B.  Dissolved Gases
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B. Dissolved Gases 1. Oxygen – Dissolved Oxygen (DO) vital to aquatic life Sources that ↑ DO PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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B. Dissolved Gases 1. Oxygen – Dissolved Oxygen (DO) vital to aquatic life Sources that ↑ DO atmosphere or aeration fromriffles (water over rocks) Photosynthesis (peaks during afternoon). Temperature affects DO: ↑ temp means ↓ DO ↓ temp means ↑ DO

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B. Dissolved Gases 1. Oxygen – Dissolved Oxygen (DO) vital to aquatic life Sources that ↑ DO

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B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

B. Dissolved Gases

1. Oxygen – Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

vital to aquatic life

Sources that ↑ DO

atmosphere or aeration fromriffles (water over rocks)

Photosynthesis (peaks during afternoon)


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

Temperature affects DO:

↑ temp means ↓ DO

↓ temp means ↑ DO

(decomposition of organic matter

wastes with ↑ temps)

Other DO effects include pollutants such as acid mine drainage, sewage or agricultural runoff


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

Recommended DO level for aquatic life is above 5ppm


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

Mayfly nymph


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

Caddisflies


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

2. Carbon Dioxide- vital to plants

sources to ↑ CO2:

atmosphere

groundwater

decomposition

sources to remove CO2

photosynthesis

organisms absorb in form of

carbonates in shells


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

C. pH

Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration (H+)

PA streams are slightly acidic due to

1. acid rain

2. rocks in PA contain minerals

3. coal mines (AMD)

Fortunately, many PA streams have good buffering capabilities


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

Is a pH of 5 more or less acidic than a pH of 6?

More acidic

How much more acidic?

10 x


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

D. Alkalinity – measure of water’s ability to neutralize acids

Helps maintain pH at optimum level

Determined by types of soil and bedrock through which the water passes

Streams with limestone have ↑ alkalinity


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

E. Nitrates – in streams occurs as nitrate (NO3 ) nitrite (NO2 ) and ammonia (NH3 )

Nitrate enters stream from fertilizer runoff, septic systems or manure runoff

Excess nitrates will cause rapid plant growth

When excess plants die, decomposition uses large amount of DO


B dissolved gases 1 oxygen dissolved oxygen do vital to aquatic life sources that do

F. Iron

Excess iron from acid mine drainage ( remember: pyrite is iron sulfide, yellow boy is ferric hydroxide)

Iron precipitates (solids) clog gills and suffocate bottom dwelling invertebrates


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