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Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

http://www.clickatutor.com/mitochondria.jpg

Cellular RespirationCampbell Chapter 9Slide shows modified from: Glenbrook High School AP site http://gbs.glenbrook.k12.il.us/Academics/gbssci/bio/apbio/Index/index.htm& Dr. Chuck Downinghttp://gohs.tvusd.k12.ca.us/TeacherWebs/Science/CDowning/default.aspx


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

http://www.inclusive.co.uk/downloads/images/pics2/tree.gif

AUTOTROPHS

___________ use energy from sunlight or chemicals to make their own food

In the last chapter green plants

used ________________

trap energy from __________

and make ______________

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

sunlight

food (glucose)

http://206.173.89.42/REALTYWITHALOHA_COM/piphoto/funny%20sun%20with%20sunglasses.gif


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

 Image from: http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/Semprojs/2003/spiderlamb/eatsheep.gif

In this chapter we will learn how ______________

get their energy by consuming other organisms.

HETEROTROPHS

GLUCOSE

We get our energy from the __________ plants made during _______________ when we eat plants or eat animals

that ate the plants.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

http://www.cibike.org/Eating.htm


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

In this chapter, we will learn how this glucose is ____________ by organisms and the _______

is stored

as _______

broken down

energy

ATP

What kind of organisms do this?


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

ALL LIVING THINGS NEED ENERGY!

All organisms burn glucose for fuel

Animals

(Including humans)

plants

bacteria

fungi


Photosynthesis

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

6 CO2

___________ + _________ + ___________ →_______________ + __________

6 H2O

C6H12O6

6O2

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

C6H12O6

6 CO2

_____________ + _________ →________ + __________ + __________

______________________________________________________________

6O2

6 H2O

The two equations are exact opposites!


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/777814/2/istockphoto_777814_oil_bonus_pack.jpg

Loss of hydrogen atoms

Energy

Gain of hydrogen atoms

REMEMBER: OIL RIG

OXIDATIONREDUCTION

Is Loss of electronsIs Gain of electrons

Remove H Add H

Releases energy Stores energy

Exergonic Endergonic

OXIDATION

REDUCTION


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

slowly

many steps

CELLULAR RESPIRATION happens __________

in ________________.

If all the energy was released in one step… most would be lost as ____________________!

light and heat

http://plato.acadiau.ca/COURSES/comm/g5/Fire_Animation.gif


The big picture played out before your eyes

THE BIG PICTURE PLAYED OUT BEFORE YOUR EYES...

http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/cellularrespiration.html


Electron transport chain

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

  • Prevents energy release in 1 explosive step

  • Allows energy to be released slowly in steps and captured as ATP

  • Electron route: food → NADH → ETC → oxygen


Link to example of coupled reaction with delta g values

Link to Example of Coupled Reaction with Delta G Values

Look at middle of page Titled “How Free Energy Works” section: delta G values are shown for ATP hydrolysis and NADH

http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/Cytochromes/cytochromes.html


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

DOUBLE

MITOCHONDRIA = cell power plant

Surrounded by ___________ membrane

Outer membrane & Inner membrane (called _______________ )

Space between inner membrane & outer membrane

= ____________________

Space inside cristae folds

= _________________

CRISTAE

INTERMEMBRANE SPACE

MATRIX


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

Text

ATP Synthase

inner membrane impermeable to H+ ions; therefore creates a force/charge gradient or voltage difference; electropotential.


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

HIGH ENERGY ELECTRON CARRIERS

FAD → FADH2

NAD+→ NADH

http://courses.bio.indiana.edu/L104-Bonner/Sp12/imagesSp12/L16/MPs.html

GREAT ANIMATION OF ELECTRON PUSH!! WATCH THIS!!


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

  • The first step in cellular respiration

  • = _______________

  • Also called

  • _________________________________

  • happens in the ________________

  • outside the mitochondria

  • occurs _________________________

GLYCOLYSIS

See glycolysis movie

http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/biology1111/animations/glycolysis.html

Embden-Meyerhoff Pathway

CYTOPLASM

with or without oxygen


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

PREPARATORYPHASE(energy investment)

Steps – A fuelmolecule is energized,using ATP.

Glucose

1

3

  • Details of glycolysis

Step

1

Glucose-6-phosphate

2

Fructose-6-phosphate

3

Fructose-1,6-diphosphate

Step A six-carbonintermediate splits into two three-carbon intermediates.

4

4

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

Arraugh!

Like, this

is way hard!

ENERGY PAYOFF PHASE

5

Step A redoxreaction generatesNADH.

5

1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid(2 molecules)

6

Steps – ATPand pyruvic acidare produced.

3-Phosphoglyceric acid(2 molecules)

6

9

7

2-Phosphoglyceric acid(2 molecules)

8

2-Phosphoenolpyruvate(2 molecules)

9

Pyruvic acid

(2 moleculesper glucose molecule)


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

Glycolysis (GLYKOS = ________ LYSIS= ___________ )

Requires ____________to get it started.

sweet

Split apart

ENERGY


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION

= using energy from breaking a chemical bond of a substrate

(likeglucose) to add a P directly from a phosphorylated molecule to ADP without a proton gradient.

