Management of national air quality
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Management of National Air Quality. Emission Standards Air Quality Standards Pollution Taxes Cost - Benefit Analysis Risk Standards . Air Pollution. Often disregarded as a health and safety issue.

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Management of National Air Quality

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Management of national air quality

Management of National Air Quality

  • Emission Standards

  • Air Quality Standards

  • Pollution Taxes

  • Cost - Benefit Analysis

  • Risk Standards


Air pollution

Air Pollution

  • Often disregarded as a health and safety issue.

  • May not have been properly appreciated by the public. Serious health related problems take a long time to show up as a result of exposure to air pollutants.

  • The health costs of air pollution traditionally have been greatly under-estimated.


Management of national air quality

Water Pollution

  • Problems are more noticeable and immediate in their effect.

  • Often recognized before it reaches crisis proportions.

  • Public complaints are immediate.


Kinds of law

Kinds of Law

  • Common Law

    • The body of law that has grown out of common tradition and usage, as stated in court decisions - usually concerns private rights

      Statute Law

    • The body of law that has been passed by legislators (e.g: US Congress) and stated in formal documents - usually concerns rights of general public

    • Statute laws usually do not take away a citizen's right to sue


Other legal terms

Other Legal Terms

  • Tort : A willful or negligent injury to a person, property, or reputation

  • Nuisance : Unlawful invasion of a possessor's interest in the reasonable use and enjoyment of property

    • Private Nuisance

      • Only the plaintiff or a small, well defined class of plaintiffs are affected

      • Plaintiff(s) could take action

    • Public Nuisance

      • Many people in the community are affected

      • Only government could take action


History of air pollution

History of Air Pollution

  • Prior to 1940     : Very little by way of formal regulations. Air Pollution Control Ordinance (around 1815)

  • 1940 - 1955       : Initiation of practical efforts in the US as a result of LA type fog

  • 1955 - 2010   : Development, Implementation & Modification of Regulations

  • 2001: New approaches to apply standards

  • Note :

  • Before Passage of 1970 Clean Air Amendments, Air Pollution Laws were sometimes similar to Water Pollution Laws


  • Air pollution related acts

    Air Pollution Related Acts

    • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947

    • Air Pollution Act of 1955 ( Jul.14, 1955 ) ; P -84/159

    • Air Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1960 and 1962(Oct. 9, 1962) ; PL-87/761

    • The Clean Air Act of 1963 ( Dec. 1963 ) ; PL - 88 / 206

    • Motor Vehicle Air pollution Control Act of 1965 ( Oct. 1965 ) ; PL-89/272

    • Air Quality Act of 1967 ( Nov. 21, 1967 ) ; PL - 90 / 148.

    • The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 ( Dec. 31, 1970 ) ; PL-91/604.

    • Clean Water Act, 1972, 1977


    Management of national air quality

    Air Pollution Related Acts

    • The Clean Air Act Amendments Act of 1977 ( Aug. 7, 1977 ) ; PL-95/95

    • The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

    • Toxic Substance Control Act

    • The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990


    Clean air act amendments of 1970

    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970

    • To protect human health and the air environment

    • To establish a national research and development program to prevent and to control air pollution

    • To provide federal assistance and leadership to state and local governments for air pollution programs

    • To develop specific standards for hazardous air pollutants


    Clean air act amendments of 19701

    Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970

    • Important legal event in the US federal air pollution control field

    • Creation of Environmental Protection Agency

    Policy


    Air quality criteria

    Air Quality Criteria

    • Expressions of the latest scientific knowledge based on the knowledge of experts.

    • Describe the effects that can be expected to occur beyond "excedence" pollutant level for a specified time period.

    • Miscellaneous

      • Exposure

      • Combination of pollutants etc


    Air quality standards

    Air Quality Standards

    • Prescribe the pollutant levels that cannot be legally exceeded during a specific time period in a specific geographic region

    • 1970 :

      • Primary Standards

        • Protection of public health (to be achieved regardless of cost and within the specified time limit)

      • Secondary Standards

        • To protect public from known and anticipated adverse effects

        • Time schedule to be determined by state and local governments


    Emission standards

    Emission Standards

    • Emission Standards

      • " _ _ _ _ _ _ to limit the amount or concentration of a contaminant that may be emitted from a source ".

    • Visible emission standards.

    • Particulate emission standards.

    • Particulate process weight (or mass) standards.

    • Gas concentration standards.

    • Prohibition of emissions.

    • Regulation of fuel.

    • Zoning restrictions.

    • Dispersion based standards.


    Case for national standards

    Case For National Standards

    • Unfair economic advantages (by state)

    • Competition for lower standards.

  • Federal Standards for :

    • automobiles

    • aircraft

    • industries supplying basic needs

    • "New Source " performance standards

  • Initial NSPS issued on December 23, 1971

    • Steam Generators

    • Portland Cement Plants

    • Incinerators

    • Nitric acid and H2SO4 plants


  • Prevention of significant deterioration program division of u s

    Prevention of Significant Deterioration ProgramDivision of U.S.

