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Warm Up. Copy the notebook info into your notebook Table of Contents March 19 th 7.L.2.2 Pedigree Notes March 19 th 7.L.2.2 Pedigree How do Pedigrees help determine inheritance of genetic traits and diseases?. Pedigrees. What is a pedigree?

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Warm Up

Copy the notebook info into your notebook

Table of Contents

March 19th7.L.2.2 Pedigree

Notes

March 19th7.L.2.2 Pedigree

How do Pedigrees help determine inheritance of genetic traits and diseases?


Pedigrees

What is a pedigree?

-Pedigrees are family trees which show which individuals in the family get certain diseases or have certain traits.


Why are pedigrees important?

Scientists use pedigrees to track/trace the passing on of genes and traits over generations.

Pedigrees help determine how genetic diseases are passed through families


Pedigrees show generations – kind of like a family tree


Pedigrees show generationsEach row represents a generation

Generation 1

Generation 2

Generation 3


Pedigrees show gender


Pedigrees Show Marriage/ MatingA horizontal line connecting a circle and a square means the male and female are “married”


Pedigrees show childrenVertical Line connect parents and children

Parents

Children


Pedigrees shown Genotypes / Affectednessshaded / colored = has traita colored in shape always has the recessive traitunless otherwise statedTwo lower cases in genotype


half shaded = carrier / heterozygous


Clear shape = homozygous dominant genotype

Heterozygous if child is colored in

Genotype written as E? (letter and ?)


Shaded = homozygous recessive

Half = heterozygous

Clear = Homozygous Dominant or Heterozygous (depends on child’s genotype)


Pedigrees show Death

Circle or Square with diagonal line means person has died


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wuk0W10EveU


Rules of Logic for Reading A Pedigree

1. If neither parent show the trait:

  • a. the trait cannot be dominant.

  • b. the trait could be recessive and either parent or both could be heterozygous carriers.

    2. If one parent shows the trait:

  • a. the trait could be dominant and the affected parent could be heterozygous while the unaffected parent is not a carrier

  • b. the trait could be recessive and the affected parent is homozygous while the unaffected parent could be a heterozygous carrier

    3. If both parents show the trait:

  • a. the trait could be dominant and both parents could be heterozygous carriers which

  • means that some of the children could be unaffected

  • b. the trait could be recessive meaning that both parents would have to be homozygous and

  • all the children would have to be affected


Pedigree 1 shows a family of parrots. One of the offspring shows the trait for blue feathers. (R = red feathers, r = blue feathers)

  • Do you think blue feathers are dominant or recessive?

    recessive

    2. What must the genotypes of the parents be?

    Rr

    3. What two genotypes could the other offspring have?

    RR or Rr


  • Father has green leaves

  • Male = gg, female = Gg

  • Bb

  • bb

  • Bb or BB


Reading a Pedigree

  • How many males are there?

  • How many females are there?

  • How many children did the first

  • generation parents have?

  • 4. How many sets of married couples

  • Does the pedigree show?

  • How many carriers does the pedigree show?

  • 6. How many affected individuals does the pedigree show?


  • How many males are there?

    • 4

  • How many females are there? 5

  • 3. How many children did the first

  • generation parents have? 3

  • 4. How many sets of married couples

  • Does the pedigree show?

  • 3

  • How many carriers does the pedigree show? 0

  • How many affected individuals does the pedigree show? 1


Practice

  • Genetics Pedigree Worksheet

    #1 > no dimples = dd (colored in = no dimples)

    #2 > unibrow = ee (colored in = unibrow)

    #3 > colored in = dd


Warm Up

  • Put Pedigree HW worksheet on desk

  • Answer front side of handout (the side that says Warm Up)

    READ KEY AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAPER


Colored = FreeBlank = Attached

F = Dominant, Free

f = Recessive, Attached


How many generations?

3

The chart shows a total of 5 female offspring. How many of these women are carriers of colorblindness? 2

Of the 3 male offspring, how many have colorblindness? 2

Review Exit Ticket


Notes

Table of Contents

March 20thPedigree Day 2

Notes

March 20th Pedigree Day 2

How do you interpret a pedigree chart?


