Psychology in Our Daily Life. 绍兴文理学院元培学院外语系. Psychology in Our Daily Life.
People are driven by irrational forces or primitive instincts. Inner struggle between instincts and conscience often led to disaster which was manifested in the form of personal tragedies such as murder and suicide or collective tragedies such as war.
The following silent flash movie is about a Chinese idiom. Try to tell the story after seeing the movie. And say what psychological state the story tells us.
In Jin Dynasty there was a man named Yue Guang who was fond of drinking. One day, he invited a friend to his house to drink together. Suddenly, his friend saw the reflection of a snake swimming in the goblet. He got so much frightened that he took ill on bed after getting home. And neither any doctor or any medicine could cure his illness. When Yue Guang got to know the cause of his friend’s disease, he asked the friend to drink at his house again.
Yue made his friend sit where he used to, pouring a goblet of alcohol for him, and asked him if there was any snake reflection in the goblet. There was still a “snake reflection” in the goblet! Then Yue casually took away the bow hanging on the wall. This time, the “snake reflection” disappeared. “So it was the bow reflection that was in the goblet!” His friend at once got well from his illness. “An illusory snake in a goblet” is used to describe the psychological state of being frightened caused by taking illusions as reality.
Have you ever heard or experienced such stories like Yue Guang’s friend, in which your psychological state influences your behavior or mood, etc.? Tell the class your story.
The following are some adjectives related to the field of psychology or emotion. Choose a word and write a one-sentence story to describe an experience that illustrates the adjectives chosen.
A crazy thing I did was to go swimming, naked, in my neighbor’s pool.
The most embarrassing thing I did was to talk about the teacher when she was standing behind me!
Here are some adjectives for your references, and you can add more.
shocking, embarrassing, funny, happy,
crazy, wonderful, ridiculous, terrible, comfortable, furious, panic, upset, angry, sad, disappointed, etc.
Identification: Based on what you hear on the tape, match the person in Column I with the way one is dressed in Column II.
1. a man feeling insecurity
a. in warmer clothes
2. a person of minority origin
b. in bright reds
c. over-dressing in warm clothes
3. a homesick student
4. a young executive
5. a sociable and outgoing person
e. in dark blue suit
“So you really believe that clothes carry a kind of message for other people and that what we put on is in some way a reflection of what we feel?”
“Oh, yes, very much so. People are beginning now to take seriously the idea of a kind of psychology of clothing, to believe that there is not just individual taste in our clothes but also a thinking behind what we wear which is trying to express something we may not even be aware of ourselves. Take for example the students who is away from home at college or university: if he tends to wrap himself up more than the others, this is because he is probably feeling homesick. Similarly, a general feeling of insecurity can sometimes take the form of over-dressing in warmer clothes than are necessary.”
“Can you give any other examples of this kind?”
“Yes. I think people who are sociable and outgoing tend to dress in an extrovert way, preferring brighter or more dazzling colors—yellows, bright reds, and so on. In the same way, often, minority groups, who have perhaps failed to persuade with words, tend to express themselves by wearing unconventional, or what some might consider outrageous clothing. And in a recent survey it was suggested that employers prefer young executives to stick to grey, black and dark blue suits if they are men.”
About the movie
A handsome psychiatrist (Gregory Peck) arrives as the new director of a posh mental asylum. But he seems unusually distressed by the parallel marks, left by a fork, on a white tablecloth. Doctor Peterson (Ingrid Bergman) comes to the correct conclusion that Peck is not the new director, but a profoundly disturbed amnesiac—and, possibly, the murderer of the real director. Gradually falling in love with Peck, Bergman believes in Peck\'s innocence, and attempts throughout the remaining reels to get to the root of his psychological problems…
A light heart lives long.
A merry heart goes all the way.
Once bitten, twice shy.
Can you offer the reasons why placebos do not always work?
The success of the placebo treatment seems to depend a lot on the relationship between the doctor and the patient. If the patient trusts the doctor very much and if the doctor is actually expected to help the patient, then the placebo is more likely to work.
If patients expect a bad reaction to medicine, then they will show a bad reaction to the placebo as well. This would seem to show that how you react to medicine is in your mind instead of in your body.
Placebo is a sugar pill, a harmlessshot, or an empty capsule. Even though they have no medicine in them, these things seem to make people well.
What is placebo?
