Catch Them Before They Fall

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Objective of Reading First. ?To provide assistance to state educational agencies and local educational agencies in establishing reading programs for students in kindergarten through grade 3 that are based on scientifically based reading research to ensure that every student can read at grade level o

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Catch Them Before They Fall

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2. Objective of Reading First “To provide assistance to state educational agencies and local educational agencies in establishing reading programs for students in kindergarten through grade 3 that are based on scientifically based reading research to ensure that every student can read at grade level or above not later than the end of grade 3.” NCLB, 2001, Part B, Sec. 1201

5. • Brief assessment that focuses on critical reading skills strongly predictive of future reading growth and development, and conducted at the beginning of the school year with all children in grades K, 1, 2, and 3 to identify children likely to need extra or alternative forms of instruction. • Used to classify children as at risk or not at risk for reading failure • Used to identify children who need additional support

7. Objectives Transparency 1.2 Direct trainees to the first tab (Training Agenda) in their manual. SCRIPT: Today you will learn measures that are appropriate for grades K-3 and that match the Reading First grant for your state for screening and progress monitoring. You will be able to compare student data with benchmarks that have been established from over 850,000 students tested with these measures across the United States. You will administer and score the DIBELS measures on all K-3rd grade students in your assigned school. The University of Oregon website is a great resource for practice and review. Transparency 1.2 Direct trainees to the first tab (Training Agenda) in their manual. SCRIPT: Today you will learn measures that are appropriate for grades K-3 and that match the Reading First grant for your state for screening and progress monitoring. You will be able to compare student data with benchmarks that have been established from over 850,000 students tested with these measures across the United States. You will administer and score the DIBELS measures on all K-3rd grade students in your assigned school. The University of Oregon website is a great resource for practice and review.

9. Agenda Transparency 1.3 Review the agenda for Days 1 and 2 (this may be modified to accommodate a different training schedule encompassing parts of several days). SCRIPT: Breaks will be inserted as we see how the morning is going, and lunch should be at approximately 11:45. We intend to complete the day by 4:00. Story Retell and Word Use may/may not be included based on individual state plans.Transparency 1.3 Review the agenda for Days 1 and 2 (this may be modified to accommodate a different training schedule encompassing parts of several days). SCRIPT: Breaks will be inserted as we see how the morning is going, and lunch should be at approximately 11:45. We intend to complete the day by 4:00. Story Retell and Word Use may/may not be included based on individual state plans.

10. Websites to Note http://www.fcrr.org http://dibels.uoregon.edu

11. Training Supplies Transparency 1.4 SCRIPT: Let’s review the materials you have. Please be sure you have everything. If you are missing any item, please let me know. You should have a manual, PowerPoint Guide, clipboard, stopwatch, calculator, highlighter pen, red pen, Post-it notes to jot down questions during the training. Right now you will need only your manual and the PowerPoint Guide. After we begin learning and practicing the measures, you will need some of the other training supplies. The PowerPoint Guide represents all of the slides that we will be using as well as those that are on the CD/Video (videotape). Transparency 1.4 SCRIPT: Let’s review the materials you have. Please be sure you have everything. If you are missing any item, please let me know. You should have a manual, PowerPoint Guide, clipboard, stopwatch, calculator, highlighter pen, red pen, Post-it notes to jot down questions during the training. Right now you will need only your manual and the PowerPoint Guide. After we begin learning and practicing the measures, you will need some of the other training supplies. The PowerPoint Guide represents all of the slides that we will be using as well as those that are on the CD/Video (videotape).

12. What DIBELS Measure DIBELS Measures these important early literacy skills. DIBELS Measures these important early literacy skills.

