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Chapter Describing Motion : Velocity & Acceleration

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Distance and Displacement

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Distance and Displacement

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance?

Distance and Displacement

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Distance and Displacement

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Q: What is the displacement?

Distance and Displacement

Starting from origin, O a person walks 90-m east, then turns around and walks 40-m west.

Q: What is the total walked distance? A: 130-m

Q: What is the displacement? A: 50-m, due east.

Displacement

The displacementΔx is a vector that points from the initial position to the final position. SI Unit of Displacement: meter (m)

2.2 Speed and Velocity

- Average Speed
- Average Velocity
- Instantaneous Velocity
- Instantaneous Speed

Average Speed

Units for speed: m/s, MPH, kmPH.

Average Velocity

Units for velocity: m/s, MPH, kmPH.

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed

The instantaneous velocityv indicates how fast an object moves and the direction of the motion at each instant of time.

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is called the instantaneous speed, and it is the number (with units) indicated by the speedometer.

Acceleration

Units: m/s2, cm/s2

Instantaneous acceleration

Acceleration at a particular instant is called instantaneous acceleration.

Deceleration

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

Deceleration

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

Whenever the acceleration and velocity vectors have opposite directions, the object slows down and is said to be “decelerating.”

Deceleration

An object speeds up when the acceleration and velocity vectors point in the same direction.

Whenever the acceleration and velocity vectors have opposite directions, the object slows down and is said to be “decelerating.”

Example 4: A drag racer crosses the finish line, and the driver deploys a parachute and applies the brakes to slow down. The driver begins slowing down when t0 = 9.0 s and the car\'s velocity is v0 = +28 m/s. When t = 12.0 s, the velocity has been reduced to v = +13 m/s. What is the average acceleration of the dragster?

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