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Creativity in the community languages classroom. ESRC Research Seminar Series Complementary Schools: Research, Policy and Practice Seminar 4: Social inclusion and links with mainstream schools 20 th April 2010 Goldsmiths, University of London http://www.gold.ac.uk/clcl/.

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Creativity in the community languages classroom
Creativity in the community languages classroom

ESRC Research Seminar Series

Complementary Schools: Research, Policy and Practice

Seminar 4: Social inclusion and links with mainstream schools

20th April 2010

Goldsmiths, University of London

http://www.gold.ac.uk/clcl/

Jim Anderson and Yu-Chiao Chung (Goldsmiths, University of London)


Overview
Overview

Background

Definitions, theoretical perspectives and key questions

Research design and methodology

Data analysis and tentative findings

Implications of the study for policy and pedagogy


1 background
1. Background

  • 2 year project (2009-2010) funded by the Nuffield

    Foundation with both research and teacher

    professional development aims

  • Builds on previous Goldsmiths project to produce

    Curriculum Guides for Arabic, Mandarin Chinese,

    Panjabi, Tamil and Urdu also funded by Nuffield

    (published by CILT, the National Centre for

    Languages in 2007)


NACCCE definition in ‘All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education’ (1999) :

‘Imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are original and of value’

  • Seeing new or other possibilities including

    different linguistic/cultural perspectives

    (Craft: ‘possibility thinking’, making links)

    (bilingual brains predisposed to flexibility of thought,

    translanguaging, navigating different cultural realities)

Note: NACCCE definition informs interpretation of creativity in the current National Curriculum at KS1-2 and KS3-4

http://curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/index.aspx


2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives

and key questions

2. Actively participating in a process of generating, shaping and evaluating ideas (collaboration, agency, ownership)

(bilingual learners able to draw on full range of their linguistic/ cultural experience)

3. Personal investment and self-expression (in

relation to the arts in particular)

(bilingual learners able to explore and reshape identity)

It is through the arts in all their forms that young people experiment with and try to articulate their deepest feelings and their own sense of cultural identity and belonging.

(NACCE, 1999: 79)


2 definitions theoretical perspectives and key questions
2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives and key questions

4. Pursuing meaningful goals and presenting/performing to others (audience, voice, empowerment)

(bilingual learners able to affirm their full identities thereby building confidence and self-esteem / challenge to marginalised status of community languages)

Note: creativity a ‘culturally saturated’ concept

The multiperspectivalism that fosters creativity also invites people to recognise that every conception of truth exists within a cultural context that frames it and gives it meaning.

(Raina, 2004)


2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives

and key questions

Perspectives from theories of second language teaching and literacy which emphasise:

  • learning as a situated, social process of co-construction or

    interthinking (Mercer, 2000), and participation in

    communities of practice (Lave and Wenger, 1991) [socio-

    cultural view]

  • engaging and cognitively challenging content and tasks

    (Byram, 1997; Ellis, 2003; Coyle, Hood and Marsh, 2010)

  • the importance, in particular for bilingual learners, of tasks which

    provide scope for learners to draw on all aspects of their knowledge

    and experience and allow them both to explore and affirm their full

    identities (Cummins, 2006; Datta, 2007; Kenner and Hickey, 2008).


2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives

and key questions

  • holistic approaches which recognise affective as well as

  • cognitive approaches to learning including the

  • importance of learner ‘agency’ (Stevick, 1996Arnold,

  • 1999)

  • potential for drawing on ‘funds of knowledge’ in the

  • home and community in ways which support the

  • development of syncretic literacies (Moll et al.,

  • 1992; Gregory et al., 2004).

  • need to re-evaluate pedagogies for community/ heritage

  • language learners (Peyton, Ranard and McGinnis,

  • 2001; Hornberger, 2005; Anderson, 2008 and 2009;

  • Brinton, Kagan and Bauckus, 2008; Blackledge and Creese,

  • 2010)


2 definitions theoretical perspectives and key questions1
2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives and key questions

Key questions:

What kinds of cultural artefact/skill can be used as a stimulus for creative learning activities in CL/HL classes?

