Chainsaw Safety

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Objectives. In this course, we will cover:DefinitionsPersonal protective equipment (PPE)HazardsChainsaw safetyTraining. 29 CFR 1910.266. Definitions. Backcut (felling cut) Final cut in a felling operationBuckingSawing felled trees into sections called logsDanger treeStanding tree that presents a hazard to employees due to deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree.

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Chainsaw Safety

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1. Chainsaw Safety 29 CFR 1910.266 The information in this presentation is provided voluntarily by the N.C. Department of Labor, Education Training and Technical Assistance Bureau as a public service and is made available in good faith. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. The information and advice provided on this Site and on Linked Sites is provided solely on the basis that users will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed herein and are advised to verify all relevant representations, statements, and information. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina or for any standards issued by the N.C. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the N.C. Department of Labor. The information in this presentation is provided voluntarily by the N.C. Department of Labor, Education Training and Technical Assistance Bureau as a public service and is made available in good faith. This presentation is designed to assist trainers conducting OSHA outreach training for workers. Since workers are the target audience, this presentation emphasizes hazard identification, avoidance, and control – not standards. No attempt has been made to treat the topic exhaustively. It is essential that trainers tailor their presentations to the needs and understanding of their audience. The information and advice provided on this Site and on Linked Sites is provided solely on the basis that users will be responsible for making their own assessment of the matters discussed herein and are advised to verify all relevant representations, statements, and information. This presentation is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina or for any standards issued by the N.C. Department of Labor. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations does not imply endorsement by the N.C. Department of Labor.

2. Objectives In this course, we will cover: Definitions Personal protective equipment (PPE) Hazards Chainsaw safety Training This standard establishes safety practices, means, methods and operations for all types of logging, regardless of the end use of the wood. These types of logging include, but are not limited to, pulpwood and timber harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles, pilings and other forest products. This standard does not cover the construction or use of cable yarding systems. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH DivisionThis standard establishes safety practices, means, methods and operations for all types of logging, regardless of the end use of the wood. These types of logging include, but are not limited to, pulpwood and timber harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles, pilings and other forest products. This standard does not cover the construction or use of cable yarding systems. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

3. Definitions Backcut (felling cut) Final cut in a felling operation Bucking Sawing felled trees into sections called logs Danger tree Standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree “Backcut (felling cut).” The final cut in a felling operation. “Danger tree.” A standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree. “Fell (fall).” To cut down trees. “Feller (faller).” An employee who fells trees. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division “Backcut (felling cut).” The final cut in a felling operation. “Danger tree.” A standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree. “Fell (fall).” To cut down trees.

4. Definitions Limbing To cut branches off felled trees Logging operations Operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery Spring pole A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling under stress or tension due to pressure or weight of another object “Limbing.” To cut branches off felled trees. “Logging operations.” Operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking danger trees and trees/logs to be cut to length, felling, limbing, bucking, debarking, chipping, yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines, equipment and personnel to, from and between logging sites. “Spring pole.” A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension due to the pressure or weight of another object.

5. Definitions Undercut A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback Yarding Movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing “Undercut.” A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback. “Yarding.” The movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division “Undercut.” A notch cut in a tree to guide the direction of the tree fall and to prevent splitting or kickback. “Yarding.” The movement of logs from the place they are felled to a landing. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

6. Felling Trees To “fell a tree” means more than just cutting it down. Felling means to cut the tree in such a way that it falls in the desired direction and results in the least damage to the tree. Photo: OSHA.gov (Barber Chair) Barber Chair The splitting of the butt of the log during the latter part of the fall.  The tree often remains attached to the stump, thus creating a danger zone and ruining much of the log. Caused by a Dutchman notch. To “fell a tree” means more than just cutting it down. Felling means to cut the tree in such a way that it falls in the desired direction and results in the least damage to the tree. Photo: OSHA.gov (Barber Chair) Barber Chair The splitting of the butt of the log during the latter part of the fall.  The tree often remains attached to the stump, thus creating a danger zone and ruining much of the log. Caused by a Dutchman notch.