(glycolysis is substrate-level

phosphorylation and NOT

very efficient)

MITOCHONDRION


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

= ANAEROBIC

PYRUVIC ACID MOVES TO NEXT STEP

IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN (______________)

IF THERE IS OXYGEN (_____________)

= AEROBIC


Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration

  • Kreb’s Cycle:

  • mitochondrial matrix;

  • pyruvate → CO2

  • NADH made

Electron Transport Chain:

cristae; NADH & FADH2 donate electrons → oxygen

  • Glycolysis:cytosol; glucose → pyruvate


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

Pyruvate is transported into mitochondrion and Acetyl CoA produced

For each pyruvate converted into acetyl CoA

1 molecule of CO2 is released;

NAD+ ---> NADH;

Coenzyme A (from B vitamin)

Krebs Cycle Animation-


Kreb s cycle citric acid cycle

Kreb’s Cycle =Citric Acid Cycle

Krebs Cycle Animation

OAA

CITRIC ACID


Kreb s cycle

Kreb’s Cycle

  • Oxaloacetate (OAA) combines with 2 C’s from Acetyl CoA to make Citric acid

  • CoA recycles

  • 2 C atoms from pyruvate → exit as CO2

    For each pyruvate that enters:

    2 CO2 released3 NAD+ reduced to 3 NADH;1 FAD+ reduced to 1 FADH2 (riboflavin, B vitamin);1 ATP molecule


Electron transport chain1

Electron transport chain


Atp synthase the machine that keeps on turnin

ATP Synthase: The machine that keeps on turnin’........

  • http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/atpgradient/index.htm (great animation)

  • Real in-vivo video of ATP synthase action in live cell:

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeHCAFKaWM8

    • ATP cycle animation (slapping a phosphate on)

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lx9GklK0xQg

      • Advanced animations (awesome if you have time) scroll down to metabolic/respiration

        • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lx9GklK0xQg

26


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

Why don't both

electron carriers

make the same

amount of ATP?


More on making atp

NADH

FADH2

More on Making ATP

  • 3 places in the chain make ATP

  • Electrons from NADH start “higher” in the waterfall, so they generate more ATP than FADH2electrons, which start “lower” in the waterfall and miss one ATP-generating step.


Electron transport chain2

Electron transport chain

  • ETC includes Cytochromes

    Ubiquinone (Q)

  • NADH & FADH2 pass electrons pass down ETC

  • Energy from moving electrons concentrates H+ ions in __________________

  • ________________: harnesses the flow of H+ back into the matrix make ATP (oxidative phosphorylation)

  • ________ is final electron acceptor → ________

intermembrane space

ATP synthase

H2O

Oxygen


Cellular respiration grand total

Cellular Respiration Grand Total

  • Glycolysis:→2 ATP

    (substrate-level phosphorylation)

  • Kreb’s Cycle:→ 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)

  • Electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation:2 NADH (glycolysis) → 6ATP 2 NADH (acetyl CoA) →6ATP 6 NADH (Kreb’s) → 18 ATP 2 FADH2 (Kreb’s) → 4 ATP

    38 TOTAL ATP from 1 molecule of glucose (-2 ATP to transport 2 pyruvate into mitochondria)

    NET of 36 ATP


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

= ANAEROBIC

WHAT IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN?

IF THERE IS NO OXYGEN (______________)

IF THERE IS OXYGEN (_____________)

= AEROBIC


Related metabolic processes

Related metabolic processes

Fermentation:

  • alcohol~

    pyruvate →ethanol

  • lactic acid~

    pyruvate → lactate


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

_______ +_____ →__________ + ______ + _____

PYRUVIC ACID

ALCOHOL

CO2

NAD+

  • Happens when yeast makes bread dough rise

  • CO2 bubbles make air spaces in bread

  • Alcohol evaporates during cooking

http://www.deliciousdelicious.com/archives/herb%20bread%201.jpg


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

_______ +_____ →__________ + ______ + _____

PYRUVIC ACID

ALCOHOL

CO2

NAD+

Used to makealcoholic beverages

http://www.firstpath.com/images/alcohol.jpg


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

_______ +_____ →______________ + ________

PYRUVIC ACID

LACTIC ACID

NAD+

Happens in muscles during exercise when body

can’t get oxygen to tissues

fast enough.

Lactic acid builds up in

muscles causing soreness

http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION

_______ +_____ →______________ + ________

PYRUVIC ACID

LACTIC ACID

NAD+

Happens when bacteria are used to make foods and beverages like yogurt, cheese,

buttermilk, sauerkraut, kimchi

http://chronicle.augusta.com/images/headlines/032200/DANNON_YOGURT.jpg

http://www.reillydairy.com/natural_cheese.html


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

WHY DO FERMENTATION?

