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Mini Quiz. 1. Data that derive from the researcher's direct observation of what the subject does in some predefined context are a. L data. b. I data. c. S data. d. B data. Mini Quiz.

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Mini quiz
Mini Quiz

1. Data that derive from the researcher's direct observation of what the subject does in some predefined context are

  • a. L data.

  • b. I data.

  • c. S data.

  • d. B data.


Mini quiz1
Mini Quiz

  • 2. _____________________ ask a respondent to interpret a meaningless, ambiguous stimulus in order to access the inner workings of the person's mind.

  • a. Rationally constructed tests

  • b. Projective tests

  • c. Factor analytic tests

  • d. Objective tests


Mini quiz2
Mini Quiz

  • 3. The basis of the _____________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.

  • a. rational

  • b. empirical

  • c. philosophical

  • d. factor analytic


Mini quiz3
Mini Quiz

4. For any rationally constructed personality scale to work, it must satisfy which of the following conditions?

  • a. The items on the form must all be valid indicators of what the tester is trying to measure.

  • b. The person who completes the form must be willing to accurately report his or her self-assessment.

  • c. Each item must mean the same thing to the person who fills out the form as it did to the psychologist who wrote it.

  • d. All of the above conditions must be satisfied for the scale to work.


Mini quiz4
Mini Quiz

  • 5) Which one?

  • A) B

  • B) D

  • C) A

  • D) C


Basic steps
Basic Steps

  • 1) Create a test

  • 2) Validate the test

  • 3) Use the test







Positive correlation3
Positive Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .64




Negative correlation2
Negative Correlation

.

.

.

r = - .85

.

.



Zero correlation1
Zero Correlation

.

.

.

.

.

r = .00


Correlation coefficient
Correlation Coefficient

  • The sign of a correlation (+ or -) only tells you the direction of the relationship

  • The value of the correlation only tells you about the size of the relationship (i.e., how close the scores are to the regression line)



Practice
Practice

  • Do you think the following variables are positively, negatively or uncorrelated to each other?

  • Alcohol consumption & Driving skills

  • Miles of running a day & speed in a foot race

  • Height & GPA

  • Forearm length & foot length


Interpreting a correlation
Interpreting a Correlation

  • What does it actually mean in “people words”?

  • Binomial Effect Size Display (BESD)


BESD

  • 200 subjects (all sick)

  • Drug given to 100 of them

  • At the end:

  • 100 live and 100 die

  • If the effect of the drug was .00 – what does that mean?


BESD

When r = .00


BESD

  • 200 subjects (all sick)

  • Drug given to 100 of them

  • At the end:

  • 100 live and 100 die

  • What if the drugs effect was .40 – what does that look like?


BESD

When r = .40


BESD

Thus, if you take the drug you have a 70% chance of living compared to only 30% if you do not take the drug!

When r = .40


BESD

  • How to compute:

  • 200 subjects (all sick)

  • Drug given to 100 of them

  • At the end:

  • 100 live and 100 die

  • Drugs effect was .30


BESD

When r = .30




1) Drop the decimal (30)

2) Divide by 2 (30 / 2 = 15)

3) Add to number in upper left cell (50 + 15 = 65)

BESD

When r = .30


BESD

When r = .30


BESD

When r = .30


BESD

When r = .30


Besd practice
BESD Practice

  • Create BESDs for the following

  • r = .10

  • r = .55

  • r = .80


Correlations
Correlations

  • Small = .10

  • Medium = .30

  • Large = .50


Basic steps1
Basic Steps

  • 1) Create a test

  • 2) Validate the test

  • 3) Use the test


Basic steps2
Basic Steps

  • 1) Create a test

  • 2) Validate the test

  • 3) Use the test


Validating a test
Validating a Test

  • Is a test measuring what it is suppose to measure?

    • Not a YES or NO answer

  • Types of Validity

  • 1) Predictive

  • 2) Concurrent

  • 3) Content

  • 4) Construct


Predictive and concurrent
Predictive and Concurrent

  • Called “Criterion-orientated” validity

  • Does the test predict some type of criterion?

  • Predictive – criterion is in the future

  • Concurrent – criterion is in the present


Content validity
Content Validity

  • Test items represent the entire “universe” of possible items


Group activity
Group Activity

  • What qualities does the trait of extraversion contain?

    • e.g., assertiveness

    • Come up with at least 6 qualities

  • Create one item to measure each quality.


Content validity1
Content Validity

Extraversion


Content validity2
Content Validity

Positive Emotions

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Assertiveness

Activity

Extraversion


Content validity3
Content Validity

Have a lot of fun.

Make friends easily

Positive Emotions

Love large parties

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Love excitement.

Assertiveness

Activity

Take charge.

Am always busy.


Content validity4
Content Validity

  • Not normally established empirically

  • Established by experts in the field


Construct validity
Construct Validity

  • The test actually gauges the personality dimension being measured.

