Refleksioner over grammatik og grammatikundervisning
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Refleksioner over grammatik og grammatikundervisning. Ulla Bryanne Lektor i engelsk University College Nordjylland. Program Når studerende bliver lærere Hvad er grammatik? Hvordan lærer man sprog? Hvordan kan man undervise i grammatik?. Når studerende bliver lærere.

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Refleksioner over grammatik og grammatikundervisning

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Refleksioner over grammatikoggrammatikundervisning

Ulla Bryanne

Lektoriengelsk

University College Nordjylland


Program

Når studerende bliver lærere

Hvad er grammatik?

Hvordan lærer man sprog?

Hvordan kan man undervise i grammatik?


Nårstuderendebliverlærere


Hvordanblev I selvundervistiengelskgrammatikigymnasiet?


Forskelligedilemmaeriarbejdet med grammatik

  • Hvorforarbejde med grammatik?

  • Præskriptivellerdeskriptiv?

  • Proaktivellerreaktiv/integreret?

  • Teaching grammar or teaching learners?

  • Deklarativeller procedure viden?

  • Induktivellerdeduktiv?

  • På danskellerengelsk?


Hvadergrammatik?


Hvadhører med tilundervisningigrammatik?


Sprogetstredimensioner

Based on Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman: The Grammar Book, p. 4

FORM

How is it formed?

(Accuracy)

MORPHOSYNTAX

MEANING

Whatdoes it mean?

(Meaningfulness)

SEMANTICS

USE

When/Why is it used?

(Appropriateness)

PRAGMATICS


For each of these grammatical structures, which of the three dimensions do you think Danish learners will have most problems with: how it is formed, what it means, or when and why to use it?

1. Phrasal verbs (e.g. My boyfriend ran up a huge phone bill)

2. The simple or continuous perspective (e.g. She painted/was painting the house)

3. The –ly of adverbs (e.g. She took it very seriously)

4. Irregular plural (e.g. mouse – mice)

Sprogets tre dimensioner

Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 34


Hvordanlærer man et sprog?


sprogtilegnelse

  • Fig. 2.3


Intersprogsudvikling

  • Ordindsamlingsfase

  • Udfyldningsfasen

  • Sofistikeringsfasen


Traditional assessment:Interlanguageanalysis:

- Focus on the target language- Focus on the learner language

- Compares learner language to- Sees learner language as a

the target language language in progress

- Focus on product- Focus on process

- Points out mistakes - Points out progress

- Focus on the things the learner- Focus on the things the cannot do learner can do

- Summative assessment- Formative assessment

Fig. 2-2. Differences between the traditional way of assessing learner language and the interlanguage analysis

Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 22


Hvordankan man underviseigrammatik?


Sprogetstredimensioner- hvordanlæres de?

  • FORM-dimensionen:

    • Mange gentagelser

    • Task-Based Learning

  • MEANING-dimensionen:

    • Dictogloss

    • Løbediktat

  • USE-dimensionen:

    • Rollespil


Eksempel på induktivøvelse

1. If ‘his girl friend’ is the answer to a question, what is the question we could ask to get this answer in the following sentence?

Scott gave his girl friend a bunch of flowers

2. Form questions that will give you the words in boldface as answers:

  • Mr Block found his daughter a job

  • Bob made a bookcase for Sally

  • Go find me a pencil

  • I explained the problem to my dog

  • Peter gave the book to Alice, who was his girlfriend at the time

  • He asked a favour of her

    3. The words in bold are Indirect Objects in the sentences. Form a rule that will help you find the Indirect Object. Why are IOs often persons? What does the IO do in a sentence?

    4. Have you noticed what forms IOs can have?

    5. In which order do we often find the DO and IO? What happens with the form of the IO if we use the order IO + DO?

Bruntt & Bryanne, pp. 121-122


Eksempel på automatiseringsøvelse

  • Here are some dilemmas. Discuss in groups what you would do in the situations below? Youmight start: I would… or I might….

  • Think of other dilemmas you could meet and discuss how to solve them:

    • Your parents don’t approve of your new girl-/boyfriend

    • Your best friend and you both have spare time jobs in the same shop. You discover that (s)he has stolen 2,000kr

    • You fall in love with the boyfriend or girlfriend of your best friend.

    • A classmate cheated in the last English test. Shouldyoutellsomeone?

    • Your friend has bought a new pair of jeans and thinks she looks absolutely fantastic. But you actually think they don´t suit her at all and now she wants to wear them on Friday when she hopes to get a date with a boy she has a crush on. Would/shouldyoutell her?

Bruntt & Bryanne, web chap. 13, 2-6


  • Gåind på: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-language-detectives

  • Vælg kapitel 10

  • Vælg Web activity 5


Integreretgrammatikundervisning

  • I tekstlæsning

  • Fællesskrivning


  • Read the following two texts:

  • A.

  • When Mr and MrsDursley woke up on the dull, grey Tuesday our story starts, there was nothing about the cloudy sky outside to suggest that strange and mysterious things would soon be happening all over the country. MrDursley hummed as he picked out his most boring tie for work and MrsDursley gossiped away happily as she wrestled a screaming Dudley into his high chair. None of them noticed a large, tawny owl flutter past the window.

  • B.

  • When Mr and MrsDursley woke up on the Tuesday our story starts, there was nothing about the sky outside to suggest that things would soon be happening all over the country. MrDursley hummed as he picked out his tie for work and MrsDursley gossiped away happily as she wrestled Dudley into his chair. None of them noticed an owl flutter past the window

Rowling, J. K.:

Harry Potter and the Philosopher´s Stone, Bloomsbury, 1997, pp.7-8.


  • Which text enables you to picture and characterize situations, things and characters precisely and vividly? Explain which text you prefer and why.

  • Which words are missing in text B and which word class do they belong to?

  • Which words do they describe and which word class do they describe?

  • What can you now conclude regarding adjectives?

  • Can you think of other situations or genres in which you would use a lot of adjectives?

  • Discuss this exercise from a teacher´s perspective, e.g. can you use this exercise with pupils?


Setting the context

Teacher modelling and deconstructing

Students constructing independently

Teacher and students constructing jointly

The Teaching-Learning Cycle


Hvadersværtvedverbaltiderne?

  • FORM?

  • MEANING?

  • USE?


  • Gåind på: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-language-detectives

  • Vælg kapitel 7

  • Vælg

    • Web activity 33

    • Web activity 34


GRAMMAR  GRAMMARING

Grammar is something that is done, rather than something that is known.

Bruntt & Bryanne, p. 20


  • Litteratur

  • Bruntt, Karen Lassen & Ulla Bryanne: Handbook for Language Detectives: Learning and Teaching English Grammar. Samfundsfag. 2012

    • Øvelser hertil: http://samfundslitteratur.dk/bog/handbook-language-detectives#tab2

  • Celce-Muria, Marianne & Diane Larsen-Freeman: The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s Course. Heinle & Heinle. 1999

  • Larsen-Freeman, Diane: TeachingGrammar: From Grammar to Grammaring. Thomson-Heinle. 2003


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