13. The Importance of Fluency Transparency 1.5 SCRIPT: Fluency is an important prerequisite skill for academic success. Fluency is very sensitive to small changes. Also, students need fluency so that they will meet with success in acquiring more complex skills such as comprehension. Fluency is considered a very important “enabling” skill for reading comprehension to occur. Most vocabulary and comprehension knowledge is gained from reading and not from direct instruction on vocabulary and comprehension. Content words which carry the most meaning can be predicted approximately 10% of the time from context. Therefore, students must have fluent decoding skills. They cannot rely on context. Think about your first driving experience, especially if you were learning on a shift car. You were unable to attend to all the gears, the clutch, the brake, the accelerator AND the traffic at one time, so your parents or driver’s education teacher probably took you out to a deserted road to practice. But with that practice, you soon became fluent and now probably don’t think about many of those steps that it takes to drive a car safely. You will have a chance to learn personally the steps to becoming fluent in many skills today including how to use stopwatches efficiently while administering the DIBELS measures.Transparency 1.5 SCRIPT: Fluency is an important prerequisite skill for academic success. Fluency is very sensitive to small changes. Also, students need fluency so that they will meet with success in acquiring more complex skills such as comprehension. Fluency is considered a very important “enabling” skill for reading comprehension to occur. Most vocabulary and comprehension knowledge is gained from reading and not from direct instruction on vocabulary and comprehension. Content words which carry the most meaning can be predicted approximately 10% of the time from context. Therefore, students must have fluent decoding skills. They cannot rely on context. Think about your first driving experience, especially if you were learning on a shift car. You were unable to attend to all the gears, the clutch, the brake, the accelerator AND the traffic at one time, so your parents or driver’s education teacher probably took you out to a deserted road to practice. But with that practice, you soon became fluent and now probably don’t think about many of those steps that it takes to drive a car safely. You will have a chance to learn personally the steps to becoming fluent in many skills today including how to use stopwatches efficiently while administering the DIBELS measures.

15. Transparency 1.6 SCRIPT: Dr. Suzanne Graney, a school psychologist who is a leading expert on DIBELS, will now speak briefly about each of the 5 DIBELS measures that you will learn today and that are shown on this slide. She will describe each measure and show a brief video clip of a partial administration. This is to give you a general idea of what you are going to be learning today. Start CD/Video, “DIBELS Overview” (6 minutes). Dr. Graney mentioned in that video that the different measures would be given at various times during the year in some of the grade levels. Since that video was taped, several changes have been made in the assessment schedule, and we will review those in a few minutes. Transparency 1.6 SCRIPT: Dr. Suzanne Graney, a school psychologist who is a leading expert on DIBELS, will now speak briefly about each of the 5 DIBELS measures that you will learn today and that are shown on this slide. She will describe each measure and show a brief video clip of a partial administration. This is to give you a general idea of what you are going to be learning today. Start CD/Video, “DIBELS Overview” (6 minutes). Dr. Graney mentioned in that video that the different measures would be given at various times during the year in some of the grade levels. Since that video was taped, several changes have been made in the assessment schedule, and we will review those in a few minutes.

16. Transparency 1.8 SCRIPT: This graph provides a display of the DIBELS measures that will be administered during the assessment times across grade levels. (If coaches are used) One of the key people in the success of this effort is the school reading coach. He/she has the responsibility for overseeing the DIBELS assessment at the school and for managing the process as well as becoming a resource to others at the school in this area. Transparency 1.8 SCRIPT: This graph provides a display of the DIBELS measures that will be administered during the assessment times across grade levels. (If coaches are used) One of the key people in the success of this effort is the school reading coach. He/she has the responsibility for overseeing the DIBELS assessment at the school and for managing the process as well as becoming a resource to others at the school in this area.

17. Recommended Uses of Student Data By Teachers Transparency 1.9 SCRIPT: The DIBELS data will be obtained three times during the school year, and this will permit teachers to see the differences in rates of growth between children as well as identify those students who are picking up skills more rapidly than others. Transparency 1.9 SCRIPT: The DIBELS data will be obtained three times during the school year, and this will permit teachers to see the differences in rates of growth between children as well as identify those students who are picking up skills more rapidly than others.

18. Recommended Uses of Student Data By Principals Transparency 1.10 SCRIPT: Principals will have access to all individual student data as well as data from each classroom and grade level. The information collected will assist them in making school-wide decisions about resources and needs within individual classrooms, grade levels, and the school as a whole. We know that the composition of each classroom can vary a great deal. By having a profile of each classroom, the principal can easily determine where resources and supports might be in greater need.Transparency 1.10 SCRIPT: Principals will have access to all individual student data as well as data from each classroom and grade level. The information collected will assist them in making school-wide decisions about resources and needs within individual classrooms, grade levels, and the school as a whole. We know that the composition of each classroom can vary a great deal. By having a profile of each classroom, the principal can easily determine where resources and supports might be in greater need.

