Road to freedom
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Road to Freedom. NATIONALISM. A feeling brought about by the discovery of a group of people of their identity that enable them to be united Examples: Similarity in terms of color and physical attributes Similarity in language, beliefs, place or territory

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Road to Freedom

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Road to freedom

Road to Freedom


Road to freedom

NATIONALISM

  • A feeling brought about by the discovery of a group of people of their identity that enable them to be united

  • Examples:

    • Similarity in terms of color and physical attributes

    • Similarity in language, beliefs, place or territory

    • Similarity in terms of goals and ideologies


Road to freedom

Factors that gave Rise to Nationalism


Road to freedom

1. The Philippines was opened to World Trade

  • When the King of Spain announced the opening of the Philippines in world trade, a lot of countries became interested.

  • Philippine products were known

  • Transportation and communication flourished.


Road to freedom

2. BIRTH OF THE MIDDLE CLASS

  • Consisted of:

    • Newly rich businessmen and Chinese traders

    • Spanish mestizo

    • Those who attained higher education in the Philippines and in Spain (ilustrados)


Road to freedom

Philippine Society during the Spanish Period


Road to freedom

  • Peninsulares

  • Insulares

  • Mestizo

  • Indio


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3. OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL

  • November 17, 1869 – Opening of the Suez Canal

  • Ferdinand de Lesseps – A Frenchman who made the Suez Canal

  • Connects the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea (thus connecting Asia to Europe)

  • The travel from Europe to the Philippines was reduced from 3 months to 32 days.

  • Trade flourished

  • Prompted the influx of foreign newspapers and books that catapulted the Philippines to a new age


Road to freedom

LIBERALISM

  • Equality, Liberty, Fraternity

  • Freedom of Speech, Assembly, Association

  • The Filipinos read democratic books such as:

    • Social Contract – Jean Jacques Rousseau

    • Treatises of Government – John Locke


Road to freedom

4. LIBERAL LEADERSHIP OF GOV. GEN. CARLOS MA. DELA TORRE

  • Queen Isabel II – was removed from her position in 1868 due to a revolution.

    • Carlos Ma. De la Torre – a liberal Spaniard

    • Brought liberal thoughts in the Philippines to be able to protect themselves from the abuses of the Spaniards

    • Showed love to the Filipinos

    • Allowed freedom of speech

    • Opened Malacañang to the peopleon July 12, 1869

    • Was replaced by Rafael de Izquierdo – an autocratic ruler


Road to freedom

THE TYRANNICAL REGIME OF RAFAEL DE IZQUIERDO

  • Re-imposed censorship

  • Banned all talks of reform and liberty

  • Stop the Filipinization of the Parishes in the country

  • Revoked the exemptions of Filipinos on force labor and tributes


Road to freedom

5. THE SECULARIZATION ISSUE

  • Secular Priest

    • Filipino priests

    • Provincial – refers to the head of the Secular priests

  • Regular Priest

    • Spanish priests belonging in religious orders such as:

      • Augustinians

      • Jesuits

      • Recollects

      • Dominicans

      • Franciscans

    • Archbishop and bishop – headed the regular priests


Road to freedom

  • Council of Trent (1545-1563) – states that a secular priest can be a Friar Curate

  • Pope Pius V – allowed the secular priests in 1567 serve in the parishes due to lack of regular priests

  • Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa – started making the secular priests a part of the regular priests and giving them a parish to lead.


Road to freedom

COUNCIL OF TRENT

POPE PIUS V

GOM-BUR-ZA


Road to freedom

  • Religious Orders – opposed to the plan for they believed that Filipinos were not worthy to become Friar Curate

  • Msgr. Pedro Pelaez – Ecclesiastical Governor of the Church who believed that Filipino priests should be given a chance to serve.

  • Governor-General Simon de Anda – sided with the Filipinos

  • Father Jose Burgos – continued the fight upon the death of Msgr. Pelaez.


Road to freedom

6. THE CAVITE MUTINY

  • January 20, 1872

  • Sergeant Lamadrid – led about 200 Filipino soldiers and workers in the Cavite arsenal mutinied.

  • Governor-General Rafael de Izquierdo

    • One of the worst governor generals in the Philippines

    • Removed a lot of privileges enjoyed by the people in Cavite that led to the mutiny.


Road to freedom

7. THE EXECUTION OF GOM-BUR-ZA

  • ALL were graduates of UST.

  • Fr. Burgos – head of the movement; Letran Professor; Master of ceremonies of the faculty of UST; curate of the Manila Cathedral; born in Vigan

  • Fr. Gomez – founder of La Verdad; curate of Bacoor, Cavite; born in Sta. Cruz, Manila

  • Fr. Zamorra – curate of Pasig, Rizal; born in Pandacan; lost his mind before the execution


Road to freedom

  • Father Mariano Gomez – more than 70 years old

    • Friar Curate of Bacoor

    • Had Chinese blood

  • Father Jose Burgos – 35 years

    • Friar Curate of Manila Cathedral

    • Insulares

  • Padre Jacinto Zamora – 73 years

    • Friar Curate of Marikina

    • Insulares

    • Unfriendly towards the Spaniards

    • Offended Brigadier Oran – a governor in Manila which Padre Zamora did not gave honors when he visited Marikina.


Road to freedom

  • Were sentenced to death by means of Garrote on February 17, 1872

  • Francisco Zaldua – A Filipino witness who was paid by the Spaniards

    • Claimed that he was the messenger of Father Burgos

  • Archbishop Gregorio Meliton Martinez – did not allow the removing of the habit of the three accused

    • Wanted the church bells to be played upon the execution as a respect to the three priests


Road to freedom

SIGNIFICANCE OF THEIR DEATH

  • NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS EMERGED

  • GOMBURZA became the battle cry of the propaganda movement

  • The Katipunan use the word GOMBURZA as one of its passwords

  • The Katipunan declared Feb. 17 as a commemorative day of prayer


Road to freedom

  • KING ANNOUNCED THE OPENING OF THE

  • PHILIPPINES TO WORLD TRADE

5. THE SECULARIZATION PROJECT

  • BIRTH OF THE MIDDLE CLASS:

  • THE ILUSTRADOS

6. CAVITE MUTINY: JAN. 20, 1872

THE BIRTH OF NATIONALISM

7. EXECUTION OF GOM-BUR-ZA: FEB. 17, 1872

  • 3. OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL

  • NOV. 17, 1869

4. GOV. GEN. CARLOS MA. DELA TORRE

1868


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