slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Psychology in Our Daily Life

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 63

Psychology in Our Daily Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on

Psychology in Our Daily Life. 绍兴文理学院元培学院外语系. Psychology in Our Daily Life.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Psychology in Our Daily Life' - kirima


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Psychology in Our Daily Life

绍兴文理学院元培学院外语系

slide2

Psychology in Our Daily Life

People are driven by irrational forces or primitive instincts. Inner struggle between instincts and conscience often led to disaster which was manifested in the form of personal tragedies such as murder and suicide or collective tragedies such as war.

Sigmund Freud

slide3

Task 1 A Story of a Chinese Idiom

The following silent flash movie is about a Chinese idiom. Try to tell the story after seeing the movie. And say what psychological state the story tells us.

slide5

An Illusory Snake in a Goblet

In Jin Dynasty there was a man named Yue Guang who was fond of drinking. One day, he invited a friend to his house to drink together. Suddenly, his friend saw the reflection of a snake swimming in the goblet. He got so much frightened that he took ill on bed after getting home. And neither any doctor or any medicine could cure his illness. When Yue Guang got to know the cause of his friend’s disease, he asked the friend to drink at his house again.

Yue made his friend sit where he used to, pouring a goblet of alcohol for him, and asked him if there was any snake reflection in the goblet. There was still a “snake reflection” in the goblet! Then Yue casually took away the bow hanging on the wall. This time, the “snake reflection” disappeared. “So it was the bow reflection that was in the goblet!” His friend at once got well from his illness. “An illusory snake in a goblet” is used to describe the psychological state of being frightened caused by taking illusions as reality.

slide6

Have you ever heard or experienced such stories like Yue Guang’s friend, in which your psychological state influences your behavior or mood, etc.? Tell the class your story.

slide7

Task 2 Brainstorming—One-Sentence Story

The following are some adjectives related to the field of psychology or emotion. Choose a word and write a one-sentence story to describe an experience that illustrates the adjectives chosen.

A crazy thing I did was to go swimming, naked, in my neighbor’s pool.

The most embarrassing thing I did was to talk about the teacher when she was standing behind me!

slide8

Task 2 Brainstorming—One-Sentence Story

Here are some adjectives for your references, and you can add more.

shocking, embarrassing, funny, happy,

crazy, wonderful, ridiculous, terrible, comfortable, furious, panic, upset, angry, sad, disappointed, etc.

slide9

Task 3 Listening—Psychology of Clothes

Identification: Based on what you hear on the tape, match the person in Column I with the way one is dressed in Column II.

Column I

Column II

1. a man feeling insecurity

a. in warmer clothes

2. a person of minority origin

b. in bright reds

c. over-dressing in warm clothes

3. a homesick student

4. a young executive

d. unconventionally

5. a sociable and outgoing person

e. in dark blue suit

slide10

“So you really believe that clothes carry a kind of message for other people and that what we put on is in some way a reflection of what we feel?”

“Oh, yes, very much so. People are beginning now to take seriously the idea of a kind of psychology of clothing, to believe that there is not just individual taste in our clothes but also a thinking behind what we wear which is trying to express something we may not even be aware of ourselves. Take for example the students who is away from home at college or university: if he tends to wrap himself up more than the others, this is because he is probably feeling homesick. Similarly, a general feeling of insecurity can sometimes take the form of over-dressing in warmer clothes than are necessary.”

“Can you give any other examples of this kind?”

“Yes. I think people who are sociable and outgoing tend to dress in an extrovert way, preferring brighter or more dazzling colors—yellows, bright reds, and so on. In the same way, often, minority groups, who have perhaps failed to persuade with words, tend to express themselves by wearing unconventional, or what some might consider outrageous clothing. And in a recent survey it was suggested that employers prefer young executives to stick to grey, black and dark blue suits if they are men.”

slide11

Task 4 Video Clip

About the movie

A handsome psychiatrist (Gregory Peck) arrives as the new director of a posh mental asylum. But he seems unusually distressed by the parallel marks, left by a fork, on a white tablecloth. Doctor Peterson (Ingrid Bergman) comes to the correct conclusion that Peck is not the new director, but a profoundly disturbed amnesiac—and, possibly, the murderer of the real director. Gradually falling in love with Peck, Bergman believes in Peck\'s innocence, and attempts throughout the remaining reels to get to the root of his psychological problems…

  • Discussion Questions:
  • What is the root of the new director (Peck)’s psychological problem?
  • Has it ever happened to you that some of your former experiences greatly influence your later behaviors psychologically?
slide12

Task 5 Proverbs and Sayings

A light heart lives long.

