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Weather. Weather is the state or condition of the atmosphere at a particular location for a short period of time. Different weather is created by changes in the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere due to incoming solar radiation.

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Weather
Weather

Weather is the state or condition of the atmosphere at a particular location for a short period of time. Different weather is created by changes in the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere due to incoming solar radiation.

Weather can be measured and observed with many variables, such as:


Atmospheric energy
Atmospheric Energy

  • The Sun is the main source of energy on Earth for the weather. The energy from the sun travels to earth in electromagnetic waves, some of which we can see and some of which we cannot see.

  • Incoming solar radiation has a specific wave length (ESRT p.14)

  • Wave energy can do 2 things once it hits a surface:

  • Be absorbed

  • Be reflected


Weather1
Weather

  • Most of the energy from the sun is reflected off of the earth.

  • This energy does not go back into space, it is trapped by the atmosphere.

  • This process keeps our planet warm and how energy is stored for the creation of weather.


Energy transfer in the atmosphere
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Review: What are the 2 methods of energy transfer?

  • Radiation

  • Convection

    Radiation – is the transfer of electromagnetic energy through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. (no medium needed)

  • Energy radiated from the sun reaches the earth

  • Energy from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic waves is reflected from the earth and radiated back into the atmosphere.


Energy transfer in the atmosphere1
Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Convection– is the transfer of heat energy by movements of liquids and gases, caused by differences in density.

  • Convection causes warm air to rise and cold air to sink and will be a major principle in the formation of many weather events (wind, rain, thunderstorms)


Energy principles
Energy Principles

Conservation of Energy – energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Kinetic Energy – the energy of motion. (Ex. A ball rolling down a hill)

Potential Energy – stored energy, that has the ability to do work in the future.(Ex. A ball resting at the top of a hill)


Heat as energy
Heat as Energy

Specific Heat – the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by one degree Celsius. Every substance has its own specific heat. (ESRT p. 1)

Calorie – the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

  • If heat is lost at one source another substance will grain that heat, due the principle of conservation of energy.


Heat energy and phase changes
Heat Energy and Phase Changes

If we heat a cup of water what do we expect to happen?

  • During a phase change, when heat is added the temperature will stay the same, because all the heat energy is being used for the phase change.

  • When heat is used to change the phase of a substance and the temperature doesn’t increase, we call this latent heat.

    What type of energy is this?


Heat energy and phase changes1
Heat Energy and Phase Changes

What phase changes require the addition of heat? (Latent heat gained)

What phase changes require the removal of heat? (Latent heat lost)



Station model practice
Station Model Practice

Temp: 27°F

Weather: snow

Visibility: ¼ mile

Dewpoint: 25°F

Wind speed: 25 knots

Wind direction: northeast

Cloud cover: 100%

Barometric pressure: 925 mb

Pressure trend: -18

Precipitation: .68 inches

Temp: 87°F

Weather: haze

Visibility: 4 miles

Dewpoint: 67°F

Wind speed: 5 knots

Wind direction: southeast

Cloud cover: 25%

Barometric pressure: 1018.5 mb

Pressure trend: +10

Precipitation: .08 inches


Identify the temperature, barometric pressure, cloud cover, pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

30

96

*

-34

1/8

27

1.2


A note on barometric pressure
A note on barometric pressure… pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

  • Pressure in millibars is usually between 950.0 and 1050.0.

  • On a station model to save space the “9” or “10” is dropped and decimal point is omitted.

  • To correctly read the station model we need to add back in the “9” or “10” and decimal.

  • If the number is above 500, place a “9” before it.

  • If number is below 500, place a “10” before it.

  • Then always add back in the decimal before the last number.


Temperature pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility. – What are some factors that affect air temperature?

  • Altitude

  • Insolation (intensity, duration, latitude)

  • Proximity to Water (specific heat)


Dew point pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility. (ESRT 12)

3 steps to find dew point using a psychrometer.

1. Using a psychrometer find wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures.

2. Calculate difference between wet and dry bulb temperatures. (wet bulb depression)

3. Using dry bulb temp. and difference, find dewpoint on ESRT p. 12 (top chart)

Steve LaPoint explains...


