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The Chemistry of Life. Chapter 2. Water. Water makes up approx 70 to 95 percent of most organisms. When the electrons in a covalent bond are not shared equally they form a polar molecule.

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Water

  • Water makes up approx 70 to 95 percent of most organisms.

  • When the electrons in a covalent bond are not shared equally they form a polar molecule.

  • Polar Molecule: unequal distribution of charge, the molecule has a distinct partial positive end and a partial negative end. Universal Solvent: “like dissolves like”


H 2 0 polar molecule
H20 - Polar molecule

Hydrogen

1p+

S-

S-

Hydrogen

1p+

2e-

6e-

8p+

8n0

S+

S+

S+

S+

Oxygen



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAilC0sjvy0&feature=related

Water

  • Properties

  • High Specific Heat – resists changes in temp.

  • Water retains its state at temperature levels where other liquids would begin to turn into gas or evaporate.

  • Cohesion – attraction of water molecules,

  • provides surface tension.

  • Adhesion – attraction of water to different substances….meniscus


Role of carbon
Role of Carbon

  • Carbon has 4 electrons to share and it can share these electrons in three different ways.

  • 4 Covalent bonds it can form

  • 1. Single C - C

  • 2. Double C = C

  • 3. Triple C C


Carbon based molecules have three general types of structures
Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures.

  • Straight

  • Branched

  • Ring


Isomers
ISOMERS structures.

  • Isomers - compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula.


  • Monomer structures. - singular unit or molecule

  • Polymer - a group of molecules or units bonded together.

cellulose


Functional groups
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS structures.

  • Most organic compounds have functional groups of atoms that carry out chemical reactions.

  • FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

    • -NH2 Amine Proteins

    • -PO4 Phosphate Nucleic Acids

    • -COOH Carboxylic Acid Fats

    • -OH Hydroxyl or Lipids & Alcohol Carbohydrates


Endings
ENDINGS structures.

  • -ose Sugars (Sucrose)

  • -in Proteins (Pepsin)

  • -ase Protein Enzyme (Amylase)

  • -ol Lipid (Glycerol)


Carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES structures.

  • - C, H, O

    • 1 Carbon : 2 Hydrogens : 1 Oxygen

    • 1:2:1 ratio

  • Example:

    • Glucose C6H12O6


Carbohydrate monomers
CARBOHYDRATE MONOMERS structures.

  • Monosaccharides - simplest carbohydrate

    • Most common arrangement : C6H12O6

  • Names : Glucose, Fructose, Galactose


Carbohydrate polymers
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS structures.

  • Disaccharides - 2 monosaccharides covalently bonded together.

    • Glucose + Galactose = Lactose (milk sugar)

    • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)

    • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)


Disaccharides structures.


Carbohydrate polymers1
CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS structures.

  • Polysaccharides - long chains (polymers)

    • Glycogen- made and stored in animals …highly branched compared to plant starches (store food in the liver as glycogen)

    • Starch – is made and stored by plants (potatoes)

    • Cellulose – straight rigid structure that makes up the cell wall in plants (celery, cotton)

    • Chitin – rigid structure that makes up exoskeleton of insects


Polysaccharides structures.


Processes of forming and breaking bonds
Processes of Forming and Breaking Bonds structures.

  • 1) Dehydration Synthesis/Condensation - put monomers together by removing water (H2O)

  • 2) Hydrolysis - Add H20 to break covalent bonds

http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html


Dehydration Synthesis structures.

Hydrolysis


Lipids
LIPIDS structures.

  • - C, H, O

    • Fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol (steroids), phospholipids (C57H110O6)

  • Nonpolar - insoluble in water, make up cell membrane, energy, used to make hormones.Fat = 3 Fatty acids + glycerol

    (monomers)

  • Fatty acid : 1. Chain of C and H atoms 2. Carboxyl group -COOH

  • Glycerol : 3 Carbon molecule, backbone of a lipid.

(polymer)


Lipid
LIPID structures.

carboxyl

http://users.uma.maine.edu/SusanBaker/triglyceride.html

Triglyceride


Phospholipid
Phospholipid structures.

1. Glycerol

2. 2 fatty acids

3. Phosphate head


Steroids
Steroids structures.

Cholesterol


2 kinds of fats
2 KINDS OF FATS structures.

