Chapter 12
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Chapter 12 . Systems Analysis and Design. Overview. Describe Phases of the Systems Life Cycle Identify Information Needs Analyze Existing Information Systems Evaluate Feasibility of Alternative Systems Test New Software and Hardware Switch Information Systems

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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Systems Analysis and Design


Overview

Overview

  • Describe Phases of the Systems Life Cycle

  • Identify Information Needs

  • Analyze Existing Information Systems

  • Evaluate Feasibility of Alternative Systems

  • Test New Software and Hardware

  • Switch Information Systems

  • Perform Audits and Periodic Evaluations

  • Describe Prototyping and RAD


Systems analysis and design

Systems Analysis and Design

  • Problem-solving Procedure

    • Examine and Improve Information Systems

  • Systems Life Cycle


Project management

Project Management

  • Project Manager

    • Plans, Schedules, & Controls Activities

      • Establishes Scope

      • Goals, Objectives, & Expectations of Project

      • List Required Activities

        • Time Required

        • Cost Estimate

        • Order & Dependency


Project management1

Project Management

  • Software


Project success

Project Success

  • Successful

    • On-time, On-budget, All Features

  • Challenged

    • Late, Over Budget, Less Features

  • Failed

    • Cancelled or Delivered but Never Used

Standish Group 2009


Project success1

Project Success

  • Smaller Projects Have Better Success

Standish Group


Project success2

Project Success

  • Shorter Projects Have Better Success

Standish Group


Project success3

Project Success

  • Average Percentage Above Estimate

Standish Group


Project success4

Project Success

  • Notable Project Failures

    • FAA Air Traffic Control

      • $1.5B – 1994

    • IRS Modernization

      • $3.4B – 1997

    • DoD Business Modernization

      • $19B – 2004

        • 200 Inventory / 450 Personnel Systems

    • Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh

      • Dramatically Higher Death Rates – 2002


Preliminary investigation

Preliminary Investigation

  • Define the Problem

    • Information Needed

    • By Whom, When, and Why

  • Suggest Alternative Systems

  • Prepare a Short Report


Systems analysis

Systems Analysis

  • Data Collected About Present System

    • Analyzed

    • New Requirements Determined

  • Gather Data

    • Expand on Data Gathered During Phase 1

      • Research

      • Questionnaire

      • One-on-one Interview

      • Observation


Systems analysis1

Systems Analysis

  • Analyzing the Data

    • Learn How Information Currently Flows

    • Understand Why There Are Issues

    • Tools

      • Grid Chart

      • Decision Table


Systems analysis2

Systems Analysis

  • Analyzing the Data

    • Tools

      • System Flowchart

      • Data Flow Diagram

      • Automated Design Tool

        • Case


Systems analysis3

Systems Analysis

  • Documenting Systems Analysis

    • Systems Analysis Report

      • Describes Current Information System

      • Requirements for a New System

      • Possible Development Schedule


Systems design

Systems Design

  • Designing Alternative Systems

    • Feasibility Study

      • Economic

      • Technical

      • Operational

  • Selecting the Best System

    • Overall Fit with Current Information System

    • Flexibility

    • Security

    • Cost / Benefit Analysis

      • ROI (Hard vs. Soft)


Systems design1

Systems Design

  • Develop All Details of System

    • Write Technical Specifications

      • Details Functionality & Scope of Project

    • Request for Quotation (RFQ)

      • Vendor Quotes Price For Listed Hardware

    • Request for Proposal (RFP)

      • Vendor Quotes Price For Software

        • Based on Specification


Systems development

Systems Development

  • Acquiring Software

    • Purchase

      • Outsource

    • Design

  • Acquiring Hardware

  • Turnkey Solution

    • Complete System Provided by VAR

      • Value-added Reseller

        • Purchases Products from Manufacturer

        • Resells Them, Offering Additional Services

        • Must Meet Certain Requirements


Systems development1

Systems Development

  • Testing

    • Phases

      • Alpha (Employees)

      • Beta (Customers)

    • Unit

      • Each Individual Program Works

    • System

      • All Programs in Application Work Together

    • Integration

      • Application Works with Other Applications

    • Acceptance

      • Verifies New System Works with Actual Data


Systems implementation

Systems Implementation

  • Types of Conversion

    • Direct

    • Parallel

    • Pilot

    • Phased

  • Training

    • One of Most Commonly Overlooked Activities

      • Scheduling Conflicts


Systems maintenance

Systems Maintenance

  • Ongoing

    • More Time and Money Spent than Other Phases

  • Systems Audit

    • System Performance Compared to Original Design

  • Periodic Evaluation

    • Determine Whether Goals Are Being Met


Prototyping and rad

Prototyping and RAD

  • Prototyping

    • Model

      • Users Interact and Provide Feedback

      • Systems Analyst Revises Prototype

  • RAD (Rapid Application Development)

    • Use Powerful Development Tools

      • CASE

    • Higher Cost, Shorter Development Time


Careers in it

Careers in IT

  • Systems Analyst

    • Plan and Design New Systems

    • Reorganize Company's Computer Resources

    • Bachelor's Degree in Computer Science

      • Technical Experience

    • Annual Salary of $49,000 - $93,000


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