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CHP400: Community Health Program - lI. gy. What is Research ?. gy. Research Methodology. Research Methodology. What is Research ?. gy. Content. Definition of Research. Steps in conducting Research. gy. Research Objectives. Hypotheses. Title of the study. Take home message.

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Research Methodology

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Research methodology

CHP400:

Community Health Program - lI

gy

What is

Research ?

gy

Research

Methodology


What is research

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

gy

Content

  • Definition of Research

  • Steps in conducting Research

gy

  • Research Objectives

  • Hypotheses

  • Title of the study

  • Take home message


Definition of research

Research Methodology

Definition of Research

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Research

Re / search

Research is the

  • systematic collection

  • analysis and

  • interpretation of data

  • to answer a certain question or solve a problem.

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Research requirements

Research Methodology

Research requirements

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  • demands clear statement of the problem

  • requires a plan

  • builds on existing data

  • should answer the original research question

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Research methodology

Research Methodology

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Steps in conducting Research

Selection / statement

of Research Problem

Literature review

2

1

3

Formulation of Objectives

Report Writing and Presentation

8

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S t u d y P r o t o c o l

Study Methodology

4

gy

7

Data Analysis

5

Proposal submission and approval

Field Work

6


Problems for research

Research Methodology

Problems for Research

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Common Research Questions

  • Description of Health Problem

    • Magnitude of a health problem/disease

    • Distribution of the health problem in person, place and time

    • Identification of risk factors and causes

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Research methodology

Research Methodology

Cont.

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  • Effect of an intervention: Drug, vaccine, risk factor cessation, health education.

  • Evaluation of on-going interventions: Coverage of Target Groups, Quality, Cost, Effect/Impact…

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Research objectives

Research Methodology

Research Objectives

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What are study objectives?

The objectives of a research summarize what is to be achieved by the study.

The objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem.


Research objectives1

Research Objectives

e.g..


Research objectives2

Research Methodology

Research Objectives

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  • General objective: states what is expected to be achieved by the study in general terms.

  • Specific objectives: It is possible (and advisable) to break down a general objective into smaller, logically connected parts.

  • Specific objectives should specify what you will do in your study ,where , and when .

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Research objectives3

Research Methodology

Research Objectives

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  • The general objective“to identify the reasons for low utilization of child welfare clinics in District X over the years 1998 and 1999”

  • It could be broken down into smaller more specific objectives.

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Research objectives4

Research Methodology

Research Objectives

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Why should research objectives be developed?

Formulation of objectives will help to:

  • Focus the study (narrowing it down

    to essentials);

  • Avoid collection of data that are not

    strictly necessary for understanding

    and solving the problem; and

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Characteristics of good objectives

Research Methodology

Characteristics of Good Objectives

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Specific

Measurable

Achievable

Realistic

Time-Bound

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Research objectives5

Research Methodology

ResearchObjectives

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How should you state your objectives?

Take care that the objectives of your study:

  • Cover the different aspects of the problem and its contributing factors in a coherent way and logical sequence;

  • Are clearly phrased in operational terms, specifying exactly what you are going to do, where, and for what purpose;

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Research objectives cont

Research Methodology

Research Objectives. cont

  • Use action verbs that are specific enough to be evaluated.

    e.g.: to determine, to compare, to verify, to calculate, to describe, and to establish.

  • Avoid the use of vague non-action verbs, such as: to appreciate, to understand, or to study.

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Hypotheses

Research Methodology

Hypotheses

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A HYPOTHESIS is a prediction of a relationship between one or more factors and the problem under study, which can be tested.

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Research methodology

Research Methodology

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  • Based on your experience with the study problem, it might be possible to develop explanations (formulate hypotheses) for the problem in addition to the study objectives.

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Hypotheses1

Research Methodology

Hypotheses

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Eg. low utilization of child welfare clinics

It would be possible to formulate and test the following hypotheses:

1. Utilization of child welfare clinics is lowest in the rainy season due to the high workload of mothers during that period.

2. Utilization of child welfare clinics is lowest in those clinics in which staff are poorly motivated to provide preventive services.

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Title of the study

Research Methodology

Title of the study

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  • The title should be in line with your general objective.

  • Make sure that it is specific enough to tell the reader what your study is about.

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NOT: “A study of utilization of child welfare clinics”

BUT: “A study of the reasons for low utilization of child welfare clinics in District X”


What is research1

Research Methodology

What is Research ?

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The Pontiac Story !

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Research methodology

Research Methodology

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Take home message

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

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Research Objectives

Research Objectives

Research Objectives

Research Objectives


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