Identifying People in Pedigrees

Roman Number of Generation and then Number in row

IV 1

II 7


Review HW


a. How many males are there? 8

b. How many males have hemophilia? 3

2. A circle represents a female. If it is darkened, she has hemophilia; if open she is normal.

a. How many female are there? 8

b. How many females have hemophilia? 2

3. A marriage is indicated by a horizontal line connecting a circle to a square.

a. How many marriages are there? 3

4. A line perpendicular to a marriage line indicates the offspring. If the line ends with either a circle or a square, the couple had only one child. However, if the line is connected to another horizontal line, then several children were produced, each indicated by a short vertical line connected to the horizontal line. The first child born appears to the left and the last born to the right.

a. How many children did the first couple (couple in row I) have? 2

b. How many children did the third couple (couple in row III) have? 7

5. Level I represent the first generation, level II represents the second generation.

a. How many generations are there? 4

b. How many members are there in the fourth generation? 7


I

II

III

6. Write the generation on the pedigree numbers (roman numerals).

7. Which members of the family above are afflicted with Huntington’s Disease? I-1, II-2, II-3, II-7, III-3

8. There are no carriers for Huntington’s Disease- you either have it or you don’t.

With this in mind, is Huntington’s disease caused by a dominant or recessive trait? dominant

9. How many children did individuals I-1 and I-2 have? 6


10. How many girls did II-1 and II-2 have? 2 How many have Huntington’s Disease? 2

11. How is individual III-2 and II-4 related? niece-uncle

I-2 and III-5? grandma-grandson

12. Write the genotypes of each individual on the pedigree.


I

II

III

IV

13. Write the generation on the pedigree numbers (roman numerals).

The pedigree to the above shows the passing on of Hitchhiker’s Thumb in a family. Is this trait dominant or recessive? recessive

14. How do you know? Because parents III-4 and III-5 had to have kids IV-2 and IV-4

15. How are individuals III-1 and III-2 related? mating

16. Name 2 individuals that have hitchhiker’s thumb. IV-2 and IV-4

17. Name 2 individuals that were carriers of hitchhiker’s thumb.

III-4 and III-5

18. Write the genotypes for each individual on the pedigree.


  • 19

  • a. Which characteristic is dominant? Black

  • b. Which characteristic is recessive? White

  • c. Determine the genotypes of all individuals. You will have three “A?”. Write your Genotypes beneath each individual.


Interpreting a Pedigree

Generations

- Each row represents a generation.

  • Each generation is marked using Roman Numerals

  • (I, II, III, IV)


Interpreting a Pedigree

On a pedigree the trait is shown by the colored shapes

Generally if a shape is colored that person has the trait


Parent Genotype Based on Child

If one or more child has the trait

AND

Parent shapes are blank

Parent genotype = heterozygous


Determining if the trait is Dominant or Recessive

  • If one parent has disorder (colored) disorder is dominant

  • If neither parent has to have the disorder (blank) but children do, the disorder is recessive and parents are heterozygous.


Parent with disorder (colored in) = dominant

Parent without disorder (blank) = recessive


Dominant

Or

Recessive?

Dominant because

The father has it


Dominant or Recessive

Recessive because parents do not have it


Dominant or Recessive?

Recessive because parents do not have it


Dominant or Recessive?

Dominant because one parent has it


Practice

Problem 1 and Problem 2


Problem 1

  • I , II 1, II3, II 7, III3

  • Dominant

  • 6

  • 2Huntington's = 1

  • UncleGrandmother1


Problem 2

  • Recessive

  • Because the parents do not have it

  • Married

  • IV 1, IV3

  • III 1, III 2


Problem 3

Create a pedigree for the following:

1. Joe Marries Sue- they are carriers for the jumping disease

2. They have 4 kids: Jack, Zack, Luke and Sara

3. Zack and Sara have the jumping disease (recessive)

4. Jack marries Amy, she has the disease

5. They have Lorie, who is also affected

6. Sara marries Dan who is a carrier. Sara is pregnant


B. Punnett Square

Rr

rRrrr

rRrrr

Sara = rr

Dan = Rr

There is a 50% chance

Their baby will have

The disease


A. Make a pedigree for the family below.

1. Matt and Jennifer get married; Matt has hairy toes (recessive)

2. They have 2 kids, Adam and Faith

3. Adam has hairy toes and Faith is a carrier

4. Faith marries Alex. They have 1 son. He does not have hairy toes.

B. What is Jennifer’s Genotype? How do you know?

C. What is Alex’s Genotype? How do you know?


Exit

  • How many generations are in this pedigree?

  • Is the trait in this pedigree dominant or recessive?

  • What are the genotypes of III 5 and III 6?

  • How many males are in generation II?

  • How many females are there total?


Chromosomes Determine Gender

XX = Female

XY = Male


a trait that is found on either the X or Y chromosome

Sex Linked Trait


Hemophilia is an example of a sex linked trait.


a disease where your blood doesn’t clot.

Hemophilia


Hemophilia only occurs when all of the X chromosomes have a copy of the recessive gene.


