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Global seismic tomography and its CIDER applications. Adam M. Dziewon ski. KITP, July 14, 2008. Earth’s boundary layers. Power spectra of three models. Harvard Caltech Berkeley. The properties of a “super-red” spectrum. harmonic order. 15 times more coefficients.

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Global seismic tomography and its CIDER applications

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Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Global seismic tomography and its CIDER applications

Adam M. Dziewonski

KITP, July 14, 2008


Earth s boundary layers

Earth’s boundary layers


Power spectra of three models

Power spectra of three models

Harvard Caltech Berkeley


The properties of a super red spectrum

The properties ofa “super-red” spectrum

harmonic order

15 times more coefficients


Current issues

Current Issues:

  • Anisotropy in the lithosphere- asthenosphere system

  • Transition zone and the fate of the subducted slabs.

  • Large scale structures in the lower mantle.

  • Stable layers in the outer core


Surface boundary layer

Surface boundary layer


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Velocity

Harvard

Isotropic shear

velocity anomalies

at 100 km depth;

nearly perfect

agreement among

different models

Berkeley

Caltech


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Anisotropy and Ordering


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Phase velocities in the Pacific

Dispersion of Rayleigh waves with 60 second period. Orange is

slow, blue is fast. Red lines show the fast axis of anisotropy.


Azimuthal anisotropy under n america

Azimuthal anisotropy under N. America

100 km

200 km

300 km

after Marone and Romanowicz, 2007


Observed and predicted sks splitting measurements

Observed and predicted SKS splitting measurements

after Marone and Romanowicz, 2007


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Pacific anisotropy

The isotropic variations (top; Voigt average) agree with the pattern of the plate cooling model, even though thermal models predict constant temperature at 150 km depth.

The difference between the SV and SH (bottom) velocities at this depth shows no correlation with plate tectonics.

from Ekström & Dziewonski, 1998


Pacific cross section

Pacific cross-section

Nettles and Dziewonski, 2008


Radial anisotropy under continents and oceans

Radial anisotropy under continents and oceans

From Gung et al., 2003


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Transition zone

boundary layer


Power spectra of the three models a closer look at the transition zone

Power spectra of the three models;a closer look at the transition zone

Harvard Caltech Berkeley

angular degree


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Harvard

Caltech

Berkeley

600 km depth

800 km depth


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Cross-sections through model TOPO362

from Gu et al., 2003


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Change in the stress pattern

near the 650 km discontinuity


Izu bonin slab stress pattern changes at 500 km depth is the transition zone full of slabs

Izu-Bonin slabStress pattern changes at 500 km depth;is the transition zone full of slabs?


It cannot be this simple even if it were true it is not representative of the global behavior

It cannot be this simple; even if it were true, it is not representative of theglobal behavior

S-velocity

P-velocity

Grand et al., 1997


Model s362ani depth 750 km

Model S362ANIDepth 750 km

l

Strong, but spatially limited fast anomalies in the lower mantle

may represent regions of limited penetration of subducted

material accumulated in the transition zones


Questions

Questions:

  • Why is global topography of the 410 km and 650 km discontinuities de-correlated?

  • How do the slabs interact with the 650 km discontinuity?

  • What happens to the slab material after it stagnates in the transition zone?

  • Why is there such an abrupt change in the spectral power across the 650 km discontinuity?


Core mantle boundary layer

Core-mantle boundary layer


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Power spectra

and RMS of

models S362ANI and

S362D1

After Kustowski et al. (2008)


Power spectra of the three models near the cmb

Power spectra of the three models near the CMB

Harvard Caltech Berkeley

Kustowski et al. (2008)


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

2800 km depth

from Kustowski, 2006


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Equatorial cross-section

Dziewonski (1984) and Woodhouse and Dziewonski (1984)


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Super-plumes

Caltech

Scripps


The shape of the african superplume

The shape of the African superplume

The vertical extent of the two superplumes is much greater

than 300 km but velocity anomalies are less than -12%

from Wang and Wen (2004)


Global seismic tomography and its cider applications

Generally, models of the shear and compressional velocity are obtained independently. In 1994, Su & Dziewonski obtained P- and S-velocity models by inverting simultaneously a large data set. However, P-velocity depends both on shear modulus and bulk modulus. To isolate this interdependence, Su & Dziewonski (1997) formulated the inverse problem for a joint data set sensitive to P- and S-velocities and derived 3-D perturbations of bulk sound velocity and shear velocity.

Trying to understand the super-plumes


Shear and bulk velocity at 550 km

Shear and bulk velocity at 550 km

±2%

vS

±1%

vc

Su and Dziewonski, 1997


Shear and bulk velocity at 2800 km

Shear and bulk velocity at 2800 km

vS

±2%

±1%

vc

Su and Dziewonski, 1997


Bulk sound and shear velocity anomalies

Bulk Sound and Shear Velocity Anomalies

Correlation between the bulk sound and shear velocity anomalies changes from +0.7 in the transition zone to

-0.8. From Su and Dziewonski, 1997.


Cmb questions

CMB questions:

  • How have the super-plumes formed?

  • What part of the anomalies is caused by compositional rather than thermal variations?

  • Why do the super-plumes continue above the D” without an apparent abrupt change in the amplitude of the anomaly?


Outer core boundary layers

Outer core boundary layers


Stable layers in the outer core

Stable layers in the outer core?

Generally, the outer core is expected to be well mixed. However, in some 1-D models compressional velocity the gradients at the top and the bottom of the outer core are anomalous, leading to inference that either one or both of these layers are stable.


P velocity gradient in the outer core

P-velocity gradient in the outer core


P velocity gradient near the icb

P-velocity gradient near the ICB


Core questions

Core questions

  • Are there stable layers at the top and bottom of the outer core?

  • How large is the density contrast between the inner and outer core?

  • How the properties of the inner core vary with depth?

  • What is the cause of inner core anisotropy?


Inner most inner core

Inner-most Inner Core?

PKIKP residuals in the distance range from 173 to 180 degrees show anomalous behavior as a function of the ray angle, indicating that anisotropy within 300 - 400 km of the Earth’s center is different from the bulk of the inner core.


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