Crime and deviance
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Crime and Deviance. Deviance. Deviance : Behavior that violates social norms Murder Rape Arson Graffiti Fighting Picking your nose Cross-dressing Drunk Driving Cheating on a test. Deviance Across Cultures.

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Crime and Deviance

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Crime and deviance

Crime and Deviance


Deviance

Deviance

  • Deviance: Behavior that violates social norms

    • Murder

    • Rape

    • Arson

    • Graffiti

    • Fighting

    • Picking your nose

    • Cross-dressing

    • Drunk Driving

    • Cheating on a test


Deviance across cultures

Deviance Across Cultures

  • Deviance is culturally relativistic; it varies from society to society

  • It also varies within societies

    • Murder is deviant

    • Police officer killing an armed suspect is not deviant

    • Rebel flag in Ohio is deviant

    • Rebel flag in Alabama is not deviant

    • HIV / AIDS is deviant if you got it through drug use or sexual contact

      • Not deviant if you acquired it through blood transfusion


Why does deviance happen

Why Does Deviance Happen?

I. Cultural-Transmission or Differential Association Theory (Sutherland)

  • Deviance is learned through interaction with others

  • Differential association: if you interact more with deviant people, you will be deviant

  • A deviant person is socialized into deviant norms

  • Interactionist perspective


Ii structural strain theory durkheim and merton

II. Structural-Strain Theory (Durkheim and Merton)

  • Deviance is a natural outgrowth of values, norms, and structure of society

  • Certain people can’t meet goals of society: Anomie

  • Functionalist perspective


Iii control theory hirschi

III. Control Theory (Hirschi)

  • Similar to Structural-Strain theory

  • Deviance occurs in people who do not have close ties to the community

    • People with close ties are controlled by other community members

  • People without close ties have less to lose

  • Consequences of deviance determine behavior


Iv conflict theory

IV. Conflict Theory

  • Competition and social inequality lead to deviance

  • Power struggle

  • Deviance is defined by the group in power—anything threatening their power is “deviant”

  • Group in power establishes ideologies that explain deviance as a lower-class phenomenon


V labeling theory lemert and becker

V. Labeling Theory (Lemert and Becker)

  • Focuses on how people become labeled “deviant”

  • All people commit deviant acts, but not everyone is deviant

  • Primary Deviance: nonconformity that goes undetected

  • Secondary Deviance: deviance that results in a person being labeled


How would each theory explain the columbine shootings

How Would Each Theory Explain the Columbine Shootings?


The columbine massacre april 20 1999

The Columbine MassacreApril 20, 1999

  • Littleton, CO

  • Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    • Both had a criminal record

    • Both were bullied at school

    • “Trenchcoat Mafia”

    • Both listened to “violent” music

    • Both were classified as “Goths”

  • 12 students and 1 teacher killed

  • 21 students injured


Why is deviance good for society

Why is Deviance Good for Society?

1. Unifies the Group “Us vs. Them”

-Gives a Sense of community

2. Clarifying Norms

-Defines boundaries of behavior

3. Diffusing Tension

-Minor acts of deviance are a “safety valve”

4. Identifying Problems

-Tells which parts of society need change

5. Provides Jobs

-Judges, lawyers, police, prison guards, etc.


Crime

Crime

  • Crime: An act prohibited by law and punishable by a governing body

  • Who is committing crimes?

    1. Mostly Male: Generally more aggressive than females

    2. Mostly White in numbers, mostly Black by percentage

    3. Mostly under 25: More laws for those under 18-21


Types of crime

Types of Crime

1. Violent Crime: Murder, rape, robbery

-physical violence or threat of violence

2. Crime against property: Burglary, arson

-No person is physically harmed

3. Victimless Crime: Prostitution, gambling, drug use

-No harm to anyone except the perpetrator

4. White Collar Crime: Fraud, tax evasion, toxic pollution

-By people of high social standing

5. Organized Crime: Drug trafficking, gambling, black market

-large scale and professional


Stigma

Stigma

  • A mark or sign to label a criminal

  • http://www.familywatchdog.us/


The criminal justice system

The Criminal Justice System

1. Police: Make arrests

-few crimes prevented by police

2. Courts: Determine guilt or innocence—issue sentences

3. Corrections

-Recidivism: repeated criminal behavior

65% in US—the highest in the world

76% juvenile recidivism—also highest in the world

-Approaches to correcting deviance

  • Retribution

  • Deterrence

  • Rehabilitation

  • Societal Protection

    -Are we too nice?

    -Do we not rehabilitate?

    4. Juvenile Justice System: Different punishments for similar crimes

    -focus in on rehabilitation


The us prison system

The US Prison System

  • The US has 5% of the world’s population and 25% of the world’s inmates

  • 1 in 5 inmates is sexually assaulted

  • 25% of all inmates are gang members

  • 35% of inmates are drug addicts

    • 80% are drug users

  • 25% of all prison beds are occupied by people who are mentally insane

  • Only 12 of 5000 prisons have higher education programs

  • 700,000 inmates are released each year

    • 2/3 are back within three years


The death penalty

The Death Penalty

History and Statistics

  • The Death Penalty has existed since before Christ

  • Punishable offenses have ranged from blasphemy to murder

  • The Death Penalty was strongly questioned by Enlightenment philosophers of the 1800s

  • In the US, the rate of capital punishment has changed

  • In 2002, 71 people in 13 states were executed

    • Texas had the most with 33

    • 70 were by lethal injection, 1 by electrocution

    • 38 states use the death penalty

  • In 2002, there were 3,557 inmates on death row (all for murder)

  • There was a moratorium in the US from 1967-77


Arguments

Arguments For

Deterrent

Punishment fits the crime

Criminals forfeit their rights

Recidivism rate is so high

Economical

Arguments Against

People still commit crimes

Chance of innocence

“Cruel and Unusual”

Immoral / Human Rights

Economical

Arguments


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