19. Recommended Uses of Student Data By District Staff Transparency 1.11 SCRIPT: Selected district staff will have access to school and grade-level information in order to provide the necessary resources and supports to help each school be successful. Like classrooms, schools can vary a lot in the number of students at each grade level who are at risk for not meeting grade-level expectations in reading. This information is useful to district office staff in assigning resources and supports to individual schools.Transparency 1.11 SCRIPT: Selected district staff will have access to school and grade-level information in order to provide the necessary resources and supports to help each school be successful. Like classrooms, schools can vary a lot in the number of students at each grade level who are at risk for not meeting grade-level expectations in reading. This information is useful to district office staff in assigning resources and supports to individual schools.

20. Transparency 1.12 SCRIPT: Your state has a number of responsibilities in the implementation of the Reading First grant. First, they are charged with providing DIBELS training to districts and schools receiving Reading First grants. Second, they will be conducting research on the results of the DIBELS assessments and other Reading First required assessments. This research will help us define how best to use the DIBELS and other test information to enhance the progress of students in reading in our early elementary grades. Transparency 1.12 SCRIPT: Your state has a number of responsibilities in the implementation of the Reading First grant. First, they are charged with providing DIBELS training to districts and schools receiving Reading First grants. Second, they will be conducting research on the results of the DIBELS assessments and other Reading First required assessments. This research will help us define how best to use the DIBELS and other test information to enhance the progress of students in reading in our early elementary grades.

21. Standardization Priorities First Priority: Minimize departures from standardized administration. Every child gets the same opportunity, every time if you Transparency 1.13 Help participants understand that deviation from the administration and scoring of each of these measures invalidates the data. Review each bullet on transparency. SCRIPT: All DIBELS measures are standardized. This means that there are set ways to administer and score them. Student performance may be impacted if students are given extra encouragement, different directions, or even minor deviations from the directions. Therefore, it is imperative that these be followed to the letter. If you are very familiar with the directions, it is much easier to do them in a natural way just as you will see them done on the videotapes today. As educators we are naturally geared toward maximizing a child’s performance and are most likely to provide assistance whenever children appear to need it. However, understand that this is a time to measure - not a time to teach! We will be getting a lot of practice with the directions today to emphasize the importance of following these to the letter.Transparency 1.13 Help participants understand that deviation from the administration and scoring of each of these measures invalidates the data. Review each bullet on transparency. SCRIPT: All DIBELS measures are standardized. This means that there are set ways to administer and score them. Student performance may be impacted if students are given extra encouragement, different directions, or even minor deviations from the directions. Therefore, it is imperative that these be followed to the letter. If you are very familiar with the directions, it is much easier to do them in a natural way just as you will see them done on the videotapes today. As educators we are naturally geared toward maximizing a child’s performance and are most likely to provide assistance whenever children appear to need it. However, understand that this is a time to measure - not a time to teach! We will be getting a lot of practice with the directions today to emphasize the importance of following these to the letter.

22. Stopwatches 101 Use a good stopwatch Transparency 1.14 Demonstrate timing and have the group practice along. SCRIPT: Take out your stopwatches. Push the center button until it says “STW.” The stopwatch should now read 00.00. Press the yellow button to start the stopwatch, and push it again to stop it. Push the black button on the other side to reset it to “0.” Let’s practice. Start - Stop - Reset, Start - Stop - Reset, Start - Stop - Reset. Kitchen timers may seem like a quick and easy way to “count down” for a minute, but they tend to not be as accurate as a stopwatch. Additionally, there is a fluency measure, Initial Sounds Fluency, which requires a cumulative time, and a countdown timer will not work for this type of timing. Any questions?Transparency 1.14 Demonstrate timing and have the group practice along. SCRIPT: Take out your stopwatches. Push the center button until it says “STW.” The stopwatch should now read 00.00. Press the yellow button to start the stopwatch, and push it again to stop it. Push the black button on the other side to reset it to “0.” Let’s practice. Start - Stop - Reset, Start - Stop - Reset, Start - Stop - Reset. Kitchen timers may seem like a quick and easy way to “count down” for a minute, but they tend to not be as accurate as a stopwatch. Additionally, there is a fluency measure, Initial Sounds Fluency, which requires a cumulative time, and a countdown timer will not work for this type of timing. Any questions?