Part IIThe study of the placebo (Para. 3—7)
A. One explanation: The placebo works because the human mind fools itself.
B. The other explanation: The placebo makes the wish to get better become reality.
C. The most powerful placebo of all: The doctor.
First group (led by a doctor): 70 %of them got better.
Second group (led by a nurse): Only 25 %.
The first group were given nothing at all.
Result: The first group showed no changes from the way old people in that village had always been.
The second group were given a placebo.
Result: The second group had much better health and a lower death rate.
The placebo has been found to work with seasickness, coughs, colds and pains after an operation.
The third group were given a real drug which was said to be able to help with the problems of old age.
Result: The third group showed much the same results as the group that took the placebo.
a placebo (Para.10—11)
Some doctors think that if the placebo can have bad effects it should never be used.
The use of the placebo has been known for hundreds of years in other countries.
Part VConclusion (Para.12)
The strange power of the placebo does seem to suggest that the human mind is stronger than we think it is.
Sometimes alla sick personneeds is some reassurancethat all will be well. (Line 3)
All + sb. needs/cares about/remembers… is
AllChinaneeds now is peace and stability.
All I remember about my hometown is the river in which I swam with some of my friends.
is whether my company can make profit from the trade.
is that peace and development are the theme of the world future.
All I care about
All we can expect
1. Sometimes alla sick personneeds is some reassurance that all will be well.(Line 3)
2. It seems that if patients think they have been givenmedicine, they will have hope. (Line 21)
间的关系。 (Line 24)
It seems that everybody knows the rules for success, but few can practice them.
The success of this treatment seems to rest a lot with the relationship between the patient and the doctor.
Many of the “treatments” they use do not seem able to make a sick person better, and yet such treatments work.
it will rain.
College graduates today
, but actually when you take it for granted, you will make mistakes.
It seems as if
seem to care a lot about the form of the resume
Such a question seems pretty simple
medicine, they will have hope. (Line 21)
3. The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases.(Line 36)
These two companies decided to
work with each other on the
development of the new product.
The rules we discussed just now don’t work with this question.
Many companies are looking for opportunities to _____________________________.
work with collegesand universities
This strategyof developing vocabularydoesn’t work with college students at all.
3.The placebo has been found to work with a lot of different cases. (Line 36)
Many medical experts regard prescription as a kind of intellectual property that should also be legally protected.
1.prescription (Line 1, Para. 1)
n.a piece of paper on which a doctor writes the details
of the medicine or drugs that someone needs 药方
That prescription contains several kinds of precious herbal medicine.
v.(of a doctor) say what (medical treatment) someone
老中医(senior herbalist doctor)针灸治疗(needle therapy)
I havebeen prescribed some painkillers by the doctor.
That senior herbalist doctor prescribed needle therapy for him.
n. help or advice that makes you feel less worried
or frightened about a problem 安慰；保证
could not take her out of the fact that she had already lost the opportunity to take part in the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
The reassurance from her supporters
We tried toassure that customerthat all the laptop computers sold in our company were authorized by Apple Corporation of America.
ensure 是“确保”的意思，同assure 一样，其后可接that从句，且从句中的谓语动词多用现在时态。
Governments at all levels must take steps toensure thatmost of the Chinese-language porn websites (色情网站) can be closed in this campaign.
doors and windows were locked.
请选择 assure 或 ensure 的适当形式填空。
v. make or become well again, especially after a cut or
The wound soon healed up/over.
Fortunately, the medicine that could heal him of typhoid was not very expensive.
Her wound has been healed.
That hospital can cure some types of cancer.
Teachers try to cure some students of bad habits.
heal (vi./vt.)愈合。主要指外伤的愈合，也可用于heal sb. of… 的结构。用于比喻时，多指精神创伤的医治。
Time can help her heal all her sorrows.
The doctor is treating me for influenza.
Western medicine tends to treat symptoms and not the cause.
leaving a scar.
请选择 cure, heal 或 treat 的适当形式填空。
trick somebody into doing something
In humorous cartoon movie “Tom & Jerry”, the poor cat ____________________________________________________________.（总是受到那只聪明的老鼠的愚弄去做各种蠢事）
_____________________________ that comedian Pan Changjiang can become a NBA player.（没有人会笨到去相信）
is always fooled into doing all kinds of stupid things by the clever mouse
No one will be fooled into believing
Whether Chinese homemade movies can win the Oscar or not ____________________.
The popularity of such online songs as “Mice Love Rice” ____________________________________.