7. Here is a out chainsaw operator with proper PPE to prevent the common chainsaw injury. These statistics are from USPSC, year 2000. Illustration: US Product Safety Commission Here is a out chainsaw operator with proper PPE to prevent the common chainsaw injury. These statistics are from USPSC, year 2000. Illustration: US Product Safety Commission

8. PPE must be inspected prior to use on each workshift to ensure it is in serviceable condition. PPE must be used when hazards make it necessary. Except for foot protection, all PPE must be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee. Personal Protective Equipment PPE must be used when hazards make it necessary - 1910.266(d)(1)(iii)-(vii) Except for foot protection, all PPE must be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee. 1910.266(d)(1)(i) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a serviceable condition. 1910.266(d)(1)(ii) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable personal protective equipment shall be replaced before work is commenced. Photo: OSHA.gov PPE must be used when hazards make it necessary - 1910.266(d)(1)(iii)-(vii) Except for foot protection, all PPE must be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee. 1910.266(d)(1)(i) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a serviceable condition. 1910.266(d)(1)(ii) The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each workshift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable personal protective equipment shall be replaced before work is commenced. Photo: OSHA.gov

9. Personal Equipment Checklist Chapter slide. Use as an intro, don’t elaborate at this point. MS Clip ArtChapter slide. Use as an intro, don’t elaborate at this point. MS Clip Art

10. Hand Protection Employees who handle wire rope are required to wear hand protection that protects against puncture wounds, cuts, and lacerations. Gloves are optional, but encouraged for chainsaw operators. A cut resistant glove for the left hand is a premium. 1910.266(d)(1)(iii) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee handling wire rope wears, hand protection which provides adequate protection from puncture wounds, cuts and lacerations. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Employees who handle wire rope are required to wear hand protection that protects against puncture wounds, cuts, and lacerations. Gloves are optional, but encouraged for chainsaw operators. A cut resistant glove for the left hand is a premium. 1910.266(d)(1)(iii) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee handling wire rope wears, hand protection which provides adequate protection from puncture wounds, cuts and lacerations. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

11. Leg Protection Each employee who operates a chainsaw must wear leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material The leg protection must extend from the upper thigh down to the boot top and adequately cover the leg. Leg protection is available in a variety of forms, including chaps, logger pants, and leggings The protective material also comes in a variety of forms including ballistic nylon, polyester, Kevlar, Engtek, etc. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently tests and labels leg protection which meets minimum cut resistance requirements (Reference ASTM F1414-92a) Arborists do not have to wear leg protection while using a chainsaw off the ground, i.e., in a tree or bucket. 1910.266(d)(1)(iv) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who operates a chainsaw wears leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material, such as ballistic nylon. The leg protection shall cover the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chainsaw. Exception: This requirement does not apply when an employee is working as a climber if the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by wearing leg protection in the particular situation, or when an employee is working from a vehicular mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Each employee who operates a chainsaw must wear leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material The leg protection must extend from the upper thigh down to the boot top and adequately cover the leg. Leg protection is available in a variety of forms, including chaps, logger pants, and leggings The protective material also comes in a variety of forms including ballistic nylon, polyester, Kevlar, Engtek, etc. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently tests and labels leg protection which meets minimum cut resistance requirements (Reference ASTM F1414-92a) Arborists do not have to wear leg protection while using a chainsaw off the ground, i.e., in a tree or bucket. 1910.266(d)(1)(iv) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who operates a chainsaw wears leg protection constructed with cut-resistant material, such as ballistic nylon. The leg protection shall cover the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chainsaw. Exception: This requirement does not apply when an employee is working as a climber if the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by wearing leg protection in the particular situation, or when an employee is working from a vehicular mounted elevating and rotating work platform meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.68. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

12. Here is an example of chainsaw chaps in action. When the saw blade hits the chaps, the fabric is knicked, releasing polyester fibers which get caught in the chain, stopping it. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Here is an example of chainsaw chaps in action. When the saw blade hits the chaps, the fabric is knicked, releasing polyester fibers which get caught in the chain, stopping it. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

13. Foot Protection Employers must assure that each employee wears heavy duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellant, and cover and provide support to the ankle If the employee uses a chainsaw, the footwear must be constructed with cut-resistant material that will protect against contact with a running chainsaw. Calk soled boots are acceptable when they are required for the employee’s job. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently tests and labels foot protection which meets minimum cut resistance requirements (Reference ASTM F1818-97) 1910.266(d)(1)(v) The employer shall assure that each employee wears foot protection, such as heavy-duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellent, cover and provide support to the ankle. The employer shall assure that each employee who operates a chainsaw wears foot protection that is constructed with cut-resistant material which will protect the employee against contact with a running chainsaw. Sharp, calk-soled boots or other slip-resistant type boots may be worn where the employer demonstrates that they are necessary for the employee’s job, the terrain, the timber type, and the weather conditions, provided that foot protection otherwise required by this paragraph is met. Arborists are not required to wear cut resistant boots while working in a tree. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Employers must assure that each employee wears heavy duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellant, and cover and provide support to the ankle If the employee uses a chainsaw, the footwear must be constructed with cut-resistant material that will protect against contact with a running chainsaw. Calk soled boots are acceptable when they are required for the employee’s job. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) currently tests and labels foot protection which meets minimum cut resistance requirements (Reference ASTM F1818-97) 1910.266(d)(1)(v) The employer shall assure that each employee wears foot protection, such as heavy-duty logging boots that are waterproof or water repellent, cover and provide support to the ankle. The employer shall assure that each employee who operates a chainsaw wears foot protection that is constructed with cut-resistant material which will protect the employee against contact with a running chainsaw. Sharp, calk-soled boots or other slip-resistant type boots may be worn where the employer demonstrates that they are necessary for the employee’s job, the terrain, the timber type, and the weather conditions, provided that foot protection otherwise required by this paragraph is met. Arborists are not required to wear cut resistant boots while working in a tree. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