静以修身。

A merry heart goes all the way.

心旷神怡,事事顺利。

Once bitten, twice shy.

一遭被蛇咬,十年怕井绳。

slide13

Work in groups to answer the following questions.

Can you offer the reasons why placebos do not always work?

The success of the placebo treatment seems to depend a lot on the relationship between the doctor and the patient. If the patient trusts the doctor very much and if the doctor is actually expected to help the patient, then the placebo is more likely to work.

slide14

What are the bad effects of a placebo?

If patients expect a bad reaction to medicine, then they will show a bad reaction to the placebo as well. This would seem to show that how you react to medicine is in your mind instead of in your body.

slide15

Part I Introduction (Para. 1—2)

Placebo is a sugar pill, a harmlessshot, or an empty capsule. Even though they have no medicine in them, these things seem to make people well.

What is placebo?

Part IIThe study of the placebo (Para. 3—7)

A. One explanation: The placebo works because the human mind fools itself.

B. The other explanation: The placebo makes the wish to get better become reality.

C. The most powerful placebo of all: The doctor.

Supporting evidence:

First group (led by a doctor): 70 %of them got better.

Second group (led by a nurse): Only 25 %.

slide16

Part III Different cases in which a placebo may work (Para. 8—9)

Supporting evidence:

The first group were given nothing at all.

Result: The first group showed no changes from the way old people in that village had always been.

The second group were given a placebo.

Result: The second group had much better health and a lower death rate.

The placebo has been found to work with seasickness, coughs, colds and pains after an operation.

The third group were given a real drug which was said to be able to help with the problems of old age.

Result: The third group showed much the same results as the group that took the placebo.

slide17

Part IV Two opposite attitudes towards the use of

a placebo (Para.10—11)

Some doctors think that if the placebo can have bad effects it should never be used.

The use of the placebo has been known for hundreds of years in other countries.

Part VConclusion (Para.12)

The strange power of the placebo does seem to suggest that the human mind is stronger than we think it is.

slide18

Sometimes alla sick personneeds is some reassurancethat all will be well. (Line 3)

All + sb. needs/cares about/remembers… is

+ 表语

某人所需要的/关心的/记着的一切就是······

此句中,all后面省略了that,all后面带的是定语从句。

slide19

中国当前所需要的是和平与稳定。

我所能记住的有关我家乡的就是那条河,我曾和伙伴们一起在河里游泳。

AllChinaneeds now is peace and stability.

All I remember about my hometown is the river in which I swam with some of my friends.

slide20

我所关心的是公司是否能从这笔买卖中获利。

is whether my company can make profit from the trade.

我们所能预见到的就是世界的未来将以和平与发展为主题。

is that peace and development are the theme of the world future.

完成下面的句子。

All I care about

All we can expect

slide21

1. Sometimes alla sick personneeds is some reassurance that all will be well.(Line 3)

有时候病人所需要的只是一个一切都会好的保证。

slide22

2. It seems that if patients think they have been givenmedicine, they will have hope. (Line 21)

  • seem 一词主要有以下三种用法:
  • 句型:it seems that从句/as if(既可以是虚
  • 拟语气也可以是陈述语气)
  • 2)主语 +seem to do…
  • 3) 主语+ seem (to be) + 形容词/名词/介词短语/分词等
slide23

似乎人人都知道成功的法则,但很

少有人能那样做。

这种疗法成功与否在很大程度上似乎取决于病人与医生之

间的关系。 (Line 24)

他们采用的很多“疗法”看似不可能治好病人,但是确实有

效。(Line 56)

It seems that everybody knows the rules for success, but few can practice them.

The success of this treatment seems to rest a lot with the relationship between the patient and the doctor.

Many of the “treatments” they use do not seem able to make a sick person better, and yet such treatments work.

slide24

天好像要下雨了。

it will rain.

当今的毕业生似乎非常注意个人简历的形式。

College graduates today

.

这样的问题看起来很简单, 可是实际上,你一大意就会出错。

, but actually when you take it for granted, you will make mistakes.

完成下面的句子。

It seems as if

seem to care a lot about the form of the resume

Such a question seems pretty simple

slide25

2. It seems that if patients think they have been given

medicine, they will have hope. (Line 21)

如果病人们以为他们得到了药物治疗,他们似乎就会充满希望。

slide26

3. The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases.(Line 36)

work with…

1)在······方面起作用;适用于······;

2)与······一起工作

slide27

我们刚才讨论的那些规则不适合这道题。

These two companies decided to

work with each other on the

development of the new product.

