Balance of power and territorial settlements in mid 19th century europe 18 3 0s 1870s
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Balance of Power and territorial settlements in mid-19th century Europe – 18 3 0s-1870s. A period during which little territorial changes occur but pressure building up, territorial change means: - loss of population, - loss of economic power, - loss of military,

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Balance of Power and territorial settlements in mid-19th century Europe – 18 3 0s-1870s

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Balance of power and territorial settlements in mid 19th century europe 18 3 0s 1870s

Balance of Power and territorial settlements in mid-19th century Europe – 1830s-1870s


Balance of power and territorial settlements in mid 19th century europe 18 3 0s 1870s

A period during which little territorial changes occur but pressure building up, territorial change means:

- loss of population,

- loss of economic power,

- loss of military,

- loss of prestige and gain for others.

Most concerned are the Austrians and the Ottoman Empire, while Prussia, Russia building up appetite including Piedmont and France panics.


Characteristics of the period

Characteristics of the period

  • Period of calm commences symbolized by the Crystal Palace Exhibition product of

    - exhaustion from revolution 1848-49

    - reconstitution of balance of power

    - resumption of a form of Holly Alliance


2 balance of power i

2. Balance of power - I

  • France still largest in population after Russia but because of her revolutionary tradition still thought of as the greatest threat,

  • Britain greatest industrial and commercial power, 57 million tons of coal vs. 4,5 million in France and 6 million in German Bund, dominates the oceans in shipping but militarily lagged behind others

  • Russia more than a million serving soldiers considered next powerful to France and most likely source of aggression


2 balance of power ii

2. Balance of power - II

  • Russian and Austria committed to non-intervention in Turkey maintain status-quo

  • Large Russian garrison in Warsaw, Austrian in Krakow and Prussian in Posen,

  • Austria large forces in northern Italy,

  • Prussia most forces in fortresses along the Rhine,

  • British naval forces pointing at France,


2 balance of power iii

2. Balance of power - III

  • Prussia considered as weakest because attempt to create in 1850 a Bund with weaker German states pre-empted by Austria and Austrian supremacy over the German Confederation but Zollverein remains,

  • Austria and Prussia revive Holy Alliance for three years, Russia did not join, reinforces Austrian control over northern Italy against revolution and French aggression,

  • In the west Prussian military presence on the Rhineland and British naval power checked France,

  • Russia pretty much isolated.


3 points of tension

3. Points of tension:

  • Baltic provinces of Elbe duchies Schleswig and Holstein under Danish domination,

  • The Straits controlling access to the Black Sea,

  • Italian and German unification


Crises and wars of mid 1800s

Crises and Wars of mid-1800s

  • Independence of Greece 1821-1829 rebellion formal independence 1832

  • Independence of Belgium 1830, King comes to power 1831, Treaty of London 1839 full recognition

  • Turkish Straits 1840 - 1841

  • Schleswig – Holstein 1852

  • Crimean war 1854 – 1856

  • French-Piedmont vs. Austria 1859

  • Prussia-Austria vs. Denmark 1864

  • Franco-Prussia 1870


Elbe duchies

Elbe Duchies:

  • Conflict and war between 1848 and 1852 over the status of Schleswig and Holstein settled by the Treaty of London of May 1852


The straits the treaty of adrianople of september 1829

The Straits: The Treaty of Adrianople of September 1829

  • Ottomans accepted Russian access to the mouth of Danube

  • possession of Georgia

  • Straits would be open to all commercial shipping,

  • agree to freedom of navigation in the Black Sea,

  • granted autonomy to Greece, Serbia,

  • allowed Russia to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia until Ottomans pay a war indemnity.


The straits treaty of h nkar iskelesi july 1833

The Straits:Treaty of Hünkar Iskelesi, July 1833

  • settles the issue of M. Ali of Egypt attacks on the Ottoman Empire

  • a secret protocol promises the closure of the Straits to warships if Russia attacked.,

  • seen by France and Britain as an agreement allowing Russia to use Straits to send out warships into the Mediterranean, not acceptable.

    Treaty of Baltalimani 1838 – Liberalization of trade and privileges to Britain in return for support against M. Ali.


The straits

The Straits:

  • settles the issue of M. Ali of Egypt attacks on the Ottoman Empire

  • a secret protocol promises the closure of the Straits to warships if Russia attacked.,

  • seen by France and Britain as an agreement allowing Russia to use Straits to send out warships into the Mediterranean, not acceptable.


The straits london convention on the straits july 1841

The Straits:London Convention on the Straits, July 1841

  • Britain, France, Austria and Russia recognize the Ottoman “ancient rule” over the Straits,

  • re-establish the right to close the Straits to all warships barring those of the Sultan’s allies during war,

  • Russian Tsar Nicholas refers to the Ottoman Empire as a “very sick man”,

  • Convention helps Britain to maintain balance of power in Europe by preventing a growing Russian navy to access the Mediterranean.


The crimean war 1853 1856

The Crimean War 1853-1856:

  • Conflict starts over the Holy Land

  • June 1853 Russia threatens to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia and then goes ahead ,

  • Britain and France sends warships to the Dardanelles,

  • Russia destroys an Ottoman fleets in Sinop November 1853,

  • March 1854 Britain and France sign a treaty with the Ottomans to defend the Empire,

  • September attack on Sevastopol when Russia refuses British and French efforts to address the “Eastern Question” by putting and end to Russian threats on the Ottoman Empire and demanding Russian to evacuate Danubian Principalities revise the London Straits Convention and abandon claim to intervene in the Ottoman Empire on behalf of the Orthodox.


Treaty of paris of march 1856

Treaty of Paris of March 1856:

  • respect independence and territory of the Ottoman Empire,

  • good treatment of Christians – HattiHumayun February 1856

  • invited to join Concert of Europe

  • Black Sea open to all merchant ships but closed to warships at peacetime

  • free navigation in Danube

  • large autonomy to Romania


Concert of europe and balance of power

Concert of Europe and Balance of Power:

  • on the eve of German and Italian unifications “balance of power” still meant balance of territorial possessions,

  • Concert of Europe continued to be a mechanism to implement this “balance of power”,

  • the principle of “no annexation without ratification” prevailed,

  • this however would change further to German and Italian unification and brining a new era to European diplomacy.


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