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CONFIDENTIAL – for Internal Team & Partner Discussion ONLY. Metropolitan Business Planning Initiative. Project Kick-Off Meeting. January 25, 2010. I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals. II.Project Background. III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies.

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CONFIDENTIAL – for Internal Team & Partner Discussion ONLY

Metropolitan Business Planning Initiative

Project Kick-Off Meeting

January 25, 2010


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I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals

II.Project Background

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding

TODAY’S AGENDA


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II.Project Background

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding

TODAY’S AGENDA

I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals


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Today’s Goals

  • Get to know each other

  • Situate our work together

  • Begin to dig into the work

  • Get clear on next steps


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II.Project Background

TODAY’S AGENDA

A. Goals

B. “Logic” –

1. Why Metros?

2. Why Business Planning?

3. MBP Elements

4. Federal Policy Implications

C. Outputs


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Project Goals


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Project Goals

IMPLEMENT THE BLUEPRINT:go deeper to model specific, sophisticated development work, develop actionable plans, strengthen partner metro economies and enhance peer learning.

ADVOCATE NEW FEDERALISM:identify and reveal the benefits of new partnership approaches and policies that place metros at the center of federal-state-local relations.

DISPLAY THE NEW METROPOLITAN LEADERSHIP:demonstrate the existence of strong metropolitan leadership in forging comprehensive, integrated, and sophisticated metropolitan economic strategies.

Economic development is metro-led.


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Why Metros?Economic Geography and Place-Based Development

The Goal is National Economic Growth

  • Goal is economic development - that is inclusive and sustainable.

  • Metros are the means, not the ends


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Why Metros?Economic Geography and Place-Based Development

The Goal is National Economic Growth

Economic Growth Flows from Market Activity

  • The outputs we care about – jobs, income, assets, sustainability – are primarily a function of the complex interaction of housing, labor, business and other market systems, enabled and shaped by government and civic sector activity

  • Goal is to improve performance of these systems


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Why Metros?Economic Geography and Place-Based Development

The Goal is National Economic Growth

Economic Growth Flows from Market Activity

Major Market Systems Operate at the Metro Level

  • System performance is function of interactions of people and firms in context of characteristics of place – “on the ground.”

  • Key geography of many of these systems and interactions is metropolitan region.

  • Indeed, one of main reasons for very existence of cities is the agglomeration benefits of concentrating economic activity – an effect of place on market performance.


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Why Metros?Economic Geography and Place-Based Development

The Goal is National Economic Growth

Economic Growth Flows from Market Activity

Major Market Systems Operate at the Metro Level

Improving Metro Economic Performance Entails Customized Analysis and Activity

  • System and environmental characteristics, opportunities and challenges “on the ground” vary by place.

  • Particularly in the knowledge economy, increasing returns and imperfect competition are giving rise to specialization and divergence.


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Why Metros?Economic Geography and Place-Based Development

The Goal is National Economic Growth

Economic Growth Flows from Market Activity

Major Market Systems Operate at the Metro Level

Improving Metro Economic Performance Entails Customized Analysis and Activity

To strengthen the national economy, we need to strengthen metro economies, and that requires ground-up, tailored, comprehensive activity.


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Why “Metropolitan Business Planning”?

The steps to analyzing and improving a regional economy lend themselves to the proven discipline of business planning.


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Elements of the Business Plan

MISSION/VISION

Competitiveness

(Wages, GRP, Innovation)

Sustainability

(VMT, Energy Efficiency)

Inclusion

(Participation in Employment, Business and Market Growth)

MEASURABLE OUTPUTS/IMPACTS

Wage Growth,

Reduction in Unemployment,

Reduction in CO2 Emissions,

Neighborhood Revitalization

MARKET SCAN

Status, Systems, Dynamics

(Spatial efficiency,

Human capital trends matched to business growth,

Business clusters/performance….)

  • INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS

  • Regional Information Infrastructure

  • Regional Coordination

  • Specific Institutions/Implementation Capacity

  • Financials  Investment “Prospectus” Tied to Outcome Measures

GOALS/STRATEGIES

Transit-Oriented Development

Coordinated Workforce and Occupational Clusters

Inner-City Retail Development

PRODUCTS AND INTERVENTIONS

WIRED Program,

Regional Inclusionary Zoning,

Green Impact Zones,


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Example: From Goals to Products

GOAL:

Increase innovation rate

MARKET SCAN:

Patents, technology transfers, venture capital investments, start-ups, ...

PRODUCTS/INTERVENTIONS:

Innovation funds, business incubators, university partnerships, regional innovation consortia, etc.