WHY NOT JUST KEEP MAKING ATP USING GLYCOLYSIS?

WITHOUT OXYGEN, PYRUVIC ACID ___________ and all the _______ carriers get full.

Eventually glycolysis will

builds up

NAD+

NAD+


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

_______ +_____ →__________ + ______ + _____

PYRUVIC ACID

CO2

NAD+

ALCOHOL

NAD+

LACTIC ACID

______

You get the NAD+ carriers back

FERMENTATION HAPPENS so cells can ____________________

needed to keep glycolysis going

REGENERATE the NAD+


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES

__________________________

= organisms that can make ATP usingeither fermentation or cellular respiration

Ex: yeast and many bacteria

With oxygen pyruvate → Krebs cycle

Without oxygen → fermentation


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

__________________=breakdown of fatty acids

into 2 carbon fragments

that enter Krebs cycle

as acetyl CoA

1 g of fat → twice as muchATP as 1 g of carbohydrate

Organisms can use a variety of molecules for fuel

Beta oxidation=


Evolutionary significance

Evolutionary Significance

  • Most widespread metabolic pathway… suggests ancient prokaryotes probably used glycolysis to make ATP before oxygen was present

  • Earliest fossil bacteria present 3.5 billion years ago but large amounts of oxygen not present until 2.7 billion years ago

  • Glycolysis happens in cytoplasm without membrane bound organelles suggests it was found in early prokaryotic cellssince eukaryotes appeared 1 billion years after prokaryotes (Endosymbiotic theory)


Vocab overload

VOCAB OVERLOAD ?


Chemiosmosis

CHEMIOSMOSIS

= Generation of ATP from a proton gradient.

It occurs in all living things

Chloroplasts

do it to make ATP

in light reactions

Mitochondria do itto make ATP following ETC

Prokaryotes creategradient across cellmembrane to make ATPto pump nutrients & waste and move flagella

http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/energy/atpsynthase_il.html


Photophosphorylation

PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION

= Using hydrogen gradient generated by thylakoid membrane during the light reactions of photosynthesis to make ATP

CHLOROPLAST


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

= using proton gradient created by electron transport chain in cristae membrane to make ATP

MITOCHONDRION


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION

= using energy from breaking a chemical bond to add a P directly from a phosphorylated molecule to ADP without a proton gradient

MITOCHONDRION


Feedback mechanisms control cellular respiration all arrows are reversible

Feedback mechanisms control cellular respiration (All arrows are reversible)


Clickatutor mitochondria jpg

http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/glycolysis/glycolysis.htm


Many regulatory steps control cell respiration

Many Regulatory Steps ControlCellRespiration

  • Main regulatory step in cell respiration occurs at beginning during glycolysis.

  • An enzyme called PFK (phosphfructokinase) plays major role in regulating ATP production in Kreb’s.

  • http://www.wiley.com/college/fob/quiz/quiz14/14-22.html

  • Allosteric regulation of phosphofructokinase sets the pace of respiration.

  • This enzyme catalyzes the earliest step that irreversibly commits the substrate to glycolysis.

  • Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme with receptor sites for specific inhibitors and activators.

  • It is inhibited by ATP and stimulated by AMP (derived from ADP).

  • When ATP levels are high, inhibition of this enzyme slows glycolysis.

  • As ATP levels drop and ADP and AMP levels rise, the enzyme becomes active again and glycolysis speeds up.


Dnp dinitrophenol the atp uncoupler weight loss gone bad

DNP: DiNitroPhenol; the “ATP uncoupler” (weight loss gone bad)

  • Uncoupling reagents (uncouplers) are lipid-soluble weak acids.  For example, H+ (shown in red) can dissociate from the hydroxyl group of the uncoupler dinitrophenol. 

  • Uncouplers dissolve in the membrane, and function as carriers for H+

  • This makes inner membrane of mitochondria PERMEABLE to H ions

  • Uncouplers block oxidative phosphorylation by dissipating the H+ electrochemical gradient. (There is no longer an electric potential to PUSH the ATP synthase).

  • The motion of H+ diffusion is lost as heat and does NO WORK; INCREASED FATTY ACID AND AMINO ACID METABOLISM; LOW ATP LEVELS AS GLYCOLYSIS IS INCREASED; PFK NO LONGER INHIBITED BECAUSE ATP LEVELS ARE LOW...


Protein structure flashback pfk phosphofructo kinase

Protein Structure Flashback!!PFK (Phosphofructokinase)

  • http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/0470003790/structure/pfk/pfk_intro.htm

  • Example of ALLOSTERIC control; addition and removal of phosphates is the #1 regulatory mechanism of biological pathways.

  • Enzymes that ADD a phosphate group are called KINASES(“Kinetic/motion/”turn on”) because they ACTIVATE another molecule.

  • http://www.rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/yesterday/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part2/glycolysis.htm#animat2

53


Cell respiration rap

CELL RESPIRATION RAP!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCpNk92uswY

48


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