Earth ’ s Climates. Review of last lecture. The developmental stages and vertical structure of middle latitude cyclones (boundary between northern cold air and southern warm air, upper level low to the west of surface low)
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Tropical Monsoonal (Am)
significant change of precipitation
Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
Boundary with dry climate
Largest deserts with atmospheric subsidence and high pressure.
Subtropical Steppe (BSh) High precipitation and temperature variability.
Higher humidity and precipitation than subtropical deserts
Midlatitude Steppe (BSk) Higher annual average precipitation than deserts
Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) Distinct dry summer due to subtropical high, mild winter
Humid Subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) Eastern continental areas. Long hot and muggy summers
Marine West Coast (Cfb, Cfc) Cold ocean current mild summers and winters. Fogs, low clouds, drizzles
Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd) boreal forest . Warm, short summers and extremely cold winters
Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb) Eastern continents of 40°N–55°N. Abundant annual precipitation.
Permafrost(permanently frozen layer below the surface)
Ice Cap (EF)
Constant ice cover. Greenland and Antarctica.