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Neurogenesis: Factors. Poling. 4 essential features of a drug evaluation? DV Meds given according to protocol Design Data analysis must be adequate. Poling. Prescribing drugs to special populations in need of protection should involve safeguards.

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Neurogenesis: Factors

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Neurogenesis: Factors


Poling

  • 4 essential features of a drug evaluation?

    • DV

    • Meds given according to protocol

    • Design

    • Data analysis must be adequate


Poling

  • Prescribing drugs to special populations in need of protection should involve safeguards.

    • Goals are clear with specific targets and in P interests

    • Tx decisions made on basis of drug effects

    • Flexible and integrated with beh Tx.


Poling

  • 3 design factors

    • Single vs repeated observations

      • Pre-post testing vs daily recording

    • Between subject vs within subject

      • Between – either Tx or P

      • Within – each subject gets all conditions

    • Stats vs visual

      • T tests, F tests vs visual inspection


10 mg

15 mg

5 mg

5 mg


McKim: Cannabis


McKim: Cannabis

  • Source- plants

  • Active ingredient - THC

  • Hashish - dried resin from top

  • Hash oil?

    • Boil hash in alcohol, filter out residue, allow alcohol to evaporate (cannabinoids are soluble in alcohol)

  • Thai sticks: buds bound with string onto short sections of bamboo or stems

  • Spread by Scythians in 200 BC

  • Also known in China 6000 years ago


McKim: Cannabis

Scythians: “There is nothing new or strange in what we do. We follow our mode of life in peaceful times. We have neither towns nor cultivated lands in these parts which might induce us, through fear of their being ravaged, to be in any hurry to fight you. But if you must needs come to blows with us speedily, look about you, and behold our fathers' tombs. Attempt to meddle with them and you shall see whether or not we will fight with you."


McKim: Cannabis


McKim

  • Kinetics

    • Administration/Absorption:

      • Slow absorption orally

      • Fast if inhaled

    • Distribution

      • Lipid soluble so goes everywhere

      • Collects in liver, lungs, intestines

    • Metabolism

      • Liver

      • Many metabolites: some are active

    • Excretion

      • T ½ - biphasic: 30 min then 20-30 hours


McKim

  • Neuropharmacology

    • CB1 found in CNS

    • CB2 found in spleen and immune system

    • Endogenous cannibinoids – THC is stronger

    • Potentiate NE, DA, SE, ACH, endogenous opiates

  • Effects on body –

    • dilation of eye vessels, hunger, dry mouth, increase in HR

  • Medicinal uses

    • decrease in intraocular pressure, anti-emetic, movement disorder, spasticity, analgesia


McKim

  • Other effects

    • Sleep – will increase, but can disrupt on high doses

    • Perceptual effects – can disrupt time discrimination, decrease pain

    • Many things appear funny, dreamy state

    • Memory problems – disrupts short term memory

    • Attention – disrupts attention

    • Driving – problems with attention

    • Aggression decrease

    • Immune system – may depress


McKim

  • Tolerance

    • Non-humans – yes

    • Humans –sensitization? some tolerance

  • W/D syndrome

    • Increase in anxiety, restlessness, irritability; AO for food


McKim

  • Health risks

    • Will not produce psychosis. But, will increase intensity of schiz symp or paranoia

  • Effects on brain or “intellectual” functioning?

    • Humans – no. But might be problems in memory and attention.

  • Amotivational syndrome?

    • Humans – none.


McKim

  • Gateway drug?

    • No.

  • Lung cancer?

    • There are 50-70% more carcinogenic material.

  • Decrease in testosterone

  • It may potentiate cigarette smoke

  • Weakens immune system


Poling

Review

  • Source of cannibis

    • Marijuana plant

  • Receptors

    • CB1 & CB2

  • Effects

    • Dilation of capillaries in eyes

    • EO for food

    • Dry mouth

    • Increase HR


McKim: Hallucinagens

  • LSD:

    • Hallucinogen class – similar to serotonin

    • Source – synthetic drug, but similar chemicals exist in ergot fungus that infects grains

    • SE agonist/antagonist

  • Kinetics

    • Oral administration; absorbed in stomach

    • Metabolized? – Liver

    • T ½ - 2 hours

    • Typical dose – 300 mics or less

    • Effects – dilation of pupils, hallucinations, early sweating, nausea, jaw grinding

    • Not lethal


McKim

  • Psilocybin

    • Hallucinogen class – similar to serotonin

    • Source – mushrooms

    • Duration of action – 4-6 hours

    • Dose – 4-8 mg

    • Mechanism – SE agonist/antagonist

    • Not lethal


McKim

  • Mescaline

    • Hallucinogen class – similar to NE

    • Source – cactus called peyote

    • Ceremonies by Native American Church

    • Usual dose – 200 mg

    • Effects – nausea, dilation, hallucinations

    • Not lethal


McKim

  • MDMA/MDA (ecstasy)

    • Hallucinogen class – similar to NE

    • Usual dose – 100 mg

    • Effects – euphoria, state of well being, talkative, EO for everything

    • High dose may deplete serotonin

      • Sleep problems, anxiety, hostility, impulsiveness, selective impairment of memory/attention, depression, heat regulation

    • Typical use – rave drug

    • Mechanism – causes release and blocks re-uptake of SE, NE, DA

      • heart, liver damage, hyponatremia (low blood NA from drinking excessive water)


McKim

  • PCP

    • Source – synthesized; “angel dust”

    • Use – originally an anesthetic and analgesic

    • Effects -trancelike state, disorientation, fear/anxiety, some psychosis

    • PCP has its own receptor on the NMDA receptor

    • Lethality problem: TI of 10

    • Long term psychosis


McKim

Review

  • Classes of hallucinogens

    • SE – LSD/psilocybin

    • NE – Mescaline/Ecstasy

  • Effects of LSD

    • Hallucinations

    • Pupil dilation

  • Sources

    • LSD – synthetic

    • Mescaline – peyote

    • Psilocybin - mushroom


McKim

Review

  • Health risks

    • Ecstasy

      • Serotonin depletion

      • Dehydration

      • Heart trouble

    • PCP

      • Psychosis

      • Lethal


SIB – Naltrexone effects


SIB – Naltrexone effects


SIB – Naltrexone effects


SIB – Naltrexone review

  • Criteria for inclusion

    • Primary focus was the effect of naltrexone

    • Ss were diagnosed with ID

    • SIB was measured

    • Peer refereed English language journal

    • Results were in a quantitative format

    • Short-term or acute trials


SIB – Naltrexone effects


SIB – Naltrexone effects


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