How can these activities support different aspects of learning for children from bilingual backgrounds: (multi-) literacy development, intercultural understanding, cognitive skills, personal and social development?

How can parents and other community members contribute to activities based around creative works in mainstream and complementary schools?


2 definitions theoretical perspectives and key questions2
2. Definitions, theoretical perspectives and key questions

  • What pedagogical approaches in relation to creative work are appropriate for different languages, learners and settings?

  • What are the implications for the professional development of teachers?


3. Research design and main strands within the data

  • Ethnographic approach (qualitative data, interpretive methods)

  • Fieldwork in 4 London schools where Arabic, Mandarin, Panjabi and Tamil are taught: 2 mainstream (one primary, one secondary) and 2 voluntary, community based ‘complementary’ schools

  • Data collected on series of 3 tasks involving creativity carried out in each of 4 settings



Data sources (video / audio recordings and photos; fieldnotes; semi-structured interviews; teaching plans and resources; outcomes of students’ work)

Ethnographic analysis (interpretive approach; collaborative, reflexive process involving triangulation and progressive focussing)

3. Research design and main strands within the data


Main strands within the data:

Language and literacy

Cognition

Intercultural understanding

Personal and social development

Pedagogy and professional development

3. Research design and main strands within the data


Language and Literacy

1.Language learning more meaningful, enjoyable and more deeply embedded when it arises from a genuine communicative need.

2. Enhanced communication skills and confidence through collaboration and presentation of work to an audience

3. Improved understanding of how cultural meanings are communicated through different media

4.Students backgrounds can be an important resource for learning in particular through bringing different linguistic and cultural perspectives

3. Research design and emerging strands within the data


3 research design and emerging strands within the data
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data

Language and Literacy

The students have boosted their confidence and they are more able to present their work in front of audience.

(Luma, teacher, SBS)

Aran, one of the boys who was in charge of the dance, used to hesitate to speak Panjabi. I always ask him to be brave and speak. But now he is confident in speaking Panjabi because of the drama. He also said that he cannot believe that he could speak proper Panjabi and even acted in a drama. (Iqbal, teacher, RACP)


Girls’ school

Mainly non-background learners

Very diverse backgrounds (including Bangladesh, Egypt, Jamaica, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Pakistan)

High proportion of Muslim faith

Task 1 linked to work on countries, colours, flags

Year 7 Arabic class at Sarah Bonnell School (Newham)


The line at the right hand side means “you are my best city and each time I go there, I feel my soul very pleased.

The line at the top left means “in Western Arabic countries, the mosques and the restaurants are the best.”

The design of the gate is a very famous Islamic design. It is used commonly in buildings and mosques. The common colours are bluish green, red and orange.

Our piece of art is about Morocco. We liked its fascinating designs which can be seen on its buildings, dishes and even clothes. Hajar is from there and she told me a lot about it.

We tried to represent, in our piece of art, a beautiful gate in Marrakesh ( بوابة مراكش). It got a beautiful design. We also drew two women with the traditional Moroccan dress ( الزي المغربي ).

Hajar also wrote few words to describe her love to Morocco (her country). By Elham and Hajar


The students mixed flags together in this piece of work. The word in the middle means Allah and the two small words next to it are Arabic (left) countries (right). At the top right corner, it is the flag of Egypt; the bottom right corner is the flag of Iraq; the top left corner is the flag of Pakistan.

Our piece of art is about Arab countries. In our piece of art we used lots of colours. In the middle, we wrote the name of Allah (God) as it represents the religion of the majority of Arabs and ourselves.

We liked to show a couple of countries instead of one as we thought that it will make the piece of art nice and that no one would think to use them like this. This would make our piece of art stand out and be different than the others!!

The colours we used were white ( أبيض ), yellow ( أصفر ), red ( أحمر ) and lots of others!! By Anisa, Mariam


3 research design and emerging strands within the data1
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data The word in the middle means Allah and the two small words next to it are Arabic (left) countries (right). At the top right corner, it is the flag of Egypt; the bottom right corner is the flag of Iraq; the top left corner is the flag of Pakistan.