  • How can you do this?

  • First need to determine if its internal structure is correct.


Content validity5
Content Validity

Extraversion


Content validity6
Content Validity

Positive Emotions

Warmth

Gregariousness

Excitement-Seeking

Assertiveness

Activity

Extraversion


Construct validity1
Construct Validity

  • Next, you need to create a “model” of the construct



Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

Extraversion

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height


Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

Nomological Net

Contains both

*Criterion-orientated validity

*Discriminant validity

Extraversion

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height


Reliable

Talking

Risk taker

-.04

.60

.54

Extraversion

.32

.44

.11

Eye-contact

Stimulation

Height


Construct validity2
Construct Validity

  • Uses all types of validity to determine if a test actually gauges the personality dimension being measured

    • There is actually even more than can be done to examine construct validity

      -e.g., “changes over time”

  • Note: you NEVER get a single number that represents “construct validity”


Basic steps3
Basic Steps

  • 1) Create a test

  • 2) Validate the test

  • 3) Use the test


Basic steps4
Basic Steps

  • 1) Create a test

    • Rational Method

    • Projective Tests

    • Factor Analytic Method

    • Empirical Method

    • Combination of Methods

  • 2) Validate the test

    • Predictive

    • Concurrent

    • Content

    • Construct

  • 3) Use the test


What is a trait of personality
What is a trait of personality?

  • A “unit” of measurement

  • Allport presents 8 Criteria that define a personality trait


Traits
Traits

  • 1) A trait has more than nominal existence

  • Traits are real!


Traits1
Traits

  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior

lie

steal

cheat


Traits2
Traits

  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior

lie

steal

Honesty

cheat


Traits3
Traits

  • 2) A trait is more generalized than a behavior

    • There are systems of behaviors

    • Traits my embrace anywhere between 2 to hundreds of behaviors


Traits4
Traits

  • 3) A trait is dynamic

  • A trait CAUSES behavior, it is not just a summary of behavior

lie

steal

YES!

Honesty

cheat


Traits5
Traits

  • 3) A trait is dynamic

  • A trait CAUSES behavior, it is not just a summary of behavior

lie

steal

NO!

Honesty

cheat


Traits6
Traits

  • 4) The existence of a trait my be established empirically or statistically

  • Statistical techniques can be used to examine coherence among behaviors


Traits7
Traits

  • 5) Traits are only relatively independent of each other

  • It will be difficult to isolate “fundamental” traits that are completely independent of each other


Traits8
Traits

  • 6) A trait of personality, psychologically considered, is not the same as a moral quality.


Traits9
Traits

  • 7) Acts, and even habits, that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the non-existence of the trait

  • Not realistic to expect perfect consistency

    • Some traits not important in some people

    • Traits interact with each other within a person

    • Context also determines behavior


Traits10
Traits

  • 8) A trait may be viewed either in the light of the personality which contains it, or in the light of its distribution in the population at large.

  • Some traits are unique and some are universal

  • Can examine either

    • Universal traits across people

    • Unique blends of traits within a person


Using traits to understand behavior
Using Traits to Understand Behavior

  • Different approaches:

  • The Single-Trait Approach

  • The Many-Trait Approach

  • The Essential-Trait Approach

  • The Simultaneous-Trait Approach


The single trait approach
The Single Trait Approach

  • An in-depth research program of a single trait



Add score
Add score

  • Reverse key

  • 2,4,6,8,10,12,14


Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism

  • Historical context

    • Nazi Germany

  • Philosophical roots

    • Fromm

      • To avoid choices people turn their will over to external authorities

      • “I am just following orders”

  • In the 1930s created the “F – Scale”



Authoritarianism


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarianism


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Authoritarianism


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition

Power and toughness


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Projectivity

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness


Authoritarian submission

  • Conventionalism

Authoritarian aggression

Sexual repression

Anti – ‘intraception”

Authoritarianism

Projectivity

Superstition

Destructiveness and cynicism

Power and toughness


Authoritarianism1
Authoritarianism

  • Note how this trait ties together many diverse behaviors

  • Also note how it can explain inconsistencies in behavior

    • A person VERY respectful to a superior may be cruel to those who rank lower


Authoritarianism2
Authoritarianism

  • Over 4,000 articles on this trait!

  • Findings:

  • No relation between authoritarianism and political party (note: communism findings)

  • Note: not conservatism, but pseudoconservatism

    • e.g., taxes abolished, no trials, etc.


Authoritarianism3
Authoritarianism

Findings:

  • Society is in turmoil, authoritarians more likely to support “strong” political candidates

  • When standard of living declines authoritarians more likely to favor restrictions of welfare and bans on abortion


Authoritarianism4
Authoritarianism

Roots:

  • Child-rearing practices

    • Regularly and severely punished

    • Learn to fear, obey, and be unquestioning of authority

  • Genetic

    • Biological siblings = .35

    • Adopted siblings = .05


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