25. LNF Probes Each probe is random upper and lower case letters Each row is underlined to help students keep their place

26. Directions 1. Place the student copy of probe in front of the student.

27. Directions 4. Say ”Begin" and start your stopwatch. If the student fails to say the first letter after 3 seconds, tell him/her the letter and mark it as incorrect.

28. Directions 6. If a student gives the sound of the letter, say “Remember to tell me the letter name, not the sound it makes.” (Only once) Suzanne continues with the scoring rules.Suzanne continues with the scoring rules.

29. Scoring Rules

30. Scoring Rules

31. Scoring Rules At conclusion to this slide, stop the CD. At conclusion to this slide, stop the CD.

32. Benchmark Goals LNF Kindergarten

33. Benchmark Goals LNF First Grade

34. Triad Procedures Transparency 2.2; review this and transparency 2.3. Work in groups of 3. Hand out LNF breakout activity sheets, one per person. SCRIPT: Determine at each triad who will be examiner, student, observer. Then determine how roles will change so each person has a chance at each role. Review format of breakout activity forms: Front Page: Determine who plays which role and in what sequence. Be sure to place the probe in front of the participant who is playing the student role. Next Page: Student sheet. The script for the student is written out. Try to have your script last for one minute. If you finish the script before a minute, continue giving responses from the student probe sheet. Page 3: Examiner scoring sheet with directions. Page 4: Observer sheet. Everyone should review the assessment integrity page as it is a comprehensive overview of the important rules for accurate administration. Page 5: The student probe that is placed in front of the student. Participants should remove this form, and place it in front of the person who is playing the role of student (even though the “student” will be using the script to provide responses). SCRIPT: You will have 10 minutes total on this activity. I will begin timing once you determine your roles. You should let participants know when 5 minutes have passed so they can judge their activity accordingly.Transparency 2.2; review this and transparency 2.3. Work in groups of 3. Hand out LNF breakout activity sheets, one per person. SCRIPT: Determine at each triad who will be examiner, student, observer. Then determine how roles will change so each person has a chance at each role. Review format of breakout activity forms: Front Page: Determine who plays which role and in what sequence. Be sure to place the probe in front of the participant who is playing the student role. Next Page: Student sheet. The script for the student is written out. Try to have your script last for one minute. If you finish the script before a minute, continue giving responses from the student probe sheet. Page 3: Examiner scoring sheet with directions. Page 4: Observer sheet. Everyone should review the assessment integrity page as it is a comprehensive overview of the important rules for accurate administration. Page 5: The student probe that is placed in front of the student. Participants should remove this form, and place it in front of the person who is playing the role of student (even though the “student” will be using the script to provide responses). SCRIPT: You will have 10 minutes total on this activity. I will begin timing once you determine your roles. You should let participants know when 5 minutes have passed so they can judge their activity accordingly.

35. Practice Time Transparency 2.3 This transparency should be left up as reminders of the important points to watch for when participants are being the examiner or observer. Draw participants’ attention to this transparency. TIPS - SCRIPT: The observer role is critical. We will be using these measures to evaluate progress, and accuracy is vital. Practice time is valuable. Be sure to take seriously the responsibility of helping your peers follow closely the standardized administration and scoring requirements. Administer during the practice time the same way you would with a child, using clipboard, student probe, and stopwatch. Transparency 2.3 This transparency should be left up as reminders of the important points to watch for when participants are being the examiner or observer. Draw participants’ attention to this transparency. TIPS - SCRIPT: The observer role is critical. We will be using these measures to evaluate progress, and accuracy is vital. Practice time is valuable. Be sure to take seriously the responsibility of helping your peers follow closely the standardized administration and scoring requirements. Administer during the practice time the same way you would with a child, using clipboard, student probe, and stopwatch.

38. Materials Examiner scoring sheet Student copy of picture probes Stopwatch Red pen or pencil Calculator

39. Initial Sound Fluency This is a mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while saying its name). Mouse begins with the sound /m/ (point to the mouse). Listen: /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/?

40. Directions for Administration Place the student copy of four (4) pictures in front of the child.

41. Demo 3. Say these specific directions to the child: This is mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while saying its name). Mouse begins with the sound /m/ (point to the mouse). Listen: /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/?

42. Correction Procedure 1

43. Correction Procedure 2

44. Administration 4. Show the child the first picture probe. Point to each picture and say the name following the standardized directions. Facilitator Stop CD after this slide.Facilitator Stop CD after this slide.