B. Cognition

1. Collaborative work on creative activities can stimulate imagination, hypothesising and generation of ideas

2. Rich context and links made between different areas of the curriculum lead to greater engagement and depth of understanding

3. Greater awareness of how bilingual strategies can be used to support communication in different situations

4. Development of independent research skills


Tamil language and south Indian dance classes at Downderry Primary School (Lewisham)

  • After school classes for approx. 40 children aged 6-10

  • Mainly first generation

  • Cross-curricular Tamil language and South Indian dance

  • project


3 research design and emerging strands within the data2
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data Primary School

Cognition (Independent research skills)

I have to research about the dance and other stuff…I searched on the Internet and went to local library. They have quite a few books about this. I learnt a lot of new things that I didn't know before.

(Student, RACP)

It is because the way I learn as well. If I research something by myself, I tend to learn it better and remember it longer than someone just tells me. (Student, RACP)


C. Primary School Intercultural Understanding

Extended knowledge and understanding of the

target culture

2. Improved understanding of different cultural perspectives and how these can be reshaped in personal ways.

3. Enhanced awareness of spiritual and moral dimensions and their relationship to language, culture and creativity

3. Research design and emerging strands within the data


3 research design and emerging strands within the data3
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data Primary School

Intercultural Understanding

I think the children also have deeper understanding of the traditional Indian culture. The drama also taught them what a family could be like in Indian society. Maybe they will come across the same problem in the future.

(Iqbal, Teacher, RACP)


London mandarin school hackney
London Mandarin School (Hackney) Primary School

  • Mandarin Chinese complementary school running on

  • Sunday afternoons (1.00 – 4.00)

  • Yr 1 class of approx. 30 children (aged 5-7)

  • Mainly second or third generation


Year 1 class at London Mandarin School Primary School

(5-7 year olds)

Homework project linked to topic on seasons.


3 research design and emerging strands within the data4
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data Primary School

Personal and social development

Engagement in creative activities, where learners are encouraged to take responsibility and feel a sense of ownership can develop confidence and self-esteem

Significant potential to draw on funds of knowledge in the home and community


Rathmore asian community project greenwich
Rathmore Asian Community Project Primary School (Greenwich)

  • Panjabi complementary attended by 40-50 students aged between 6-17

  • Mainly 3rd or 4th generation


“I enjoyed doing this activity Primary School

very much because getting to

know the kids and getting to

work with them.”

“I have learnt how to organise

other people, myself and to

organise the whole

performance. I have leanrt

how to help the children

without making them feel

bad…”

Confidence and empowerment, agency, ownership


Drawing on ‘funds of knowledge’ in the home Primary School

and community (RACP)



3 research design and emerging strands within the data5
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data community (LMS)

E. Pedagogy and professional development

  • Significant shift involved in teacher-learner roles

  • Importance of collaborative, process oriented approach

  • Need to provide appropriate support (scaffolding)

    (ref. Tamil SoW and resources, Our Languages: http://www.ourlanguages.org.uk/)

  • Potential benefits of cross-curricular approaches

  • Importance of presentation/performance to an audience

  • Value of involving parents /community members


3 research design and emerging strands within the data6
3. Research design and emerging strands within the data community (LMS)

I thought I was going to take control of everything because they needed help. But all of them turned out to say "No, we want to do it in our way." I gave up the sheets I prepared; I put them aside. They started to control me instead of me controlling them…It is a good feeling that they want to learn! It is not that I want to teach them and want them to learn. They want to learn!