The rules we discussed just now don’t work with this question.

这两家公司决定合作开发这一新产品。

slide28

许多企业正寻求与大专院校合作的机会。

Many companies are looking for opportunities to _____________________________.

这种词汇习得的方法根本不适合大学本科生。

完成下面的句子。

work with collegesand universities

This strategyof developing vocabularydoesn’t work with college students at all.

slide29

3.The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases. (Line 36)

人们已经发现安慰剂能在很多不同的病例中发挥作用。

slide30

Many medical experts regard prescription as a kind of intellectual property that should also be legally protected.

那张药方中包含着几种名贵的草药(herbal medicine)。

1.prescription (Line 1, Para. 1)

n.a piece of paper on which a doctor writes the details

of the medicine or drugs that someone needs 药方

很多医学专家把药方也看作是一种应该受到法律保护的知识产品。

That prescription contains several kinds of precious herbal medicine.

slide31

动词形式:prescribe (Line 4, Para. 1)

v.(of a doctor) say what (medical treatment) someone

should have为······开药方,嘱咐(疗法)

医生(doctor)止疼片(painkiller)

老中医(senior herbalist doctor)针灸治疗(needle therapy)

用提示词造句。

I havebeen prescribed some painkillers by the doctor.

That senior herbalist doctor prescribed needle therapy for him.

slide32

2.reassurance(Line 4, Para. 1)

n. help or advice that makes you feel less worried

or frightened about a problem 安慰;保证

她的支持者们给予她的安慰也无法让她

直面无缘2008年北京奥运会的现实。

could not take her out of the fact that she had already lost the opportunity to take part in the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

完成下面的句子。

The reassurance from her supporters

slide33

动词形式:assure

assure与 ensure

  • assure 强调让某人深信某事,后可接that从句以及of短语。

We tried toassure that customerthat all the laptop computers sold in our company were authorized by Apple Corporation of America.

我们尽力说服那位顾客,使他深信我们公司销售的所有笔记本电脑都是经过美国苹果公司授权的。

slide34

ensure 是“确保”的意思,同assure 一样,其后可接that从句,且从句中的谓语动词多用现在时态。

Governments at all levels must take steps toensure thatmost of the Chinese-language porn websites (色情网站) can be closed in this campaign.

各级政府必须采取措施以确保在这次行动中大部分的中文色情网站能够被取缔。

slide35

Before going to bed she herself that all the

doors and windows were locked.

  • This medicine will you a good night’s sleep.
  • I cannot that he will be there in time.
  • He me of his readiness to help.

请选择 assure 或 ensure 的适当形式填空。

assured

ensure

ensure

assured

slide36

3.heal (Line 13, Para. 3)

v. make or become well again, especially after a cut or

other injury(使)愈合,(使)痊愈,(使)康复

伤口不久就愈合了。

幸运的是,那种可以治愈他的伤寒(typhoid)的药

物不是很贵。

她的伤已经治好了。

The wound soon healed up/over.

Fortunately, the medicine that could heal him of typhoid was not very expensive.

Her wound has been healed.

slide37

cure, heal 与treat

  • cure (vi./vt.)治愈,着重于效果。短语cure sb. of…“治好某人的病”。用于比喻时,多指社会不良现象或个人恶疾的消除。

That hospital can cure some types of cancer.

那家医院可以治愈某些癌症。

Teachers try to cure some students of bad habits.

老师们努力帮助一些学生改掉坏习惯。

slide38

heal (vi./vt.)愈合。主要指外伤的愈合,也可用于heal sb. of… 的结构。用于比喻时,多指精神创伤的医治。

Time can help her heal all her sorrows.

时间可以帮她医治所有的忧伤。

  • treat (vt.)治疗。着重于过程。

The doctor is treating me for influenza.

那位医生正在给我医治流感。

Western medicine tends to treat symptoms and not the cause.

西医常常治标不治本。

slide39

Penicillin him of pneumonia (肺炎).

  • The cut in her leg has completely, without

leaving a scar.

  • She is being with a new drug.
  • What can’t be must be endured.
  • That wound will soon if she keeps it clean.
  • The doctors wish to her illness successfully.