ILLUSTRATIVE STRATEGY:

Increase commercialization of knowledge

OUTPUTS/IMPACTS:

New products, business starts, increased productivity, employment; …


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Implications for Federal Policy

  • The federal government should strategically invest in regional prosperity as a priority for national economic growth.

  • The federal government should incent and support comprehensive, integrated regional business planning, as it will enable more effective and efficient federal investment.

  • Since regional performance depends upon local, specialized system interactions, the federal response needs to be cross-program, flexible and performance-driven.

Federal policy should be driven ground-up by regional development plans (reversing the current dynamic).


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Project Outputs

  • MBP, including Overview and DDI

  • Prospectus

  • Cross-site policy implications paper

  • Summit presentations

Demonstrate better ways to invest in metros to strengthen national economy; develop new federal policies and programs.


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DISCUSSION


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I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals

II.Project Background

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding

TODAY’S AGENDA

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies


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Purpose of Framework

Shared understanding of how regional economies work –a “theory of change” -- enables us to:

Focus on what matters

Understand how it causes economic growth

Determine how to improve performance

Develop common language, plan coverage and presentation

There’s no one right answer… but there are a lot ofwrong answers


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PROSPERITY

Sustainable Growth

ProductiveGrowth

InclusiveGrowth

GOOD METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE

INNOVATION

HUMAN CAPITAL

INFRASTRUCTURE

QUALITY PLACES

Our Starting Point: the Blueprint Drivers

To implement, we need to move from descriptive to explanatory: understand underlying systems/mechanisms, and how to influence their performance.


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What Drives Inclusive and SustainableEconomic Growth?

Local (Regional) Enabling Environment

(Government regulation, tax and public goods, including particularly infrastructure and education; civic institutions; qualities of place, including the natural environment; etc.)

Key Systems

(Market processes – housing, labor, etc.; production dynamics – clusters, value chains, etc.; innovation dynamics - knowledge creation, networks, commercialization, etc.)

Inputs to Production

(Human capital; real estate; capital; natural and knowledge resources; etc.)

Economic Outputs

(Businesses – gross regional product, profits; households – wages, other income, etc.)

Macro/Global Context & Trends


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How Metro Economies Grow

Metro economy = total value of goods and services produced in the region

Growth is inherently business sector growth (number, size and profitability of firms)

Business sector grows through firm growth and location decisions (retention and attraction)

Firm growth and location depend upon increases in efficiency and productivity (of firm and system, including product innovation)

Micro-Foundations

Core Question: What attributes of the region increase efficiency and productivity, leading to business sector growth?


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What is it About Place that Affects Economic Performance?

“Cities exist to eliminate transport costs for people, goods and ideas” (Glaeser)

Urbanization and Localization Economies: general and industry-specific benefits of concentration as workers and firms co-locate because of spillovers, synergies, shared labor and job pools, backward and forward linkages among firms, etc. – generating increased efficiency and productivity through flow of ideas and technologies, enhancements to human capital, economies of scale, reduced transaction and transport costs, and so forth. (Marshall, Krugman)

New Growth Theory: location is becoming more important, and with different benefits, in the knowledge economy, as metros become increasingly centers of idea creation and transmission (through technology, human capital externalities, intellectual spillovers). Increasing returns to knowledge and imperfect competition lead to metro specialization and divergence. (Romer, Lucas)

Institutional Economics: growth, and particularly innovation, take place in the context of an institutional infrastructure – research, professional and learning networks; universities and civic/business organizations; quasi- and governmental organizations and regulation – which can hamper or accelerate all of the other benefits of concentration. (Coase, Atkinson)

Productivity and efficiency depend upon concentrations, interactions and synergies between economic activities  Key Q:

Where are the leverage points to improve system performance?


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Six Key Leverage Points Take Us from Theory to Practice

  • Enhance Regional Concentrations (and their performance): Industries, Occupations and Functions

  • Deploy High Human Capital Aligned with Job Pools

  • Develop Innovation Enabling Infrastructure

  • Increase Spatial Efficiency

  • Create Effective Public & Civic Culture & Institutions

  • Develop and Deploy Information Resources

These overlap, and themselves interact. This is work-in-process! Anticipate expanding and refining, especially in practice.


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Enhance Regional Concentrations: Industries, Occupations and Functions

What is it?

This leverage point has to do with “clustering,” recognizing that what is clustering may be shifting -- toward occupations and functions -- and the whole notion may need to be broadened, brought to ground, and complemented with other production-side strategies. It focuses on the optimal interaction between production components of an economy – the optimal mix and scale of industries, occupations, functions; multiple specializations; etc. Cultivating benefits of concentration requires understanding nuances of what and how specific types of concentrations create efficiencies and enhance productivity in your region.

