The lisbon process and european women at work
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The Lisbon Process and European Women at Work. Tito Boeri Bocconi University and Fondazione Debenedetti, Milan. Political Economy and Social Policy of Western Europe Indiana University, Bloomington November 11, 2005. Outline. Some stylized facts Lisbon and Beyond

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The lisbon process and european women at work

The Lisbon Process and European Women at Work

Tito Boeri

Bocconi University and Fondazione Debenedetti, Milan

Political Economy and Social Policy of Western Europe

Indiana University, Bloomington

November 11, 2005


Outline

Outline

  • Some stylized facts

  • Lisbon and Beyond

  • How can the Lisbon strategy be improved? Who should do what?


Outline1

Outline

  • The stylized facts

  • Lisbon and Beyond

  • How can the Lisbon strategy be improved? Who should do what?


The stylized facts

The stylized facts

  • Decline in the gender employment gap

  • Still large gender wage gap

  • Larger wage gaps for older cohorts


Decline in gender employment gap

Decline in gender employment gap

Female participation rate in European countries

Male participation rate in European countries


Evolution of the gender wage ratio

Evolution of the gender wage ratio


Larger wage gaps for older cohorts

Larger wage gaps for older cohorts


Outline2

Outline

  • The stylized facts

  • Lisbon and Beyond

  • How can the Lisbon strategy be improved? Who should do what?


Catching up with lisbon

Catching up with Lisbon?


Womenization of labour force risks

Womenization of labour force: Risks

  • More competition: women vs men for a historically given number of jobs

  • Less time to childcare

  • Decrease of fertility rate


1 more competition women vs men for a historically given number of jobs

1. More competition women vs men for a historically given number of jobs

Real Risk?

No, sooner or later women at work become complementary to men employment


2 less time to childcare

2. Less time to childcare

Real Risk?

Employment rate for women and average family day care spending per employed woman


3 decrease of fertility rates

3. Decrease of fertility rates

Real Risk?

Women’s employment rates and fertility in Europe


Possible interpretation

Possible interpretation:

Positive relationship between participation and fertility

  • Changes in social norms towards working mothers

  • Specific social policies:

  • Greater availability of childcare

  • Greater opportunities fo flexible work


Proportion of children using childcare

Proportion of children using childcare.


Childcare availability and fertility

Childcare availability and fertility


Job flexibility and fertility

Job flexibility and fertility


Social customs reported reasons for low use of formal childcare in italy

Social customs: reported reasons for low use of formal childcare in Italy


Should mothers stay at home

Should mothers stay at home?


Men rich low educated and housewives want mothers to stay at home

Men, rich, low-educated and housewives want mothers to stay at home


In order to go to lisbon we should

In order to go to Lisbon, we should…


Private provision affordable

Private provision? Affordable?


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • It is mainly preferences!

  • Preferences may change, but not that rapidly

  • Young today do not think much differently than older people; it will take a generation for preferences to change?

  • Research on social norms: men with working mothers are more likely to be married to working women….


What to do meanwhile to reduce the work children trade off

What to do meanwhile to reduce the work/children trade-off?

  • Extension of public childcare may be less important than

  • Extended m(p)aternity leave

  • Flexibility in hours also for part-timers

  • Kindergarten in firms

  • Childcare vouchers for poor families

  • and….


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