It is hard because you get used to the way that you stand in front of the whiteboard and give them instructions. Then, listen, repeat and write. This is the way we used to learn and the way we used to teach. And to shift from this to that, it is a little bit that you are not sure. I don't want to see that all of them can reach the top that I want them to be. But majority is, which is a really good thing. (Luma, Teacher, SBS)


Creativity can: community (LMS)

Provide conditions for a dynamic interaction with

heritage and with the reality of living with different

cultures (intercultural understanding, inclusion,

personalisation, identity)

Support and extend children’s multiliteracy

development (literacy, cognition, intercultural

understanding, translanguaging)

Empower learners and promote active citizenship (student voice, personalisation, inclusion)

5. Implications of the study for policy and pedagogy


5 implications of the study for policy and pedagogy
5. Implications of the study for policy and pedagogy community (LMS)

  • Make language learning more meaningful and engaging and contribute to the development of more appropriate pedagogies for CL/HL learners (context, purpose, genuine communication, personalisation, raising achievement)

  • Facilitate home and community involvement (personalisation, community cohesion)

    Note: Research report and professional development resource to

    be mounted on Goldsmiths Centre for Language, Culture and

    Learning website.

    http://www.gold.ac.uk/clcl/


Final thought
Final thought community (LMS)

‘ … in the UK … the school curriculum does not fully reflect the creative achievements of all the cultural groups it serves. So many young people lack role models and learning materials with which they can readily identify. Disaffection can result. How creativity is currently defined and developed in UK education and training tends to reflect a mainly white, Western approach, rather than our diverse society. This not only puts people from minority ethnic groups at a disadvantage, it is everyone’s loss’

(Fryer, 2004: 1)

(Marilyn Fryer, The Creativity Centre Educational Trust)


References
References community (LMS)

Anderson, J. (2008) Towards integrated second language teaching pedagogy for foreign and community/heritage languages in multilingual Britain. In Language Learning Journal, 36:1, 79-89.

Anderson, J. (2009) Relevance of CLIL in developing pedagogies for minority language teaching. In Marsh, D., Meehisto, P., Wolff, D., Aliaga, R., Asiakinen, T., Frigols-Martin, M. J., Hughes, S., Lange, G. (eds) CLIL Practice: Perspectives from the Field, pp. 124-132, CCN: University of Jyväskylä (Finland).

http://www.icpj.eu/

Arnold, J. (ed) (1999) Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: CUP.

Banaji, S., Burn, A. and Buckingham, D. (2006) The rhetorics of creativity: a review of the literature. (A report for Creative Partnerships). London: Arts Council England.

http://www.creative-partnerships.com/data/files/rhetorics-of-creativity-12.pdf

Blackledge, A. and Creese, A. (2010) Multilingualism: A Critical Perspective. London: Continuum.

Brinton, D., Kagan, O. and Bauckus, S (eds) (2008) Heritage language education: A new field emerging. New York: Routledge.

Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2010) CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: CUP.

Craft, A. (2005) Creativity in Schools:  Tensions and Dilemmas. Oxford: Routledge.

Cummins, J.: 2006, Identity Texts: The Imaginative Construction of Self through Multiliteracies Pedagogy. In O. Garcia, T. Skutnabb-Kangas, M. Torres-Guzmán (Eds) Imagined Multilingual Schools: Languages in Education and Glocalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, pp 51-68.

Datta, M. (ed.) (2007) (2nd edn.) Bilinguality and Literacy: Principles and Practice. London: Continuum


References community (LMS)

Ellis, R. (2003) Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: OUP.

Fryer, M. (2004) Creativity and cultural diversity. Leeds: The Creativity Centre Educational Trust.

Gregory, E., Long, S. & Volk, D. (eds) (2004) Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers and Communities. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Kenner, C. & Hickey, T.M. (eds) (2008) Multilingual Europe: Diversity and Learning. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mercer, N. (2000) Words and Minds: How we use language to think together. London: Routledge.

Moll, L.C., Amanti, C., Neff, D. and Gonzalez, N. (1992) Funds of knowledge for teaching: using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice 31 (2),132-141.

NACCCE(1999) All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education.

http://www.cypni.org.uk/downloads/alloutfutures.pdf

Peyton, J., Ranard, D. and McGinnis, S. (eds) (2001) Heritage Languages in America: Preserving a National Resource. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Raina, M.K. (2004) I shall be many: the garland-making perspective on creativity and cultural diversity. In M. Fryer (ed.) Creativity and Cultural Diversity. Leeds: The Creativity Centre Educational Trust.

Stevick, E. (1996) Memory, Meaning and Method: A View of Language Teaching. (2nd ed.) Boston: Heinle and Heinle.


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