Memory
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Memory. Dr. Urooj Sadiq . Memory: Key Terms. Memory : Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding : Converting information into a useable form Storage : Holding this information in memory Retrieval : Taking memories out of storage.

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Memory

Memory

Dr. Urooj Sadiq


Memory key terms

Memory: Key Terms

Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information

Encoding: Converting information into a useable form

Storage: Holding this information in memory

Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage


Stages of memory

Stages of Memory

  • Sensory Memory

  • Short-Term Memory

  • Long-Term Memory


Sensory memory

Sensory Memory

Sensory Memory/Sensory register: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; until it has been processed the first stage of memory

Icon: A brief mental image or visual representation

Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system


Short term memory stm

Short-Term Memory (STM)

Short-Term Memory (STM): second stage of memory; stores small amounts of information briefly; very sensitive to interruption or interference

Phonetically: Storing information by sound;

Memory Span: STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once

Chunk: Meaningful units of information in memory


Memory

Short Term Memory

Also called Working Memory

Whatever information is in conscious awareness. Any information that we are remembering or manipulating occurs in STM.


Memory

Short Term Memory

7

2

+

-

A typical individual’s digit span


Storing info in stm

Storing Info in STM

Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information in STM

Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM

Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM; Good way to transfer STM information into LTM


Memory

Encoding Tips

Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):

XCI AFB IVC RDN AIB MQZ


Memory

Encoding Tips

Chunking: Try and remember the following string of letters (in order):


Long term memory ltm

Long-Term Memory (LTM)

  • Long-Term Memory (LTM)

    • Storing information relatively permanently

    • Stored on basis of meaning and importance


Types of long term memory

Types of Long-Term Memory

  • Explicit (declarative) memory (facts): factual knowledge & personal experiences

    • Semantic Memory: Impersonal facts and everyday knowledge

    • Episodic Memory: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places

      Implicit (procedural) Memory (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills, e.g., driving


Memory organizational chart

Memory Organizational Chart


Loss of memory

Loss of Memory

  • Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new explicit long-term memories for events following brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to hippocampus

  • Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for the past, especially espisodic memory. After brain trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia for events occurring just before.

  • Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that hippocampus is not fully developed.


Serial position effect

Serial Position Effect

  • Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information

  • Serial Position Effect:

  • Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list

  • Primacy effect: easier to remember items first in a list than items in the middle, because first items are studied the most

  • Recency effect: easier to remember items last in a list than items in the middle, because the last items were last studied


A little demonstration serial position effect

A Little Demonstration: Serial Position Effect

See in class!


Graphic stages of memory

Graphic: Stages of Memory


Comparison of three stages of memory

Sensory

Large capacity

Contains sensory information

Very brief retention (1/2 sec for visual; 2 secs for auditory)

Short Term

Limited capacity

Acoustically encoded

Brief storage (up to 30 seconds w/o rehearsal)

Conscious processing of information

Comparison of Three Stages of Memory

  • Long Term

  • Unlimited capacity

  • Semantically encoded

  • Storage presumed permanent

  • Information highly organized


Encoding information into memory

Encoding Information into Memory


Types of processing

Types of Processing

  • Automatic processing: memory processing that occurs subconsciously and does not require attention.

    Example: How many of you can sing the theme song for Drama humsafar? How many learned it on purpose?

  • Effortful processing: memory processing that occurs consciously and requires attention

    Example: How many of you can name all of the divisions of the nervous system? How many learned it on purpose?


Levels of processing theory

Levels-of-Processing Theory

  • Levels-of-processing theory: a theory of information processing in memory that assumes that semantic processing leads to better long-term memory

  • Physical memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it is spelt, b – i – r – t – h – d – a – y

  • Acoustic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it sounds

  • Semantic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by its meaning, “a day of joy and celebration, to remember the anniversary of one’s birth.”


Factors affecting encoding

Factors Affecting Encoding

  • Encoding specificity principle: the principle that the environmental cues present at the time information is encoded into long-term memory serve as the best retrieval cues for the information.

  • State-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same.

  • Mood-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s mood state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same.

  • Mood-congruence effect: long-term memory retrieval is best for experiences and information that are congruent with a person’s current mood.


Retrieving information from memory

Retrieving Information from Memory


Measuring retrieval

Measuring Retrieval

  • Recall: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues.

  • Recognition: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues.

  • Relearning: the savings method of measuring long-term memory retrieval, in which the measure is the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time.


Example recall versus recognition

Example: Recall versus Recognition

Example of Recall:

The process of storing information in memory is called ______________.

Example of Recognition:

The process of storing information in memory is called:

a. rehearsalb. deep processing

c. encodingd. retrieval


Forgetting due to encoding failure

Forgetting Due toEncoding Failure?

Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory


Forgetting due to decay in storage

Forgetting Due toDecay in Storage?

Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in the brain

The “Use it or lose it” theory!


Forgetting due to interference

Forgetting Due toInterference?

Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering

Proactive interference: old information interferes with the retrieval of newly-stored information

Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes with the retrieval of previously-stored information


Retroactive vs proactive interference

Retroactive vs. Proactive Interference


Forgetting due to loss of cues

Forgetting Due toLoss of Cues?

Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long-term memory.

This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so)


Improving memory

Improving Memory


Some ways to improve memory

Some Ways to Improve Memory

Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress

Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning

Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently)

Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize

Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering


More ways to improve memory

More Ways to Improve Memory

Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem

Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters)

Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a series of short sections

Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while remembering the middle of the list

Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery


Yet more ways to improve memory

Yet More Ways to Improve Memory

  • Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods

  • Massed Practice: Studying for long periods without rest periods

    • Lack of sleep decreases retention; sleep aids consolidation

    • Hunger decreases retention


A last method to help memory

A Last Method to Help Memory

  • Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid

    • Using mental pictures

    • Making things meaningful

    • Making information familiar

    • Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations


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