14. Head Protection Hard hats must comply with ANSI standards (Subpart I, ANSI Z891-1986, if purchased after July 5, 1994, or ANSI Z891-1969 if purchased before July 5, 1994). Check for an ANSI label inside the hat. 1910.266(d)(1)(vi) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who works in an area where there is potential for head injury from falling or flying objects wears head protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Hard hats must comply with ANSI standards (Subpart I, ANSI Z891-1986, if purchased after July 5, 1994, or ANSI Z891-1969 if purchased before July 5, 1994). Check for an ANSI label inside the hat. 1910.266(d)(1)(vi) The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who works in an area where there is potential for head injury from falling or flying objects wears head protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

15. Eye and Face Protection The protective equipment must comply with ANSI standards (Subpart I, ANSI Z871-1989 if purchased after July 5, 1994, or ANSI Z871-1968 if purchased before July 5, 1994). Logger type mesh screens and safety glasses are required for face and eye protection for chainsaw operators; however it does not qualify as eye protection since mesh screens do not meet ANSI Z87.1 criteria. 1910.266(d)(1)(vii)(A) Eye protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910 where there is potential for eye injury due to falling or flying objects; and 1910.266(d)(1)(vii)(B) Face protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910 where there is potential for facial injury such as, but not limited to, operating a chipper. Logger-type mesh screens may be worn by employees performing chain-saw operations and yarding. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division The protective equipment must comply with ANSI standards (Subpart I, ANSI Z871-1989 if purchased after July 5, 1994, or ANSI Z871-1968 if purchased before July 5, 1994). Logger type mesh screens and safety glasses are required for face and eye protection for chainsaw operators; however it does not qualify as eye protection since mesh screens do not meet ANSI Z87.1 criteria. 1910.266(d)(1)(vii)(A) Eye protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910 where there is potential for eye injury due to falling or flying objects; and 1910.266(d)(1)(vii)(B) Face protection meeting the requirements of subpart I of Part 1910 where there is potential for facial injury such as, but not limited to, operating a chipper. Logger-type mesh screens may be worn by employees performing chain-saw operations and yarding. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

16. Hearing Protection Requirements for hearing protection are found in 1910.95. Particular attention should be paid to monitoring the logging operation to determine the noise levels employees are exposed too. This will determine whether the employer is required to implement a hearing conservation program. Some basic elements of a hearing conservation plan are providing audiograms, training employees, and providing hearing protection in a variety of forms at no cost to the employee. 1910.95(a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table G-16 when measured on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. The employer shall administer a continuing, effective hearing conservation program, as described in paragraphs (c) through (o) of this section, whenever employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or, equivalently, a dose of fifty percent. For purposes of the hearing conservation program, employee noise exposures shall be computed in accordance with appendix A and Table G-16a, and without regard to any attenuation provided by the use of personal protective equipment. 1910.95(b)(1) When employees are subjected to sound exceeding those listed in Table G-16, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of Table G-16, personal protective equipment shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Requirements for hearing protection are found in 1910.95. Particular attention should be paid to monitoring the logging operation to determine the noise levels employees are exposed too. This will determine whether the employer is required to implement a hearing conservation program. Some basic elements of a hearing conservation plan are providing audiograms, training employees, and providing hearing protection in a variety of forms at no cost to the employee.

17. First Aid Kits Provided at each work site where trees are being cut Number and contents of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, number of employees, and hazards reasonably anticipated at work site Appendix A Maintained in serviceable condition 1910.266(d)(2)(i) The employer shall provide first-aid kits at each work site where trees are being cut (e.g., felling, buckling, limbing), at each active landing, and on each employee transport vehicle. The number of first-aid kits and the content of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, the number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the work site. 1910.266(d)(2)(ii) At a minimum, each first-aid kit shall contain the items listed in Appendix A at all times. 1910.266(d)(2)(iii) The employer also may have the number and content of first-aid kits reviewed and approved annually by a health care provider. 1910.266(d)(2)(iv) The employer shall maintain the contents of each first-aid kit in a serviceable condition. Illustration: MS Clipart 1910.266(d)(2)(i) The employer shall provide first-aid kits at each work site where trees are being cut (e.g., felling, buckling, limbing), at each active landing, and on each employee transport vehicle. The number of first-aid kits and the content of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, the number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the work site. 1910.266(d)(2)(ii) At a minimum, each first-aid kit shall contain the items listed in Appendix A at all times. 1910.266(d)(2)(iii) The employer also may have the number and content of first-aid kits reviewed and approved annually by a health care provider. 1910.266(d)(2)(iv) The employer shall maintain the contents of each first-aid kit in a serviceable condition. Illustration: MS Clipart