Relative Humidity pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility. (ESRT p.12)

3 steps to find relative humidity using a psychrometer

1. Using a psychrometer find wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures.

2. Calculate difference between wet and dry bulb temperatures. (wet bulb depression)

3. Using dry bulb temp. and difference, find relative humidity on ESRT p. 12 (bottom chart)


Atmospheric Pressure pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility. – the force or the weight of the air pushing down on a surface. “A column of air above the surface.”

Isobars – lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure.

How does altitude affect atmospheric pressure?

“As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases.”


Winds
Winds pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

  • Winds occur because of a pressure difference between air masses.

  • Pressure differences occur because of differences in temperatures.

    Warm air = low density = low pressure

    Cold air = high density = high pressure


Winds1
Winds pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

  • Sea breeze (onshore breeze) – occurs during the day.

  • Land breeze (offshore breeze) – occurs during the night.


Winds2
Winds pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Jet Stream – winds at high altitudes and speeds which are part of the planetary convection cells. The jet stream moves in eastward in a wavelike pattern about 7 to 8 miles above the surface. Many storms are moved by the jet stream.

Speed in winter = 75 mph

Speed in summer = 35 mph


Polar and sub tropical jet stream
Polar and Sub-Tropical Jet Stream pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.


How the jet steam forms
How the Jet Steam forms… pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Rising and sinking air due to pressure differences creates these upper air wind belts (Jet Stream). ESRT p.14


Clouds and rain condensation
Clouds and Rain (Condensation) pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

How does condensation form clouds? What else helps?

  • Water vapor in the air cools when it rises, condenses into liquid water droplets that make up clouds.

  • Dust particles in the air help to form droplets, they act as a nucleus around which water can condense.


Clouds and rain condensation1
Clouds and Rain (Condensation) pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Orographic lifting – mountains act as barriers to the flow of air, forcing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools and condenses, forming clouds and precipitation.


Clouds and rain condensation2
Clouds and Rain (Condensation) pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Precipitation types

  • Rain

  • Drizzle

  • Sleet

  • Snow

  • Freezing rain

  • Hail


Air masses
Air Masses pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Air-mass – huge body of air in the troposphere having similar pressure, moisture, wind, and temperature. (ESRT p.13)

  • Maritime – air-mass that develops over water (moist)

  • Continental – air-mass that develops over land (dry)


Air masses continued
Air Masses Continued… pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

  • Polar – air-masses that develop in higher latitudes (cool)

  • Tropical – air-masses that develop in lower latitudes (warm)

    Air Mass Symbols (ESRT p.13)


Cyclones and anticyclones
Cyclones and Anticyclones pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Cyclone (Low pressure area) – storms

L

Winds move counterclockwise and inward.


Cyclones and anticyclones1
Cyclones and Anticyclones pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Anticyclone (High pressure area) – nice weather

H

Winds move clockwise and outward.


Warm front pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility. – warm air meets and rises over cold air on the ground.

Cold front – cold air meets and pushes out warm air.

Occluded front – faster moving cold front overtakes slower moving warm front.

Stationary front – warm air mass and cold air mass are side by side, neither air mass is moving.

Fronts – the boundary between 2 air masses.


Warm front
Warm Front pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Warm air meets and rises over cold air on the ground. Extended periods of precipitation occurs ahead of the front and will last until the front passes.


Cold front
Cold Front pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Cold air meets and pushes out warm air. Short but heavy period of precipitation. Wind shift and rapid change in weather conditions once the front has passed. Violent thunderstorms can occur at the front.


Occluded front
Occluded front pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Faster moving cold front overtakes slower moving warm front (cooler air). Overcast and light precipitation may occur.


Stationary front
Stationary Front pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Warm air mass and cold air mass are side by side, neither air mass is moving.


Weather maps
Weather Maps pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.

Placing fronts on a map can show movement of weather.


Winter storms in nys
Winter Storms in NYS pressure trend, precipitation (amount and type), wind (speed and direction), dewpoint, and visibility.


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