Factors that affect die casting die life
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Factors That Affect Die Casting Die Life. Yulong Zhu Ryobi Die Casting Inc. (USA) David Schwam, Xuejun Zhu, John Wallace Case Western Reserve University. Design Related. Materials Related. Sharp Features Surface Finish Internal Cooling Lines Location. Steel Composition

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Factors That Affect Die Casting Die Life

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Factors that affect die casting die life

Factors That Affect Die Casting Die Life

Yulong Zhu

Ryobi Die Casting Inc. (USA)

David Schwam, Xuejun Zhu, John Wallace

Case Western Reserve University


Factors that affect die casting die life

Design Related

Materials Related

  • Sharp Features

  • Surface Finish

  • Internal Cooling Lines Location

  • Steel Composition

  • Steel Processing

  • Heat Treatment

Process Related

  • Die Preheating

  • Temperature Cycle

  • Lubricant Spray


Factors that affect die casting die life

Background

Many variables, including these listed on the previous

slide, act simultaneously to affect die life. In a production

environment it is difficult to separate these variables

and to determine their relative weight.

Objective

Quantify the effect of die lubricant application on die

temperature and die life: timing, duration and pressure

using the immersion test.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Specimen and equipment


Factors that affect die casting die life

Specimen for temperature measurement


Factors that affect die casting die life

Chemical Composition of H13 Steel


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical temperature recording without any spray

(36s cycle time, no spray)


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical temperature recording with 3 seconds spray

(36s cycle time, 60 psi)

Spray


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical temperature recording with 8 seconds spray

(36s cycle time, 45 psi)

Spray


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical temperature recording with 13 seconds spray

(36s cycle time, 45 psi)


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical Temperature Cycle with 30 Seconds Cycle Time

Note: min. temperature 370oF

30s cycle time: 3s traveling down, 7s immersing, 2s traveling up, 14s dwelling, 3s spraying and 1s air blowing


Factors that affect die casting die life

Typical Temperature Cycle with 36 Seconds Cycle Time

Note: min. temperature 300oF

36s cycle time: 3s traveling down, 7s immersing, 2s traveling upper, 14s dwelling,

3s spraying, 1s air blowing and another 6 dwelling


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Spraying Time on Cracking Behavior

Longer spraying times depress the lows in cycle temperature,

while increasing the ΔT (=Tmax-Tmin), causing more cracking.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Spraying Pressure on Cracking Behavior

Higher spraying pressures can overcome the vapor blanket at

higher temperatures, increasing the cooling and the temperature

extremes. More cracking can be expected.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Cycle Time on Cracking Behavior

Longer cycle time leads to more cracking if the temperature drops more.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Chemical Composition on Cracking Behavior Die Steels

Die steels with slightly lower vanadium, silicon and carbon but higher molybdenum content seem to provide longer die life in many applications.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Chemical Composition on Basic Properties

All modern die steels, when properly processed, will offer satisfactory performance in “routine” applications. Some will outperform others in demanding applications. The steel with the best combination of properties for the specific application will provide best die life.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Quench Cooling Rate on Microstructure

Fast cooling rates(1,2) produce martensitic structures while avoiding

grain boundary carbides and pearlite.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Quench Cooling Rate on Microstructure

and Fracture Toughness


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Quench Cooling Rate on Cracking Behavior

Faster cooling rates during quenching provide better thermal fatigue resistance.


Factors that affect die casting die life

Effect of Hardness on Cracking Behavior

Higher hardness usually provides better thermal fatigue resistance.


Factors that affect die casting die life

  • CONCLUSIONS

  • Excessive spray will significantly reduce the die life.

  • Longer cycle time led to more cracking if the temperature dropped more.

  • Chemical composition of the steel can affect die life. Die steels with slightly lower vanadium, silicon and carbon but higher molybdenum content seem to provide longer die life in many applications.

  • Proper heat treatment including optimized austenitizing temperature and time, fast quench cooling rate and higher hardness usually provide better thermal fatigue resistance.

  • Whenever practical, thermal control by internal cooling is preferable to aggressive external spraying from a die life standpoint.


Factors that affect die casting die life

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research work is supported by DOE funds provided through by ATI SMARRT program. NADCA and the members of Die Materials Committee approved this work and provided background. This work was performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University. The contribution of DOE, ATI, NADCA, and Case Western Reserve University are hereby acknowledged.

This publication was prepared with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-FC36-04GO14230.


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