5.rest with (Line 24, Para. 6)
It rests with her to decide. (The decision rests with her.)
rests with many factors
rests with netizens’ recognition and support
partly, to some degree
In 2004, singer Dao Lang’s popularity came out of the blue, which is ______________________________________.
Stephen Chow’s (Zhou Xingchi) silly comedies also _______
a normal entertainment phenomenon in a way
abundant philosophy in a way
n. a feeling of comfort when something frightening,
worrying, or painful has not happened or has ended
Listening to light music __________________________ ____________________.
To our great relief, the earthquake caused little damage.
gave relief to his great pressure
before the examinations
Knowing the truth that he was still alive in that serious road accident _________________________.
relieved his anxious relatives
As we know, Olympic gold medallist Liu Xiang is a
hurdler rather than a sprinter.
8.rather than (Line 51, Para. 10)
That pair of gloves are comfortable rather than pretty.
She met with several celebrities other than singers at that party.
I do not wish you other than you are.
（多用于否定句中，类似于not… except… 结构）
There is nothing in that house other than a cat.
Those survivors could hardly be other than grateful.
a stronger will
The patient has a lot of trust in the doctor.
The medicine works with a lot of different cases.
You can heal your body by using your mind.
There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of the terrorists.
Every life has its roses and thorns.
The invention of machinery had brought into the world a new era—the Industrial Age. Money had become King.
The experience of studying abroad was his entree to the new government.
The wedding, which Hayward still remembered with pride, was attended by a Who’s Who of Boston Society.
3. 按句子本身自然顺序或逻辑顺序安排句子。综述时 要把问题说明、说透。问题的重要性按由大到小 （递减）或由小到大（递增）的方向排列，事实按 过程或因果方式举出，使层次分明。 3. 按句子本身自然顺序或逻辑顺序安排句子。综述时 要把问题说明、说透。问题的重要性按由大到小 （递减）或由小到大（递增）的方向排列，事实按 过程或因果方式举出，使层次分明。
Directions:So far you have learned quite a lot about how psychology works in different cases. Write a composition entitled:College Students Should Have a Healthy Mind in a Healthy Body. You should write at least 120 words. Remember to write neatly.
When they experience major turning points in their lives, some college students have hidden mental problems. These problems may result from academic pressure, anxiety about interpersonal relationships, love failure or career-related matters. Without parents’ immediate help or teachers’ adequate guidance, a lot of physical and emotional disorders touch them. They suffer from depression (抑郁症), sleep disorders or poor academic performance. Anxious hearts, hopeless minds and even nervous breakdowns (神经衰弱) chase them.
Mental health is part of the most valuable wealth students can ever have. On campus students learn to reason and act with wisdom. With a healthy mind in a healthy body, they can challenge all hardships later in life. Today’s competitive world needs more versatile talents (多面手，多才多艺的英才), especially those who are firm-willed and have confidence in themselves.
Therefore, all sides concerned (有关各方) should make joint efforts to help students solve their mental problems. Schools may offer optional courses (选修课) and establish campus counseling (咨询) center to help students. Parents, teachers and classmates could encourage them to go to psychological clinic. Students must develop a positive mental attitude and be more optimistic. We believe those who have mental health can do great things in the future.
Topic:Nowadays, people are facing more and more work-related stress. State the possible reasons for this phenomenon and make some recommendations about how to solve it.
You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task.
You should write a minimum of 250 words. You should use
your own ideas, knowledge and experience to support your
arguments with examples and relevant evidence.
Directions: You will have thirty minutes to plan and write an essay on the topic given below. Use the first few minutes to read the topic carefully and think about what kind of essay you will write. You may use the space immediately below the essay topic to make notes. Write your essay on the lined pages that follow. You will have enough space if you write on every line and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.
People have different ways of relaxing. Some people like to go out walking. Others like to read, sleep, eat, listen to music, or watch television. Some people play sports or watch sports, while others dance and sing. What are some good ways to relax when you are not working? Describe some ways to relax that you are familiar with. Why are they good ways to relax? Explain your answer by giving examples.
Directions: You will have thirty minutes to plan and write
an essay on the topic given below. Use the first few minutes to
read the topic carefully and think about what kind of essay
you will write. You may use the space immediately below the
essay topic to make notes. Write your essay on the lined pages
that follow. You will have enough space if you write on every
line and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.
People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways of reducing stress?