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The Progressive Era. To what extent did the United States become more democratic during the Progressive Era? In what ways did the responsibilities of the federal government grow during this time of reform?

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The progressive era
The Progressive Era

  • To what extent did the United States become more democratic during the Progressive Era?

  • In what ways did the responsibilities of the federal government grow during this time of reform?

  • To what extent did the Progressive Era successfully address the economic, political, and social problems of the Gilded Age?


CAUSES

Growth of Industry

Growth of Cities

THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT

(1900-1920)

EFFECTS

Political

Social

Economic

Presidents and Themes


Political reforms
POLITICAL REFORMS

  • Extend or protect political rights of previously disenfranchised groups

  • Are intended to make public officials more accountable to the public

  • Attack corruption and abuses of power by public officials.


Political effects
POLITICAL EFFECTS

  • Political reforms:

    - secret ballots

    - initiative, referendum, and recall

    - direct primaries

    - 17th amendment= direct election of senators

    - 19th amendment= women’s suffrage

  • Decline of machine politics

  • Split in Republican Party, 1912


Social reforms
SOCIAL REFORMS

Reforms that seek to protect and promote the human and social rights of deprived groups in society.


Social effects
SOCIAL EFFECTS

  • Laws protecting workers

  • Settlement houses and social work (Jane Addams)

  • Prohibition (18th amendment)

  • Birth control for women (Margaret Sanger)

  • Beginning of a movement for civil rights for African Americans (W.E. B. Du Bois & Booker T. Washington)


Economic reforms
ECONOMIC REFORMS

Reforms that seek to control corporate behavior and check the abuses practiced by large corporations.


Economic effects
ECONOMIC EFFECTS

  • Regulation of big business

  • Lower tariffs

  • Reformed banking system

  • Conservation of land and water

  • 16th amendment=federal income tax


Progressive era presidents
PROGRESSIVE ERA PRESIDENTS

  • Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)

    Republican

  • William Howard Taft (1909-1913)

    Republican

  • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

    Democrat


3 main goals of the progressive movement
3 Main Goals of the Progressive Movement

  • Make the government more democratic (more power in the hands of the people)

  • Ameliorate the effects of industrialization

  • Rein in the corporations through government regulation of big business


Important themes or big ideas in us history
IMPORTANT THEMESor “BIG IDEAS” in US History

Increasing the power of the federal government

US becoming more democratic


What group of people brought the problems of industrialization and urbanization to the attention of the American people?

How did they do it?


Muckrakers were investigative journalists who exposed the “underside” of American life.

____

Muckrakers exposed a variety of problems ranging from political corruption to child labor and the abuses of big business.


Notable muckrakers
Notable Muckrakers “underside” of American life.

  • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1889)

  • Lincoln Steffens, Shame of the Cities (1904)

  • Ida Tarbell, History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)

  • John Spargo, Bitter Cry of the Children (1906)

  • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906)


Jacob Riis “underside” of American life.

1849-1914

Photojournalist who believed that the “poor were the victims rather than the makers of their fate."

How the Other Half Lives, an illustrated account of city life, was published in 1889 and brought the problems of urbanization to the attention of city leaders including Theodore Roosevelt.

<http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAriis.htm>


Long ago, it was said that “one half the world does not know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.


Street Arabs in Night-quarters, Mulberry Street, know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

c. 1890, lantern slide, Museum of the City of New York,

The Jacob A. Riis Collection, 90.13.2.9


Organized Charity, Outdoor School know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

(for children with tuberculosis)

c. 1890, lantern slide, Museum of the City of New York,

The Jacob A. Riis Collection, 90.13.2.44


Children's Playground in Poverty, know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

c. 1890, hand-colored lantern slide, Museum of the City of New York,

The Jacob A. Riis Collection, 90.13.2.69


A Flat in the Pauper's Barracks with All Its Furniture know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Davis/photography/images/riisphotos/slideshow1.html


A New York Tenement Flat know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

1910

http://www.usc.edu/programs/cst/deadfiles/lacasis/ansc100/library/images/397.html


Why are the photographs in know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.How the Other Half Lives, valuable historical sources?


The Jacob A. Riis Collection know how the other half lives.” That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there and keep its own seat. There came a time when the discomfort and crowding below was so great, and consequent upheavals so violent, that it was no longer an easy thing to do, and then the upper half fell to inquiring what was the matter. Information on the subject has been accumulating rapidly since, and the whole world has its hands full answering for its old ignorance.

The Museum of the City of New York

Images from:

http://www.mcny.org/Exhibitions/riis/riis3.htm


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