45. Scoring Directions 7. Score the child’s response as either correct (1 point) or incorrect (0 points). 8. If the child stops or struggles with a question for 5 seconds, score the question as zero and present the next question. 9 After the first 4 questions, proceed to the next picture probe. Continue until the end of the questions. When the child finishes the last question, record the total time on your stopwatch in seconds and add the number of correct responses. 10. Record the total number correct and the time in seconds on the bottom of the scoring sheet. Suzanne continues by reviewing this and the next 9 slides of the scoring directions.Suzanne continues by reviewing this and the next 9 slides of the scoring directions.

46. Calculating ISF Score Calculate the ISF Score using the formula For example, if the student has 10 correct responses in 43 seconds, the rate is 14 correct initial sounds per minute.

47. Reminder 11. If a child has done the examples correctly and does not answer the questions correctly, say “Remember to tell me a picture that begins with the sound (repeat stimulus sound).” Suzanne introduces complete administration tape.Suzanne introduces complete administration tape.

48. Scoring Rules 1. Discontinue rule: If a child has a score of “0” on the first five questions, discontinue the probe and give a score of “0”. 2. If the child names the correct picture instead of pointing to it, score as correct.

49. Scoring Rules 3. If the child names the picture and the name begins with the correct initial sound, score as correct. For example, if the target picture is “hand” for /h/ and the student points at road and says “highway,” score as correct.

50. Scoring Rules 4. If the child names the picture and the name begins with an incorrect initial sound, score it as incorrect. For example, if the target picture is “barn” for /b/ and the student points at barn but says “house,” score as incorrect.

51. Scoring Rules 5. Correct Initial Consonant Sound: If the word starts with an initial consonant sound, the child can respond with the first sound or initial sounds. For example, if the word is “clock” a correct initial sound would be /c/ or /cl/ or /klo/ but not /l/ or “clock.”

52. Scoring Rules 6. Correct Initial Vowel Sound: If the word starts with an initial vowel sound, the child can respond with the initial vowel sound or initial sounds. For example, if the word is “elephant” a correct initial sound would be /e/ or /el/, but not the name of the letter /ea/.

53. Scoring Rules 7. Schwa sound (/u/) added to a consonant is not counted as an error. Some phonemes cannot be pronounced correctly in isolation without a vowel, and some early learning of sounds includes the schwa.

54. Scoring Rules 8. Articulation Difficulty or Dialect: The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference. For example, the student responds /th/ when asked for the first sound in “sink.” If the student consistently says /th/ for /s/, as in “thircle” for “circle,” he or she should be given credit for a correct initial sound. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student's responses and any prior knowledge you have of his/her speech patterns.

55. Benchmark Goals ISF Kindergarten

58. Materials Examiner scoring sheet with phoneme scoring columns. Clipboard Stopwatch Red Pen/Pencil Suzanne reviews materialsSuzanne reviews materials

59. Directions for Administration 1. Place examiner scoring sheet on clipboard and position so that student cannot see what you record. 2. Say these specific directions to the student: I am going to say a word. After I say it, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “Sam,” you would say /s/ /a/ /m/. Let’s try one. (one second pause) Tell me the sounds in “mop.”

60. Administration 3. Give the student the first word and start your stopwatch. If the student does not say a sound segment after 3 seconds, give him/her the second word and score the first word as zero segments produced. 4. As the student says the sounds, mark the student response in the scoring column. Underline each sound segment produced correctly. Put a slash ( ) through sounds produced incorrectly.

61. Administration 5. As soon as the student has finished saying the sounds, present the next word promptly and clearly. 6. The maximum time for each sound segment is 3 seconds. If the student does not provide the next sound segment within 3 seconds, give the student the next word. If student provides the initial sound only, wait 3 seconds for elaboration. 7. At the end of 1 minute, stop presenting words and scoring further responses. Add the number of sound segments produced correctly. Record the total number of sound segments produced correctly on the bottom of the scoring sheet. Facilitator Stop CD after this slide. Direct audience to Tab 8 where they take out Student #5. Have clipboard, stopwatch and pen ready. Time (and score) if they wish.Facilitator Stop CD after this slide. Direct audience to Tab 8 where they take out Student #5. Have clipboard, stopwatch and pen ready. Time (and score) if they wish.