请选择 cure, heal 或 treat 的适当形式填空。

cured

healed

treated

cured

heal

treat

slide40

4.fool somebody into doing something(Line 17, Para. 4)

trick somebody into doing something

哄骗某人干某事

In humorous cartoon movie “Tom & Jerry”, the poor cat ____________________________________________________________.(总是受到那只聪明的老鼠的愚弄去做各种蠢事)

_____________________________ that comedian Pan Changjiang can become a NBA player.(没有人会笨到去相信)

完成下面的句子。

is always fooled into doing all kinds of stupid things by the clever mouse

No one will be fooled into believing

slide41

要由她来做决定。

Whether Chinese homemade movies can win the Oscar or not ____________________.

中国的国产电影是否能够赢得奥斯卡取决于很多因素。

The popularity of such online songs as “Mice Love Rice” ____________________________________.

像《老鼠爱大米》这样的网络歌曲的流行取决于网民们的认可和支持。

5.rest with (Line 24, Para. 6)

lie with取决于,得靠

It rests with her to decide. (The decision rests with her.)

rests with many factors

rests with netizens’ recognition and support

slide42

6.in a way(Line 27, Para. 6)

partly, to some degree

就某种意义来说,在某种程度上

In 2004, singer Dao Lang’s popularity came out of the blue, which is ______________________________________.

在2004年,歌手刀郎的快速走红从某种意义上说是一种正常的娱乐现象。

Stephen Chow’s (Zhou Xingchi) silly comedies also _______

_________________________.

从某种程度上说,周星驰的荒谬喜剧中也蕴含着丰富的哲理。

a normal entertainment phenomenon in a way

contain

abundant philosophy in a way

slide43

7.relief (Line 31, Para. 7)

n. a feeling of comfort when something frightening,

worrying, or painful has not happened or has ended

(痛苦等的)减轻,解除

地震造成的损失很小,这使我们深感宽慰。

Listening to light music __________________________ ____________________.

听轻音乐缓解了他在考试前的巨大压力。

To our great relief, the earthquake caused little damage.

gave relief to his great pressure

before the examinations

slide44

动词形式:relieve

Knowing the truth that he was still alive in that serious road accident _________________________.

知道了他在那起严重的车祸中幸免遇难的真相后,他的那些焦急的亲人们感到了宽慰。

完成下面的句子。

relieved his anxious relatives

slide45

那双手套谈不上漂亮,但戴起来倒很舒服。

As we know, Olympic gold medallist Liu Xiang is a

hurdler rather than a sprinter.

8.rather than (Line 51, Para. 10)

与其······,宁愿······ ;而不是······

That pair of gloves are comfortable rather than pretty.

如我们所知,奥运冠军刘翔是一名跨栏运动员,而不是一名短跑选手。

slide46

对比短语:other than

1) 不同于,非

She met with several celebrities other than singers at that party.

我不希望你改变目前的样子。

她在那个晚会上遇到了几个名人,都不是歌手。

I do not wish you other than you are.

slide47

2) 除了

(多用于否定句中,类似于not… except… 结构)

There is nothing in that house other than a cat.

Those survivors could hardly be other than grateful.

那间屋子里除了一只猫以外什么都没有。

那些幸存者除了感激还能怎样呢。

slide48

to open up new knowledge about…

开启了······方面的新的知识领域

a stronger will

更强烈的愿望

The patient has a lot of trust in the doctor.

这个病人非常相信这位医生。

The medicine works with a lot of different cases.

这个药对很多不同的病症有效。

You can heal your body by using your mind.

你可以用你的精神力量来治愈你的身体。

slide49

引申翻译法

英译汉时,有时会遇到某些词在词典上无法找到适当的意思对应,如果任意翻译,生拉硬套,会使译文生硬晦涩,不能表达原意,甚至造成误解。这时应根据上下文和逻辑关系,从该词的根本含义出发,进一步加以引申,选择适当的汉语词语来表达。以下介绍抽象与具体转换互译法。

slide50

从具体到抽象转换法

英语中,常常用一个表示具体形象的词来表示一种属性、一个事物或一种概念。这类词语在翻译时,可作抽象化处理,使译文流畅、自然。

slide51

There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of the terrorists.

恐怖分子的性格既残暴又狡猾。

Every life has its roses and thorns.

每个人的生活都有苦有甜。

The invention of machinery had brought into the world a new era—the Industrial Age. Money had become King.

机器的发明将世界带入了工业时代,在这个新纪元中金钱主宰一切。

slide52

从抽象到具体转换法

英语中也有用代表抽象概念或属性的词语来表示一种具体事物,翻译时可作具体化处理。

slide53

The car in front of me stopped and I missed the green.