    • Class I :This class covers pristine areas of the country and no change from current air quality will be allowed

    • Class II :Almost all other areas where moderate change in air quality will be allowed

    • Class III:Industrialized areas where substantial growth will be allowed, and where the increase in concentration of pollutants up to the federal standards will be insignificant


    Prevention of significant deterioration

    Prevention Of Significant Deterioration

    1. Applies to new or modified sources constructed after March 19,1979.

    2. Potential emissions of 100 tons/year of any single pollutant, or a combined total of 250 tons/year of all pollutants.

    3. Best available control technology (BACT) applies to all sources covered.

    4. In regions where ambient air quality standards are not being met, a new source is required to provide “Emission Offsets”.


    National emission standards for hazardous pollutants neshaps

    National Emission Standards For Hazardous Pollutants (NESHAPS)

    • Beryllium

    • Mercury

    • Vinyl Chloride

    • Radio nuclides

    • Benzene

    • Asbestos

    • Others Proposed


    Clean air acts amendments of 1990

    Clean Air Acts Amendments of 1990

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are divided into 11 sections:

    TITLE I- Attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    TITLE II - Mobile Sources

    TITLE III - Air Toxics

    TITLE IV - Acid Deposition

    TITLE V - Permit Provisions

    TITLE VI - Ozone Depleting Chemicals

    TITLE VII - Enforcement

    TITLE VIII - Miscellaneous

    TITLE IX - Clean Air Research

    TITLE X- Disadvantaged Business Concerns

    TITLE XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance


    Title i attainment national ambient air quality standards

    TITLE IAttainment National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    • Draw the boundaries of non attainment areas for carbon monoxide(CO), Ozone (O3), and particulate matter (PM)

    • Ozone (O3)

      • Severe

      • Serious

      • Moderate

      • Marginal

      • Extreme for LA

  • Carbon monoxide (CO), and Particulate Matter (PM -10)

    • Serious

    • Moderate

  • Definition of a " Major Source "

    • Extreme Areas : 10 tons of VOC and NOx per year

    • Severe Areas: 25 tons.

    • Serious : 50 tons.

    • Moderate and Marginal : 100 tons.


  • Title ii mobile sources

    TITLE IIMobile Sources

    • Tier I

      • NOx : 0.6 grams / mile (1994)

      • HC : 0.4 grams / mile Auto : 100,000 or 10 years

      • Light Duty Trucks : 75,000 or 7 years

      • CO : 10 grams / mile

    • Tier II

      • NOx : 0.200 grams / mile (2003)

      • HC : 0.125 grams / mile

      • CO : 9.000 ppm (1996) (8hr concetration)

      • 1995 : Use of formulated gasoline in 9 cities


    Title iii air toxics

    TITLE IIIAir Toxics

    • 189 Air Toxics

    • List of Source Categories

      • 10 tons annual (Single Toxic)

      • 25 tons annual (Combination)

    • Maximum Available Control Technology Standard

    • Study Mercury Emissions from Utilities

    • Study Toxic Deposition in the Great Lakes

    • Requirement for Operating Permit


    Title iv acid deposition

    TITLE IVAcid Deposition

    • Phase I

      • 111 Power Plants

      • Cut Back to the 2.5 lbs of SO2 per million BTU

      • Jan.1, 1995

    • Phase II

      • Jan.1, 2000

      • 1.2 lbs of SO2 per million BTU

    • EPA is required to issue rules for NOx

    • 10 million ton cut : SO2

    • 2 million ton cut : NOx


    Title v permit provisions

    TITLE V Permit Provisions

    • 12 months to issue final rule

    • 3 years to implement permit program for states

    • EPA can veto a state's permit

    • Major Source : 5 year permit


    Title vi ozone depleting chemicals

    TITLE VI Ozone Depleting Chemicals

    • Phase-out of Ozone-depleting chemicals

    • CFC's, Halons, and Carbon Tetrachloride (2000)

    • Methyl Chloroform (2002)

    • HCFC's (2030) : Production cap by 2015


    Title vii enforcement

    TITLE VII Enforcement

    • Civil and criminal liabilities

    • 15 years in prison for knowingly endangering public

    • On-the-spot citations of upto $5,000

    • Penalty orders upto $200,000

    • Issue compliance orders

    • Issue compliance schedules

    • Issue administrative subpoenas to gather compliance data

    • Private citizens and groups to seek penalties against violators


    Impact of caaa of 1990

    Impact of CAAA of 1990

    • 400 new regulations

    • Small businesses were hit hard

    • Coal miners in Midwest

    • Issue of new permits

    • Emission fee

    • Pollution control for 189

    • Air toxics $26 Billion / Year by 2005

    • Emission allowance and training program


    National ambient air quality standards for air toxics

    National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Air Toxics

    • None developed by EPA.

    • Guideline for state.

    • Use of TLV- TWA (ACGIH).

    • Use of PEL (OSHA).

    • Use of IDLH (NIOSH).

    • Risk of 10-6 for carcinogenic pollutants.

    • Etc.


    Air pollution control alternatives

    Air Pollution Control Alternatives

    • Bubble Policy

    • Emission Offsets

    • Banking of emission offset credits

    • Emission trading


    Air pollution strategies

    Air Pollution Strategies

    • Concept of " best practicable technology ".

    • Requirements

      • Environmental Need

      • Demonstrated Technological and Commercial Feasibility

      • Energy Efficient

      • Acceptance Of Overall Project Economics


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