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Overview. 3 empirically based cultural dimensions A cultural map of the world Pace of cultural change Relations of culture to social structure, national policies, democracy, & development. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE. Ideal Individual / Group Relationship.

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Overview

Overview

  • 3 empirically based cultural dimensions

  • A cultural map of the world

  • Pace of cultural change

  • Relations of culture to social structure, national policies, democracy, & development


Cultural dimensions prototypical structure

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Ideal Individual / Group Relationship

People:role players embedded in groups

Individuals inde-pendent actors


Cultural dimensions prototypical structure1

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Ideal way to elicit productive, cooperative, activity in society

Hierarchical alloca-tion roles/resources legitimate/desirable

  • Socialize: Others morally equal

    • transcend selfish interests

    • cooperate voluntarily


Cultural dimensions prototypical structure2

CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE

Regulate use of human and natural resources

fit harmoniously, avoid change & self-assertion

master, control, change through assertive action


Data and sources

Data and Sources

  • 77 cultural groups, 74 countries, N=55,022

  • Dominant cultural group: average of teachers & students in most

  • 45 value items with near equivalent meaning in within-country analyses

  • a priori items to index 7 orientations validated in culture level analysis


Cultural map of world regions

Cultural Map of World Regions

EMBEDDEDNESS

HARMONY

Muslim

Middle

East &

Sub-Saharan

Africa

East-Central & Baltic Europe Prot/Cath

EGALITARIANISM

South & South East Asia

East Europe

Orthodox

West

Europe

Latin America

INTELLECTUAL AUTONOMY

Confucian

English Speaking

HIERARCHY

AFFECTIVE AUTONOMY

MASTERY


Correlates of cultural orientations controlling gnppc 50 countries

Correlates of Cultural Orientations Controlling GNPpc, 50+ Countries

  • % GNPpc spent on health Aut, Egal, on defense Mast, Hier

  • Govt. accountability, antitrust enforcement, protecting investors’ rights Aut, Egal

  • Graft, corruption in business Emb, Hier

  • unemployment benefits, social security benefits Aut, Egal, Harm

  • #times military acts used as primary response in foreign policy crisis 1945-2001 Mast

  • Level of internal violence in country Mast, Hier

  • Competitiveness vs cooperativeness of capitalism Mast, Hier


Culture affects political economic change

Culture Affects Political & Economic Change

  • Path analyses

    • Aut/Emb & Egal/Hier predict change in democracy ’85-’95-’02 & mediates effect of country wealth

    • Aut/Emb predicts change in GNIpc 1993-2004 (democracy does not)

  • Cultural distance influences international investment flows (e.g., 1σ Egal distance 16% drop)


Change in cultural values

Change in Cultural Values

  • 21 countries, 36 Sample pairs

  • Average interval 7.1 yrs. (during 1988-99)

  • Countries undergoing major social change (China, Hong Kong, Poland, Hungary)

  • Correlations range .85 to .90

    Relative Positions of Countries Change Slowly

  • Variance across samples unchanged on 7 orient.

    No sign of cultural convergence


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Cultural orientations inferred from mean values of individuals in societies have meaningful associations

  • World composed of cultural regions, linked by history, geography, economics, religion, etc.

  • Cultural value orientations influence important societal policies & practices

  • Slow change in basic cultural value orientations & no evidence for convergence

  • Cultural value orientations reciprocally cause key social structural & political features of society


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