Aspects to consider include:

Current concentrations

High-growth potential areas

Geography of concentrations

Optimal mix and scale of industries, occupations, functions

What factors (locational, institutional, others) contribute to efficiency/productivity benefits gained from concentration

Strategies might include:

Provide co-location opportunities (e.g., business parks)

Offer co-location incentives

Enhance access to capital for targeted concentrations

Strengthen institutional and network infrastructure

Strengthen “inputs” to concentration – from training/education to venture capital

Leverage Point 1


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Deploy High Human Capital Alignedwith Job Pools

What is it?

This leverage point addresses human capital in the context of economic performance: the goal is not just human capital, but linked, mutually reinforcing, human capital and job pools. Pools of workers and jobs/firms attract each other. Not just quality, but deployment, are key to productivity and efficiency gains. Entails a two-fold, iterative process:

Growing supply of skilled workers to meet employer demands

Growing demand for skilled workers by cultivating appropriate jobs

Aspects to consider include:

Concentrations and growth prospects (both skills and occupations)

Existing skills/education levels – obstacles and opportunities

Quality of education/training system

Attraction/retention record and factors

Strategies might include:

Increase demand-side focus of workforce development

Increase access, reduce transaction costs in labor market

Links to occupational concentration strategies (Leverage Point 1)

Production, attraction, retention strategies

Leverage Point 2


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Develop Innovation Enabling Infrastructure

What is it?*

Innovation inherently drives increasing productivity and efficiency, and is the source of all long-term growth.An infrastructure providing inputs and mechanisms to facilitate interactions and commercialization enhances innovation rates.

Aspects to consider include:

Cluster formation and dynamics

Public sector enablers/constraints

Nature of supporting institutions and networks

Flow of R&D and early-stage business funding

Rate/pattern of commercialization

Firm starts, growth, trajectories

Strategies might include:

Build regional R&D capacity (education, facilities, funding)

Foster entrepreneurship & commercialization of knowledge

Institutional development: facilitate opportunities for interdisciplinary cross-fertilization

Cluster formation, especially high human capital occupational concentrations(Leverage Points 1 and 2)

Leverage Point 3

*“…new products, new services, new technologies, new ways of organizing work, and new business models….” (Brookings Metro Policy)


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Increase Spatial Efficiency

What is it?

The location of firms and workers, producers, suppliers and consumers within the region determines transportation costs for people and businesses, and influences agglomeration benefits (such as shared inputs and knowledge spillovers). Generally, to increase efficiency and productivity of the metro economy, we want to:

Minimize transportation costs

Reduce congestion

Maximize agglomeration benefits

Avoid segregation and concentration of poverty

Aspects to consider include:

Public policies re: land use/zoning, infrastructure, etc.

Degree of housing-jobs mismatch

Access to transit

Spatial concentrations of firms, occupations, functions, etc.

Strategies might include:

Transit-oriented and mixed-use/mixed-income development

Affordable housing programs (inclusionary zoning, etc.)

Fostering business co-location

Leverage Point 4


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Create Effective Public & Civic Culture & Institutions

What is it?

Government and civic sector activities hinder or enhance the productivity and efficiency of the economic systems themselves – attracting entrepreneurs, enabling markets, lowering transaction costs, increasing deployment of assets, etc. A culture of trust and collaboration, as well as institutional flexibility and adaptability, are increasingly important (including particularly to leverage points 1 and 3).

Aspects to consider include:

Degree of horizontal and vertical fragmentation

Areas and mechanisms for inter-jurisdictional coordination

Transparency, openness, responsiveness

Strategic engagement of citizens, private and civic sectors

Strategies might include:

Consolidation

Revenue sharing

Civic engagement (program specific)

E-government

Fast-tracking

Special purpose entities

Tailored incentives

Leverage Point 5


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Develop and Deploy Information Resources

What is it?

Rich information resources and networks increase market efficiencies by reducing finding, measurement and other transaction costs; facilitate knowledge spillovers and innovation; and enable continued business planning, monitoring and refinement.

Aspects to consider include:

Collection, accessibility, dissemination of relevant info

Development and provision of analytic tools (not just data: answers)

Specific market inefficiencies, barriers, opportunities

Strategies might include:

Data warehouse

Market driven planning agency

Cluster or strategy specific on-going shared info/analytics

Leverage Point 6


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Current Economy’s Meta-Drivers AlsoShape Strategic Interventions

  • Export-oriented

  • Innovation-led

  • Opportunity-rich

  • Low-carbon

Huh???

What?!!

Eureka!


