Cells
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Cells. Cell Theory. All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular . The cell is the basic unit of life. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. Modern Cell Theory. 1 . all known living things are made up of a cell or cells .

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Cells

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Cells

Cells


Cell theory

Cell Theory

  • All living organisms are composed of cells.

    • They may be unicellular or multicellular.

  • The cell is the basic unit of life.

  • Cells arise from pre-existing cells.


Modern cell theory

Modern Cell Theory

1. all known living things are made up of a cell or cells.

2. the cell is structural & functional unit of all living things.

3. cells come from pre-existing cells by division.

4. Most cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.

5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.

6. all energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.


Two basic types of cells

Two Basic Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic (Bacterial cells)

  • Eukaryotic (EVERYTHING else!!)


Prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic Cells

  • Bacteria

  • Simple

  • Usually 1 chromosome

  • May have Plasmid (Circular, double stranded DNA)

  • No membrane-bound organelles

  • DNA  Nucleoid region

  • Have ribosomes

E. coli - Gram-negative, strains undergoing conjugation. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, traveler's diarrhea and nosocomial infections.


Bacteria

Bacteria

E.coli at 1000x (Our scope)

E. coli At 10 000X (a little better)


Although not living here are viruses bacteriophages attacking a bacterium

Although Not Living, Here are Viruses (Bacteriophages) Attacking a Bacterium


Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic

  • Membrane-bound organelles

  • Mitochondria Cellular Respiration takes place to produce energy (ATP molecule)

  • May be autotrophic (undergo photosynthesis that requires light or chemosynthesis that does not use sunlight but uses other “chemicals” such as CO2 or methane

  • May be heterotrophic (consumes their food)

  • True nucleus

  • Plants have cell wall

  • Many are multi-cellular; some are single-celled

  • Genes on chromosomes, some of which code for proteins

  • And no Algae are NOT plants……they are protists!


Typical plant cell

“Typical” Plant Cell


Typical animal cell micrograph

“Typical” Animal Cell Micrograph


Typical animal cell

“Typical “ Animal Cell


Cells are specialized a few examples

Cells are Specialized  A Few Examples

  • Red blood cells are in abundance and carry oxygen (O2) to your cells

  • White blood cells fight infection

  • Nerve cells send impulses (electric and chemical signals)

  • Sperm cells  Male gametes that carry genetic information

  • Ovum  Female gamete that carries genetic information


Eukaryotic cells plant

Eukaryotic Cells - Plant

Mitochondria

Cell/Plasma Membrane

Nucleus

Nucleolus

Cell Wall

Chloroplast

Central Vacuole


Eukaryotic1

Eukaryotic

  • Includes everything EXCEPT bacteria……even this guy(yes, he’s real!)

  • the hydrothermal worm lives around thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean……really tiny (568/1000 of a millimeter)


More tiny critters

More Tiny Critters!

  • A dust mite about half a million times amplification…….these dudes live in your mattress, pillow…….

The house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus


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