62. Scoring Rules 1. Discontinue Rule. If a student has not given any sound segments correctly in the first 5 words, discontinue the task and put a score of zero (0). 2. Underline the sound segments in the word the student produces that are correctly pronounced. Students receive 1 point for each different, correct, part of the word. 3. Put a slash ( ) through segments pronounced incorrectly.

63. Scoring Rules 4. Correct Segmentation. A correct sound segment is any different, correct, part of the word represented by sounds that correspond to the word part. For example, the sound /t/ is a correct sound segment of “trick,” as are /tr/ and /tri/ (see rule 2, Incomplete Segmentation). Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...r...i...k” Examiner says “cat,” student says “k...a...t”

64. Scoring Rules 5. Schwa Sounds. Schwa sounds (/u/) added to consonants are not counted as errors. Some phonemes cannot be pronounced correctly in isolation without a vowel, and some early learning of sounds includes the schwa. No Error: Examiner says “trick,” student says “tu...ru...i...ku” Examiner says “cat,” student says “ku...a…tu”

65. Scoring Rules 6. Additions. Additions are not counted as errors if they are separated from the other sounds in the word. No Error: Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...r...i...ck...s” Examiner says “cat,” student says “s...c...a...t”

66. Scoring Rules 7. Articulation and dialect. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference. For example, if the student consistently says /th/ for /s/, i.e., /r/ /e/ /th/ /t/ for “rest,” he or she should be given credit for correct segmentation. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student's responses and any prior knowledge you have of his/her speech patterns. No Error: Examiner says “rest,” student says “r…e…th…t”

67. Scoring Rules 8. Sound elongation. The student may elongate the individual sounds and run them together as long as it is clear he or she is aware of each sound individually. For example, if the student says, “rrrrrreeeeesssstttt,” he or she would receive credit for 4 phonemes produced correctly, /r/ /e/ /s/ /t/. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student's responses and your prior knowledge of the student’s learning. When in doubt, no credit is given. For example, Examiner says “rest,” student says “rrrrrreeeeesssstttt”

68. Scoring Rules: Errors 9. No segmentation: If the student repeats the entire word, no credit is given for any correct parts. For example, Examiner says “trick,” student says “trick” Examiner says “cat,” student says “cat”

69. Scoring Rules: Errors 10. Incomplete segmentation. The students are given credit for each sound segment produced correctly, even if they have not segmented to the phoneme level. The underline indicates the size of the sound segment. For example: Examiner says “trick,” student says “tr...ick” Examiner says “cat,” student says “c...at”

70. Scoring Rules: Errors 11. Overlapping segmentation: The student receives credit for each different, correct, sound segment of the word. Thus, /tri/ and /ick/ are both different, correct sound segments of “trick.” For example, Examiner says “trick,” student says “tri...ick” Examiner says “cat,” student says “c...cat”

71. Scoring Rules: Errors 12. Omissions: The student does not receive credit for sound segments that are not produced. If student provides the initial sound only, be sure to wait 3 seconds for elaboration. For example, Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...ick” Examiner says “cat,” student says “c”...(3 seconds)

72. Scoring Rules: Errors 13. Segment mispronunciation: The student does not receive credit for sound segments that are mispronounced. For example, there is no /ks/ sound in “trick.” Examiner says “trick,” student says “t...r...i...ks” Examiner says “cat,” student says “b...a...t”

76. Benchmark Goals PSF Kindergarten

77. Benchmark Goals PSF First Grade

80. Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)

81. Materials Student copy of probe Practice items (“sim” and “lut” page) Examiner scoring sheet Clipboard Stopwatch Red Pencil or Pen

82. Administration Directions Look at this word (point to the first word on the practice probe). It’s a make-believe word. Watch me read the word: /s/ /i/ /m/ “sim” (point to each letter then run your finger fast beneath the whole word). I can say the sounds of the letters, /s/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or I can read the whole word “sim” (run your finger fast beneath the whole word). Your turn to read a make-believe word. Read this word the best you can (point to the word “lut”). Make sure you say any sounds you know.

83. Correction Procedure

84. Student Copy 4. Place the student copy of the probe in front of the child. Here are some more make-believe words (point to the student probe). Start here (point to the first word) and go across the page (point across the page). When I say, “begin,” read the words the best you can. Point to each letter and tell me the sound or read the whole word. Read the words the best you can. Put your finger on the first word. Ready, begin. 5. Start your stopwatch.

