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AP Chemistry. Chapter 2B Mr. Solsman. Types of Formulas: 1. Empirical—shows the relative number of atoms of each element in the compound. hydrogen peroxide HO. 2. Molecular—shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound. hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2.

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Ap chemistry

AP Chemistry

Chapter 2B

Mr. Solsman


  • Types of Formulas:

  • 1. Empirical—shows the relative number of atoms of each element in the compound.

  • hydrogen peroxide HO




  • Chemical Names between them.

  • 1. Members of a periodic group have the same ionic charge.

  • Group 1A is 1+

  • Group 2A is 2+

  • Group 3A is 3+



  • For A-group cations, between them.ion charge = group number.

  • Exceptions: Sn2+ and Pb2+

  • For A-group anions: ion charge = group number minus 8.

  • O2-, F-



Naming simple compounds
Naming Simple Compounds these have to be memorized.

  • Type I Binary Ionic Compounds

    • Consists of a cation and an anion.

    • Rules for Naming:

      • A. The cation is always named first & anion second.

      • B. A monatomic cation takes its name from the name of the element. (Many end in –ium)

      • C. A monatomic anion is named by taking the root of the element name and adding –ide.


Naming type i
Naming Type I these have to be memorized.

  • Name each binary compound

  • CsF

  • AlCl3

  • LiH


Naming type i1
Naming Type I these have to be memorized.

  • Name each binary compound

  • CsF Cesium fluoride

  • AlCl3 Aluminum chloride

  • LiH Lithium hydride



  • Because ionic compounds are arrays of oppositely charged ions, formula units give the relative number of cations and anions in a compound. Ionic compounds generally have only empirical formulas.

  • Exceptions: peroxides such as Na2O2 and mercury(I) compounds (Hg2Cl2) have empirical formulas of NaO and HgCl.


  • Ionic compounds have ions, formula units give the relative number of cations and anions in a compound. Ionic compounds generally have only empirical formulas.zero net charge so the cation’s positive charges must balance the negative charges of the anions.

  • The criss-cross method can be used to balance charges:

  • Mg2+ and Cl-

  • Ca2+ and O2- 




Ionic binary type ii
Ionic Binary Type II Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Roman numerals must be used to indicate the charge on the cation if it can have more than one oxidation state.

  • An old system states that the ion with the higher charge has an ending of –ic and the one with the lower charge has an ending of –ous.


Naming type ii
Naming Type II Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Give the systematic name of the following:

  • CuCl

  • HgO

  • Fe2O3

  • MnO2

  • PbCl2


Naming type ii1
Naming Type II Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Give the systematic name of the following:

  • CuCl Copper (I) chloride

  • HgO Mercury (II) oxide

  • Fe2O3 Iron(III) oxide

  • MnO2 Manganese(IV) oxide

  • PbCl2 Lead(II) chloride


Naming
Naming Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Name the following:

  • CoBr2

  • CaCl2

  • Al2O3

  • CrCl3


Naming1
Naming Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Name the following:

  • CoBr2 Cobalt(II) bromide

  • CaCl2 Calcium chloride

  • Al2O3 Aluminum oxide

  • CrCl3 Chromium(III) chloride


Polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions Particularly group B metals. Cobalt for example forms Co

  • Polyatomic ions are assigned special names that must be memorized.

  • The following table lists the more common polyatomic ions.



Naming2
Naming charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.

  • Name the following polyatomic ions:

  • Na2SO4

  • KH2PO4

  • Fe(NO3)3

  • Na2SO3

  • Na2CO3

  • NaHCO3


Naming3
Naming charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.

  • Name the following polyatomic ions:

  • Na2SO4 Sodium sulfate

  • KH2PO4 Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

  • Fe(NO3)3 Iron(III) nitrate

  • Na2SO3 Sodium sulfite

  • Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate

  • NaHCO3 Sodium hydrogen carbonate


  • Oxoanion charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.—Most polyatomic ions are oxoanions. These are ions in which a nonmetal is bonded to one or more O atoms.

  • NO2- NO3-

  • SO32- SO42-


  • A. Two oxoanions in the family: charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.

  • The ion with more O atoms takes the nonmetal root and the suffix –ate.

  • The ion with fewer O atoms takes the nonmetal root and the suffix –ite.


  • NO charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.3- nitrate

  • NO2- nitrite

  • SO42- sulfate

  • SO32- sulfite



  • ClO charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.4- perchlorate

  • ClO3- chlorate

  • ClO2- chlorite

  • ClO- hypochlorite


  • Hydrates charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit. are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules associated with each formula unit.

  • In their formulas, this number is shown after a centered dot.

  • Cu(NO3)2•3H2O CuSO4•5H2O


Binary covalent type iii
Binary Covalent Type III charge which can behave ionically. The polyatomic unit stays together as a unit.

  • Binary covalent compounds are formed between two nonmetals. BrCl3

  • Rules for naming:

    • A. The first element in the formula is named first, using the full name of the element

    • B. The second element is named as if it were an anion.



Naming4
Naming (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)

  • Name the following compounds:

  • PCl5

  • PCl3

  • SF6

  • SO3

  • SO2

  • CO2


Naming5
Naming (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)

  • Name the following compounds:

  • PCl5 Phosphorus pentachloride

  • PCl3 Phosphorus trichloride

  • SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride

  • SO3 Sulfur trioxide

  • SO2 Sulfur dioxide

  • CO2 Carbon dioxide


  • P (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)4O10

  • Nb2O3

  • Ti(NO3)4


  • P (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)4O10 Tetraphosphorus decaoxide

  • Nb2O3 Niobium(III) oxide

  • Ti(NO3)4 Titanium(IV) nitrate


  • Molecular Masses (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)

  • The molecular mass, formerly molecular weight, is the sum of the atomic masses of the formula unit or molecular compound.


  • NaCl = 23.9898 + 35.4527 = 59.4425 amu (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.)

  • H2O = 2(1.0079) + 15.9994 = 18.0152 amu

  • CuSO4•5H2O = 63.546 + 32.066 + 4(15.999) + 10(1.008) + 5(15.999) =

  • 249.683 amu





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