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Table of Contents. Characteristics of a Civilization 9/24 Artifacts as Evidence 9/24 Analysis Worksheet 9/25 Analysis Worksheet 9/25. Ch 5 Was Ancient Sumer a Civilization?. Introduction. Was Sumer a civilization?

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Table of Contents

  • Characteristics of a Civilization 9/24

  • Artifacts as Evidence 9/24

  • Analysis Worksheet 9/25

  • Analysis Worksheet 9/25


Ch 5 Was Ancient Sumer a Civilization?


Introduction

  • Was Sumer a civilization?

  • Mid 1800's archeologists began find artifacts in the area known as Mesopotamia

    • tablets, pottery, city ruins

    • written language

    • Standard of Ur

      • Found where the ancient city of Ur stood

      • Made of wood and decorated with pieces of shell and lapis lazuli

      • Shows Sumerians in times of peace and war


Characteristics of Civilization

  • Stable food supply

  • Social structure with different social levels and jobs

  • System of government

  • Religious system

  • Highly developed culture (Art)

  • Advances in technology

  • Highly developed written language


Stable Food Supply

  • Complex irrigation systems

    • networks of canals, dams, and reservoirs

    • Provide crops with regular supply of water

  • Plow

    • Tool for tilling the soil to prepare it for planting

    • Made out of wood

    • One end bent for cutting into the ground to turn the soil

    • Farmers pushed or pulled the plow along the ground or used animals to pull it


Social Structure

Different jobs and social levels. High levels have greater status than others

  • Upper class

    • priests, land owners, and government officials

    • largest and most luxurious home near the center of the city

    • houses were two stories high

    • whitewashed mud walls

  • Common class

    • merchants and craftspeople

      • Included highly skilled metal workers

        • worked with gold, silver, tin, lead, copper, and bronze

      • Made items for army, farmers and upper class

        • Made swords and arrowheads

        • Made tools like plows and hoes

        • Made mirrors and jewelry

    • farmers and fishermen

      • lived in small, mud-brick houses at the edge of the city

  • Slaves

    • Lived in their owners' homes

    • had not property of their own


Government

  • Kings

    • Believed kings were chosen by the gods to rule in their place

    • Very powerful

    • Sumerians believed they must obey the will of the gods

    • Enforced laws and collected taxes

    • Built temples Made sure irrigation systems were maintained

    • Led army

  • Army

    • professional and temporary citizen-soldiers

    • foot soldiers

    • soldiers who drove chariots

  • Governors

    • ruled outlying towns

  • Scribes

    • helped record laws

    • First people to develop a system of written laws

  • Canal Officials

    • patrolled the canals

    • Looked for damage

    • Made sure farmers didn't take water illegally


Religion

  • Definition

    • a set of beliefs, usually in a god or gods, together with forms of worship

  • Influence

    • Sumerians tried to please gods

      • growing crops

      • settling disputes

    • Religion bound them together in a common way of life

  • expression

    • Built temples and religious towers called ziggurats

      • Ziggurats made of mud bricks

      • Special temps built at the top

      • Long staircase attached so gods could climb down to Earth

      • Kings and priests stood inside the towers to ask for the god's blessings

    • King's duty to build and maintain ziggurats

    • Built statues

      • showed people worshipping gods with eyes gazing upward

  • ceremonies

    • played music

    • may have involved human sacrifice


The Arts

  • Metalworkers

    • practical objects like weapons and cups

    • decorative items like mirrors and jewelry

  • Architecture

    • Designed temples and ziggurats

  • Musicians

    • Sumerians believed that music brought joy to the gods as well as people

    • Played instruments and sang during temple ceremonies

    • wrote love songs and entertained guests at feasts

    • Instruments

      • drums

      • pipes

      • lyre

        • wooden instrument made of a sound box and strings

        • decorated with precious stones and carvings made of horn


Technology

  • Wheel

    • most important invention

    • Uses

      • used as a surface for shaping clay into pots

      • on its side the wheel was used to create wheeled carts and chariots

  • arch

    • Inverted U or V

    • Made by stacking bricks made of clay and straw

    • rose in steps from the walls until they met in the center

    • Arches added strength and beauty to buildings


Writing

  • Cuneiform

    • Latin word for "wedge"

    • Etched into clay tablets with a wedge-shaped stylus

    • developed around 2400 BCE

    • Used to record information about the exchange of goods

    • May have begun with up to 2,000 symbols; reduced to 700

    • Based on pictographs


Summary

  • Sumerian culture was a civilization

  • Lasted 1,500 years from 35000 - 2000 BCE


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