85. Examiner Copy Follow along on the examiner scoring sheet and underline each phoneme the student provides correctly, either in isolation or in the context of the nonsense word. Put a slash (/) over each phoneme read incorrectly or omitted. At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket (]) after the last letter sound provided by the student and say, “Stop.” Facilitator Stop the CD and prepare participants for video clipFacilitator Stop the CD and prepare participants for video clip

86. Scoring Rules 1. Discontinue Rule. If the student does not get any sounds correct in words 1-5, discontinue the task and record a score of zero.

87. Scoring Rules 2. Correct letter sounds. Underline the individual letters for letter sounds produced correctly in isolation and score 1 point for each letter sound produced correctly. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says /t/ /o/ /b/, the individual letters would be underlined with a score of “3.”

88. Scoring Rules 3. Correct words. Use a single underline under multiple letters for correct letter sounds blended together and give credit for each letter sound correspondence produced correctly. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says “tob,” one underline would be used with a score of “3.”

89. Scoring Rules 4. Partially correct words. If a word is partially correct, underline the corresponding letters for letter sounds produced correctly. Put a slash ( ) through the letter if the corresponding letter sound is incorrect. For example, if the word is “tob” and the student says “toab” (with a long o), the letters “t” and “b” would be underlined, and the letter “o” would be slashed with a score of 2.

90. Scoring Rules 5. Repeated sounds. Letter sounds given twice while sounding out the word are given credit only once. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student says /t/ /o/ /ob/, the letter “o” and the letters “ob” are underlined. The student receives only 1 point for the letter sound “o” even though the correct sound was provided twice (a total of 3 for the entire word).

91. Scoring Rules 6. 3 second rule – sound by sound. If the student is providing individual letter sounds and hesitates for 3 seconds on a letter sound, score the letter sound incorrect, provide the correct letter sound, point to the next letter, and say “What sound?” This prompt may be repeated. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student says /t/ (3 seconds), prompt by saying, “/o/.” (Point to b.) “What sound?”

92. Scoring Rules 7. 3 second rule – word by word. If the student is reading words and hesitates for 3 seconds on a word, score the word incorrect, provide the correct word, point to the next word, and say, “What word?” This prompt can be repeated. For example, if stimulus words are “tob dos et” and the student says, “tob” (3 seconds), prompt by saying, “dos.” (Point to et.) “What word?”

93. Scoring Rules 8. Self-correct. If a student makes an error and corrects him/herself within 3 seconds, write “sc” above the letter sound or word and count it as correct.

94. Scoring Rules 9. Sound order – sound by sound. Letter sounds produced in isolation but out of order are scored as correct. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student points to and says, /b/ /o/ /t/, all letters would be underlined, with a score of 3. The purpose of this rule is to give students credit as they are beginning to learn individual letter sound correspondences.

95. Scoring Rules 10. Sound order – word by word. Blended letter sounds must be correct and in the correct place (beginning, middle, end) to receive credit. For example, if stimulus word is “tob” and the student says, “bot,” only the “o” would be correct and in the correct place, for a score of “1.”

96. Scoring Rules 11. Insertions. Insertions are not scored as incorrect. For example, if the stimulus word is “tob” and the student says “stob,” the letters “t,” “o,” and “b” would be underlined and full credit would given for the word with no penalty for the insertion of /s/.

97. Scoring Rules 12. Dialect and articulation. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student’s responses and any prior knowledge you have of his or her speech patterns. For example, a student may regularly substitute /th/ for /s/. If the stimulus word is “sim” and the student says “thim,” the letter “s” would be underlined and credit for a correct-letter sound correspondence would be given.

98. Scoring Rules 13. Skips row. If a student skips an entire row, draw a line through the row and do not count the row in scoring.

99. Benchmark Goals NWF Kindergarten

100. Benchmark Goals NWF First Grade

101. Benchmark Goals NWF Second Grade

103. Facilitator: Introduce video of ORF and direct audience to page in manual and materials that will be needed to practice this measure.Facilitator: Introduce video of ORF and direct audience to page in manual and materials that will be needed to practice this measure.

105. Materials Student copy of passage Examiner scoring sheet Clipboard Stopwatch Red pen/pencil SuzanneSuzanne

106. Directions for Administration 1. Place the reading passage in front of the student. 2. Place the examiner scoring sheet on the clipboard and position it so that the student cannot see what you record.

