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Overview. 3 empirically based cultural dimensions A cultural map of the world Pace of cultural change Relations of culture to social structure, national policies, democracy, & development. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE. Ideal Individual / Group Relationship.

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Overview

  • 3 empirically based cultural dimensions

  • A cultural map of the world

  • Pace of cultural change

  • Relations of culture to social structure, national policies, democracy, & development


CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Ideal Individual / Group Relationship

People:role players embedded in groups

Individuals inde-pendent actors


CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Ideal way to elicit productive, cooperative, activity in society

Hierarchical alloca-tion roles/resources legitimate/desirable

  • Socialize: Others morally equal

    • transcend selfish interests

    • cooperate voluntarily


CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Regulate use of human and natural resources

fit harmoniously, avoid change & self-assertion

master, control, change through assertive action


Data and Sources

  • 77 cultural groups, 74 countries, N=55,022

  • Dominant cultural group: average of teachers & students in most

  • 45 value items with near equivalent meaning in within-country analyses

  • a priori items to index 7 orientations validated in culture level analysis


Cultural Map of World Regions

EMBEDDEDNESS

HARMONY

Muslim

Middle

East &

Sub-Saharan

Africa

East-Central & Baltic Europe Prot/Cath

EGALITARIANISM

South & South East Asia

East Europe

Orthodox

West

Europe

Latin America

INTELLECTUAL AUTONOMY

Confucian

English Speaking

HIERARCHY

AFFECTIVE AUTONOMY

MASTERY


Correlates of Cultural Orientations Controlling GNPpc, 50+ Countries

  • % GNPpc spent on health Aut, Egal, on defense Mast, Hier

  • Govt. accountability, antitrust enforcement, protecting investors’ rights Aut, Egal

  • Graft, corruption in business Emb, Hier

  • unemployment benefits, social security benefits Aut, Egal, Harm

  • #times military acts used as primary response in foreign policy crisis 1945-2001 Mast

  • Level of internal violence in country Mast, Hier

  • Competitiveness vs cooperativeness of capitalism Mast, Hier


Culture Affects Political & Economic Change

  • Path analyses

    • Aut/Emb & Egal/Hier predict change in democracy ’85-’95-’02 & mediates effect of country wealth

    • Aut/Emb predicts change in GNIpc 1993-2004 (democracy does not)

  • Cultural distance influences international investment flows (e.g., 1σ Egal distance 16% drop)


Change in Cultural Values

  • 21 countries, 36 Sample pairs

  • Average interval 7.1 yrs. (during 1988-99)

  • Countries undergoing major social change (China, Hong Kong, Poland, Hungary)

  • Correlations range .85 to .90

    Relative Positions of Countries Change Slowly

  • Variance across samples unchanged on 7 orient.

    No sign of cultural convergence


Conclusions

  • Cultural orientations inferred from mean values of individuals in societies have meaningful associations

  • World composed of cultural regions, linked by history, geography, economics, religion, etc.

  • Cultural value orientations influence important societal policies & practices

  • Slow change in basic cultural value orientations & no evidence for convergence

  • Cultural value orientations reciprocally cause key social structural & political features of society


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