.

Constant box:

g=9.8m/

c=3m/s

[email protected]?!&*$%@

A

Review the notes.

Bibliographyand further reading

http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca/index.php?lang=en

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_relativity

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_relativity

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvZfx7iwq94

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