107. Administration 3. Say these specific directions to the student: When I say “begin,” start reading aloud at the top of the page (point). Read across the page (point). Try to read each word. If you come to a word you don’t know, I’ll tell it to you. Be sure to do your best reading. Ready, begin.

108. Administration 4. Start your stopwatch when the student says the first word of the passage. The title is not counted. If the student fails to say the first word after 3 seconds, say the word and mark it as incorrect, then start your stopwatch. The maximum time for each word is 3 seconds. If the student does not provide the word within 3 seconds, say the word and mark the word as incorrect. Follow along on the examiner scoring sheet. Put a slash ( ) over words read incorrectly. Suzanne says that we will now view a full administration. Say the directions with the examiner.Suzanne says that we will now view a full administration. Say the directions with the examiner.

109. Administration At the end of 1 minute, place a bracket ( ] ) after the last word provided by the student and say “Stop.” Record the total number of words read correctly on the bottom of the scoring sheet by counting the total number of words the student attempted (up to the bracket). Then count the number of errors made. Subtract errors from total number of words attempted. Result is number of words read correctly. Example: 86 (words attempted) -5 (errors) 81 (words read correctly)

110. Administration 8. Score reading passages immediately after administration. 9. If the student reads fewer than 10 words correct on the first passage, record the score on the front cover and do not administer passages 2 and 3. If the student reads 3 passages, record the middle score on the front cover. If the student reads the entire passage in less than 1 minute, prorate the passage score with this formula: 60 X Words Read Correctly = Words Read Correctly Seconds

111. Scoring Rules 1. Discontinue rule. If the student does not read any words correctly in the first row, discontinue the task and record a score of “0.” 2. Hesitate or struggle with words. If a student hesitates or struggles with a word for 3 seconds, tell the student the word and mark the word as incorrect. If necessary, indicate for the student to continue with the next word.

112. Scoring Rules 3. Hyphenated words. Hyphenated words count as two words if both parts can stand alone as individual words. Hyphenated words count as one word if either part cannot stand alone as an individual word.

113. Scoring Rules 4. Numerals. Numerals must be read correctly in the context of the sentence.

114. Scoring Rules 5. Mispronounced words. A word is scored as correct if it is pronounced correctly in the context of the sentence. If the word is mispronounced in the context, it is scored as an error.

115. Scoring Rules 6. Self-corrections. A word is scored as correct if it is initially mispronounced but the student self corrects within 3 seconds. Mark “sc” above the word and score as correct.

116. Scoring Rules 7. Repeated words. Words that are repeated are not scored as incorrect and are ignored in scoring.

117. Scoring Rules 8. Articulation and dialect. The student is not penalized for imperfect pronunciation due to dialect, articulation, or second language interference. For example, if the student consistently says /th/ for /s/, and reads “rest” as “retht,” he or she should be given credit for a correct word. This is a professional judgment and should be based on the student’s responses and any prior knowledge you have of his/her speech patterns.

118. Scoring Rules 9. Inserted words. Inserted words are ignored and not counted as errors. The student also does not get additional credit for inserted words. If the student frequently inserts extra words, note the pattern at the bottom of the scoring page.

119. Scoring Rules 10. Omitted words. Omitted words are scored as incorrect.

120. Scoring Rules 11. Word order. All words that are read correctly but in the wrong order are scored as incorrect.

121. Scoring Rules 12. Abbreviations. Abbreviations should be read in the way you would normally pronounce the abbreviation in conversation. For example, TV could be read as “teevee” or “television” but Mr. would be read as “mister.”

122. Transparency 7.9 SCRIPT: The prorating formula is familiar to you because we used it in calculating the Initial Sounds Fluency scores, and we used it with the student who finished the phoneme segmentation measure before a minute had elapsed. This same formula is used if the student finishes a story before the one-minute passes. Transparency 7.9 SCRIPT: The prorating formula is familiar to you because we used it in calculating the Initial Sounds Fluency scores, and we used it with the student who finished the phoneme segmentation measure before a minute had elapsed. This same formula is used if the student finishes a story before the one-minute passes.

123. Benchmark Goals ORF First Grade

124. Benchmark Goals ORF Second Grade

125. Benchmark Goals ORF Third Grade

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