前面那辆车停住了,致使我错过了绿灯。

The experience of studying abroad was his entree to the new government.

海外留学的经历成为他进入新政府的敲门砖。

The wedding, which Hayward still remembered with pride, was attended by a Who’s Who of Boston Society.

参加婚礼的人士皆为波士顿社会名流。赫华德回想起婚礼,仍感到非常得意。

slide54

语篇连贯(二)

衔接自如,逻辑连贯。

1. 语法手段。如照应、替代、省略等。

2. 词汇手段。如在语篇中,某一词以原词、同义词、近义词、上义词、下义词、概括词的形式重复出现,以相互衔接。衔接得当会起到“润滑剂”的作用。

slide55

“连贯”存在于文章底层,能够通过逻辑推理手段来达到。作文时可采用下述三种方法达到连贯:“连贯”存在于文章底层,能够通过逻辑推理手段来达到。作文时可采用下述三种方法达到连贯:

  • 1. 用过渡词表明句子间正确的逻辑关系。有意识地使用一些表示时间、顺序、列举、增进、转折、对比、因果等意义的逻辑手段。
  • 2.重复主要词或短语并使代词指代关系明确。
slide56

3. 按句子本身自然顺序或逻辑顺序安排句子。综述时 要把问题说明、说透。问题的重要性按由大到小 (递减)或由小到大(递增)的方向排列,事实按 过程或因果方式举出,使层次分明。 3. 按句子本身自然顺序或逻辑顺序安排句子。综述时 要把问题说明、说透。问题的重要性按由大到小 (递减)或由小到大(递增)的方向排列,事实按 过程或因果方式举出,使层次分明。

提示:过多过滥使用逻辑关联词会使段落发展显得累赘笨拙。对逻辑关联词的选用要根据内容需要“精打细算”、疏密得当,做到自然贴切。

slide57

你在写下列作文时,怎样注意连贯与衔接?

Directions:So far you have learned quite a lot about how psychology works in different cases. Write a composition entitled:College Students Should Have a Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body. You should write at least 120 words. Remember to write neatly.

1. 一些大学生有心理问题;

2. 大学生应保持心理健康;

3. 因此,······

slide58

College Students Should Have a Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body

When they experience major turning points in their lives, some college students have hidden mental problems. These problems may result from academic pressure, anxiety about interpersonal relationships, love failure or career-related matters. Without parents’ immediate help or teachers’ adequate guidance, a lot of physical and emotional disorders touch them. They suffer from depression (抑郁症), sleep disorders or poor academic performance. Anxious hearts, hopeless minds and even nervous breakdowns (神经衰弱) chase them.

slide59

Mental health is part of the most valuable wealth students can ever have. On campus students learn to reason and act with wisdom. With a healthy mind in a healthy body, they can challenge all hardships later in life. Today’s competitive world needs more versatile talents (多面手,多才多艺的英才), especially those who are firm-willed and have confidence in themselves.

slide60

Therefore, all sides concerned (有关各方) should make joint efforts to help students solve their mental problems. Schools may offer optional courses (选修课) and establish campus counseling (咨询) center to help students. Parents, teachers and classmates could encourage them to go to psychological clinic. Students must develop a positive mental attitude and be more optimistic. We believe those who have mental health can do great things in the future.

slide61

I. [ IELTS 作文题目]

Topic:Nowadays, people are facing more and more work-related stress. State the possible reasons for this phenomenon and make some recommendations about how to solve it.

You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task.

You should write a minimum of 250 words. You should use

your own ideas, knowledge and experience to support your

arguments with examples and relevant evidence.

slide62

II. [TOEFL作文题目1]

Directions: You will have thirty minutes to plan and write an essay on the topic given below. Use the first few minutes to read the topic carefully and think about what kind of essay you will write. You may use the space immediately below the essay topic to make notes. Write your essay on the lined pages that follow. You will have enough space if you write on every line and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.

People have different ways of relaxing. Some people like to go out walking. Others like to read, sleep, eat, listen to music, or watch television. Some people play sports or watch sports, while others dance and sing. What are some good ways to relax when you are not working? Describe some ways to relax that you are familiar with. Why are they good ways to relax? Explain your answer by giving examples.

slide63

III. [ TOEFL作文题目 2 ]

Directions: You will have thirty minutes to plan and write

an essay on the topic given below. Use the first few minutes to

read the topic carefully and think about what kind of essay

you will write. You may use the space immediately below the

essay topic to make notes. Write your essay on the lined pages

that follow. You will have enough space if you write on every

line and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.

People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress?

ad