Chapter 3, THE ATMOSPHERE Composition Vertical Structure Depletion of the Ozone Layer Air Pollution Weather and Climate Coriolis effect. Page 49. The Environmental spheres. p. 6/7. Air. Hydrosphere. Water. Atmosphere. Biosphere. Lithosphere. Green stuff. Land.
Chapter 3, THE ATMOSPHERE
Depletion of the Ozone Layer
Weather and Climate
The Environmental spheres
98% of its mass is concentrated at very low altitudes, within 26 km or 16 mi of sea level. Pressure?
* Without atmosphere, Earth would experience t extremes as 200 deg. C (500 deg. F) between day and night.
An inert gas
CO2- 0.037%- an increased burning of fossil fuels for the last century
Ozone- in the ozone layer- an absorber of ultraviolet solar radiation
Water Vapor- invisible, in moist surface areas (tropical oceans), deserts?
Particulates or Aerosols- solid and liquid particles- dust, ash, smoke, soil, ice, water
Ozonosphere- between 9-30 miles
Ozonosphere lies between 15-50km (9-30 mi) above the surface.
It filters the UV energy from the sun.
Ozone hole/depletion over Antarctica
Ozone in the upper atmosphere is destroyed by chemical reaction to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other gases- products of pollution. On the poles- no big cities but :
(1) the circulation patterns move from the tropics the polluted air to the poles and back.
(2) Austral winter- S. Pole- dark and cold, ozone is trapped with pollutants; Spring- the solar radiation dissolves the vortex and the ozone.
(3) Ice clouds in the stratosphere create ozone- destructive reaction.
Growing Ozone Hole over Antarctica
Text pg. 21-24, 95-6, 290-1
CO2 & water vapor (greenhouse gases) impede the escape of long-wave R by absorbing it and then radiating it back to Earth.
Increased skin cancers
Maureen Reagan dies at age 60
LITTLE OZONE ANNIE
Hot sunny, 105° F
- A number of gases react to UV radiation in strong sunlight
BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS
One degree Fahrenheit rise in temp. record of the entire earth’s surface during the 20th Century
Thermal Power Plant burning fossil fuels
We are evaporating our coal mines into the air” --Svante Arhenius
HIGHEST GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS, 1989
This is your planet on greenhouse gases
Heat wave deaths in Chicago Midwest = 529 but as high as 739 = 1,177 died
Average number of heat deaths per year is…
O’Hare max. temp.104ºF, 2nd highest on record, had a heat index of maxing out at 119ºF. Dew point temps. were very high in the 70’s and 80’s . Midway, another airport, reached 106ºF with a heat index of 125ºF.
8/1/99 Bags of ice help cool chickens during a show at a county fair in Nebraska.
7/31/99 HEAT STRICKEN. A police officer gives water to Mary Prowls, 81, after he discovered her overcome by heat in her home.
Heat Wave, 1999
Deaths since 7/19 93 8/1191, 80 in Illinois
LA has 20 days over 90 F Chicago has 21 days
Heat deaths: Chirac pledges action CNN Thursday, August 21, 2003
PARIS, France—French President Jacques Chirac has promised to remedy defects in his country’s health service in the wake of the heat wave that killed thousands of mainly elderly people.
The French funeral directors association said 10 418 had died during the first three weeks of August. The projected death toll for the month would be 13 632.
Temporary, air conditioned morgue
Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis, 1792-1843
Ch. 5, p. 142
Cold Labrador Current