XHXh:female carrier

XhXh:female hemophiliac

XHY:normal male

XhY:hemophiliac male


SICKLE CELL ANEMIA


Difference between normal cells & sickle cells


Sickle Cell

SS = normal

Ss = carrier (SC trait)

ss = sickle cells (lethal)


Sickle Cells tend to get stuck easily in the circulatory system.


Why would African American’s be so much more likely to have Sickle Cell?


Regular red blood cells infected by malaria


chart that shows the relationships within a family

PEDIGREE


Sample Pedigree


Sample Pedigree


Pedigree Basics

  • Males are squares, females are circles, and unborn babies are triangles or octagons

  • Shaded figures represent individuals with the trait, a carrier could be 1/2 shaded

  • Generations are numbered with roman numerals (I, II, II, IV) from top to bottom

  • People within generations are numbered (1,2,3) from left to right


a protein produced by white blood cells in the body in response to the presence of an antigen, for example, a bacterium or virus

ANTIBODY


ANTIGEN

a substance, usually a protein, on the surface of a cell or bacterium that stimulates the production of an antibody


Blood Groups

Blood group A

You have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.

Blood group B

You have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma.


Blood Groups

Blood group ABYou have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.

Blood group 0

You have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.


Rh Factors

Many people have a Rh factor on the surface of their red blood cells. This is also an antigen and those who have it are called Rh+. Those who haven't are called Rh-.


Possible Blood Groups

You can belong to either of following 8 blood groups:


Transfusions

The transfusion will work if a person who is going to receive blood has a blood group that doesn't have any antibodies against the donor blood's antigens.


People with blood group 0 are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB are called "universal receivers.


http://www.nobel.se/medicine/educational/landsteiner/index.html

PRACTICE TRANSFUSIONS


200 B.C.

Humans “clone” trees by cuttings


1950

Humans clone frogs


1980’s

Humans clone mice!


1997

HUMANS CLONE SHEEP!!!


1998

Humans clone 8 copies of a cow!!!


20??


moving genes from one chromosome of one organism to the chromosome of another

GENETIC ENGINEERING


“Fat” Gene


making an exact copy of another cell / organism

CLONING


Dolly—the first cloned sheep

Ian Wilmut, the dude that did it


Check out this short movie that talks about cloning…


A dividing cell


Read NYTimes Article "Despite Warnings, 3 Vow to Go Ahead on Human Cloning"

a. What did three proponents of human cloning announce on August 7, 2001? b. Where did they make this announcement? c. Why did some scientists at the symposium object to the proponents' announcement? d. Why did Dr. Alan Colman object to the research by these proponents being done in secret? e. According to the article, what was the consensus among the panel and most of those who testified before it?


Read NYTimes Article "Despite Warnings, 3 Vow to Go Ahead on Human Cloning"

f. Who was "Dolly"?g. What animals have been successfully cloned? h. According to the article, what is involved in cloning a human? i. How did the three proponents say they would address the possibility of genetic abnormalities? j. How did other experts at the symposium respond to this statement? k. Why do the proponents need to conduct their research secretly?


  • http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html

  • http://www.pathology.washington.edu/galleries/Cytogallery/cytogallery.html

  • http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k2humancsomaldisorders.html

  • http://www.biology.washington.edu/bsa/karyotypeS.html

  • http://worms.zoology.wisc.edu/zooweb/Phelps/karyotype.html


A technique used to determine the genetic traits of a baby before it is born

AMNIOCENTESIS


Klinefelter Syndrome

  • Have male genitalia and internal ducts, but underdeveloped testes

  • Do not produce sperm

  • Slight enlargement of the breasts

  • 47,XXY

  • 1 out of every 500 male births


Turner Syndrome

  • Has female external genitalia

  • Underdeveloped ovaries

  • Short (under 5 feed)

  • Webbed Neck

  • Broad, Shield-like chest

  • 45,X

  • 1 out of every 3000 female births


Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

  • Partial monosomy (part of 1 chromosome is lost)

  • Loss of about 1/3 of the short arm of chromosome 5

  • Anatomical malfomrations (gastrointestinal and cardiac complications)

  • Mentally retarded

  • Abnormal development of the larynx which makes the baby’s cry sound like a cat’s cry

  • 1 in 50,000 live births


Down Syndrome

  • BKA trisomy 21 (47, 21+); 3 copies of the 21st chromosome

  • Short

  • Small round heads

  • Protruding, furrowed tongues which cause mouth to remain partially open

  • Retarded (IQ below 70)

  • Shortened life expectancy (<50)

  • Prone to reparatory disease and heart malformations

  • Have 15x higher chance of getting leukemia

  • Chance of having a baby with Down syndrome goes up as the mother gets older


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