  • 1. Saturated Fats - single carbon bonds (solids)

  • 2. Unsaturated Fats - double or triple carbon bonds (liquids)


Proteins
PROTEINS structures.

  • -N, C, H, O sometime S, and always love

  • made up of amino acids (monomers/basic building blocks of a protein)

1 amino

group

(-NH2)

1 side chain

(R)

1 Carboxyl group



Proteins1
PROTEINS structures.

  • PEPTIDE BONDS : bonds formed between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another.

  • What process allows peptide bonds to take place?

H R H R

H - N - C - C - OH + H - N - C - C - OH

H O H O

Dehydration Synthesis


hydrogen bond structures.

Hemoglobin

  • Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape.

  • Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids.

  • Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function.


Proteins2
PROTEINS structures.

  • Polypeptides : proteins, long chains of amino acids

  • 20 different amino acids


Nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS structures.

  • C, H, O, N, P

  • Hereditary Material

  • 1. DNA - 2 chains - deoxyribose sugar - phosphate backbone - nitrogeneous base

  • 2. RNA - 1 chain - ribose sugar - phosphate backbone - nitrogeneous base


Nucleic acids1
NUCLEIC ACIDS structures.

  • Nucleotides : monomer of a nucleic acid.

  • Nucleotides are composed of 3 separate parts

  • 5 Carbon + PO4 + Nitrogen Base Sugar Phosphate Group

S

N

P

Nucleotide


nitrogen-containing molecule, structures.called a base

A phosphate group

deoxyribose (sugar)

  • Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides.

  • Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.


DNA Nucleotides structures.


DNA Nucleotides structures.


Nucleic acids2
NUCLEIC ACIDS structures.

  • Nitrogen Bases adenine (purine) guanine (purine) cytosine (pyrimidine) thymine (pyrimidine) uracil (pyrimidine)

*Only in DNA

*Only in RNA

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/media/DNAi_building_blocks-lg.mov

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/dna/DNAi_watson_basepairing_anim.html


ATP Nucleotide structures.


Enzymes
ENZYMES structures.

  • Protein catalysts necessary for most of the chemical rxns that occur in living cells.

  • Catalysts : a substance that increase the rate of a chemical rxn.


How do you recognize an enzyme
HOW DO YOU RECOGNIZE AN ENZYME? structures.

  • *Enzymes are usually named after the substrate with an -ase ending.

  • Substrate : the substance an enzyme acts upon

  • EXAMPLES :

    • Enzyme that splits maltose into 2 glucose molecules is maltase

    • Proteins - Protease

    • Lipids - Lipase


How do enzymes work
HOW DO ENZYMES WORK? structures.

1. The enzyme shape makes it able to do

work.

Active Site

Enzyme

2. The active site is the place on the enzyme

where the rxn occurs.

3. The substance the enzyme act upon is the

substrate

maltose

* The active site must fit the shape of the substrate


How do enzymes work1
HOW DO ENZYMES WORK? structures.

4. The substrate and the active site of

the enzyme come together briefly to form

the enzyme - substrate complex.

Enzyme

*While temporarily together the enzyme may make or

break bonds within the substrate.

OH

OH

* Note enzymes are

not changed by the rxn

Enzyme


* What enzyme broke structures.

the bond between the

disaccharide maltose in

the previous slide?

QUESTIONS

?

Maltase

What rxn also occurred during that reaction?

Hydrolysis


Hypothesis for how an enzyme works 2
HYPOTHESIS FOR HOW AN ENZYME WORKS (2) structures.

  • 1. Lock & Key Hypothesis:

    • Proposes that the substrate fits exactly into the active site on the enzyme.

    • * Key - Active Site unlocks the lock - substrate

  • 2. Induced Fit Hypothesis :

    • Proposes that the enzyme changes shape slightly to grasp the substrate at the active site.

    • * Hand grasping a baseball (molds to shape of object)


http:// structures.highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_enzymes_work.html

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__enzyme_action_and_the_hydrolysis_of_sucrose.html


Diffusion
Diffusion structures.

  • Diffusion : the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Key factors in the rate of diffusion: concentration, temperature,

and pressure.


What is equilibrium
What is Equilibrium? structures.

  • Equilibrium : when concentrations are equal and the net movement of particles is equal.


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