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PROSPERITY

Sustainable Growth

ProductiveGrowth

InclusiveGrowth

GOOD METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE

INNOVATION

HUMAN CAPITAL

INFRASTRUCTURE

QUALITY PLACES

Our Starting Point: the Blueprint Drivers


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PROSPERITY

Sustainable Growth

ProductiveGrowth

InclusiveGrowth

Where We are Now:

An Economic Framework for Business Planning

GOOD METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE

INNOVATION

HUMAN CAPITAL

INFRASTRUCTURE

QUALITY PLACES


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Prosperity

Export-oriented

Low-carbon

Innovation-driven

Opportunity rich

Metro-led

Fundamental Drivers of Prosperity

Innovation

Infrastructure

Human Capital

Quality Places

Governance

Levers / Interventions

Increase SpatialEfficiency

EnhanceRegionalConcentrations

Developand DeployInformationResources

DeployHuman CapitalAligned withJob Pools

DevelopInnovation-EnablingInfrastructure

Create EffectivePublic & CivicCulture &

Institutions

Strategies & Implementation


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DISCUSSION


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I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals

II.Project Background

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding

TODAY’S AGENDA


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Pilot MBPs Will Lay the Groundwork

Metropolitan Investment Prospectus


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What Might a Pilot MBP Look Like?

Metropolitan Investment Prospectus


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The Market Analysis / Environmental Scan Describes and Situates Regional Economies

The concept of the baseline scan is to:

  • Identify and measure key indicators of metro performance in the new economy

  • Survey how well the regional economy is doing, what drives it, and what may be inhibiting its performance

  • Inform the development of goals, strategies, and specific initiatives, setting the context for and informing the Detailed Development Initiative


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Selected Indicators Measure What Matters

The purpose of the scan is to determine:

  • What is important to measure?

    • Metrics selected according to economic development theory and relevance to practice

  • What factors deserve development attention?

    • Scan includes both high-level output measures (e.g., GMP) as well as outcome metrics (e.g., innovation rates) that can describe the performance of key factors/systems that account for overall performance

  • How can metros do better on targeted factors?

    • Scan also evaluates measures of inputs and mechanisms (e.g. availability of venture capital) that can be influenced to improve performance of key factors/systems


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Output

Productivity

Wages

Prosperity

Drivers

Levers

Brookings Will Compare Inputs andPerformance Across the Top 100 Metros

E.g., human capital

  • College attainment

  • Knowledge occupations

  • High school attainment

  • Labor force participation


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Prosperity

Drivers

Levers

Local Analysis Will Enhance the Brookings Scan with Additional, Specifically Local, Indicator Work

E.g., human capital

  • Skills/job matching

  • Knowledge occupationsin XYZ industries

  • Vocational and specializeddegree programs


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MDBO & DDI Need to Move Ahead Simultaneously


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DISCUSSION


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I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals

II.Project Background

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding

TODAY’S AGENDA

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities


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Partners Share Challenges and Learning Opportunities

  • Themes are emerging from early conversations and materials

    • Areas of common exploration/struggle

    • Areas of relative strength in particular metros

  • Two topics to start the cross-metro conversation:

    • Innovation and entrepreneurship

    • Managing regional growth – sustainability and spatial efficiency


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Innovation and Entrepreneurship

  • Common threads:

    • Central to all 3 metros’ economic development plans

    • Variations in approach and application

    • Struggle to create meaningful metrics

    • Striving to develop concrete interventions to enhance performance

  • Kicking off today’s discussion:

    • Cleveland’s success in fostering growth of new, cutting-edge businesses through JumpStart program

    • Twin Cities’ pursuit of a DDI to drive innovation and small business growth, particularly among Millennials


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Managing Regional Growth for Enhanced Economic Performance

  • Regional growth strategy can contribute to multiple MBP objectives:

    • Sustainability

    • Inclusion

    • Spatial efficiency

    • Etc.

  • Kicking off today’s discussion:

    • Growth strategy underlying Seattle’s integrated regional planning process – PSRC’s Vision 2040, Regional Economic Strategy and Transportation 2040


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Other Idea-Sharing Opportunities?


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I.Welcome, Introductions, and Today’s Goals

II.Project Background

III.Economic Framework – Understanding Metro Economies

IV.Applying the Framework: MBPs

V.Common Challenges and Cross-Fertilization Opportunities

TODAY’S AGENDA

VI.Logistics – Work Plan, Timeline and Funding


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MBP Project Timeline is Aggressive

* M = Meeting | D = Deliverable


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Other Logistical Issues

  • Metro partners’ funding status

  • Scheduling site visits

    • Cleveland

    • Twin Cities

  • Others?


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Closing Remarks


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