18. Signaling and Signal Equipment Hand signals or audible contact utilized whenever factors prevent clear understanding of voice communications between employees Only a designated person gives signals, except in an emergency. 1910.266(d)(7) Signaling and signal equipment. 1910.266(d)(7)(i) Hand signals or audible contact, such as but not limited to, whistles, horns, or radios, shall be utilized whenever noise, distance, restricted visibility, or other factors prevent clear understanding of normal voice communications between employees. 1910.266(d)(7)(ii) Engine noise, such as from a chainsaw, is not an acceptable means of signaling. Other locally and regionally recognized signals may be used. 1910.266(d)(7)(iii) Only a designated person shall give signals, except in an emergency. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(d)(7) Signaling and signal equipment. 1910.266(d)(7)(i) Hand signals or audible contact, such as but not limited to, whistles, horns, or radios, shall be utilized whenever noise, distance, restricted visibility, or other factors prevent clear understanding of normal voice communications between employees. 1910.266(d)(7)(ii) Engine noise, such as from a chainsaw, is not an acceptable means of signaling. Other locally and regionally recognized signals may be used. 1910.266(d)(7)(iii) Only a designated person shall give signals, except in an emergency. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

19. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored, handled, transported, and used in accordance with the requirements of 1910.106. Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.

20. Chainsaw Checklist Chain brake [1910.266(e)(2)(i) and (e)(1)(ii)(E)] Throttle interlock [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(H)] Chain catcher [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(H)] Chain tension [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(C)] Muffler [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(D)] chainsaw kickback [1910.266(e)(2)(i)] Chain sharpness, cutter shape, depth usage setting, lubrication[1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(G)] Handles and Guards - On Tight [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(A)] No chain movement when engine is idling [1910.266(e)(2)(iii)] Photo: OSHA.gov Chain brake [1910.266(e)(2)(i) and (e)(1)(ii)(E)] Throttle interlock [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(H)] Chain catcher [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(H)] Chain tension [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(C)] Muffler [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(D)] chainsaw kickback [1910.266(e)(2)(i)] Chain sharpness, cutter shape, depth usage setting, lubrication[1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(G)] Handles and Guards - On Tight [1910.266(e)(1)(ii)(A)] No chain movement when engine is idling [1910.266(e)(2)(iii)] Photo: OSHA.gov

21. Chainsaw Mechanisms 1. Chain catcher – prevents a broken or dislodged chain from striking the logger 2. Flywheel 3. Clutch 4. Decompression valve 5./7. Anti-vibration handle system – recommended by OSHA to limit ergonomic stress to logger’s joints 1 Chain catcher to prevent a broken or dislodged chain from striking the logger. 2 Flywheel 3 Clutch 4 Decompression valve 5/7 Anti-vibration handle system is recommended by OSHA to limit ergonomic stress to the logger’s joints 6 Hand guard 8 Muffler to reduce engine noise 9 Chain brake to stop the chain if kickback occurs, if the saw was placed into service after February 9, 1995 10 Throttle which will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released 11 Throttle interlock which prevents the throttle from activating until the interlock is depressed Photo: OSHA.gov 1 Chain catcher to prevent a broken or dislodged chain from striking the logger. 2 Flywheel 3 Clutch 4 Decompression valve 5/7 Anti-vibration handle system is recommended by OSHA to limit ergonomic stress to the logger’s joints 6 Hand guard 8 Muffler to reduce engine noise 9 Chain brake to stop the chain if kickback occurs, if the saw was placed into service after February 9, 1995 10 Throttle which will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released 11 Throttle interlock which prevents the throttle from activating until the interlock is depressed Photo: OSHA.gov

22. Chainsaw Mechanisms 6. Hand guard 8. Muffler to reduce engine noise 9. Chain brake – stops chain if kickback occurs (if saw was placed into service after 2/9/95) 10. Throttle – will stop chain when pressure on throttle is released 11. Throttle interlock – prevents throttle from activating until interlock is depressed 1 Chain catcher to prevent a broken or dislodged chain from striking the logger. 2 Flywheel 3 Clutch 4 Decompression valve 5/7 Anti-vibration handle system is recommended by OSHA to limit ergonomic stress to the logger’s joints 6 Hand guard 8 Muffler to reduce engine noise 9 Chain brake to stop the chain if kickback occurs, if the saw was placed into service after February 9, 1995 10 Throttle which will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released 11 Throttle interlock which prevents the throttle from activating until the interlock is depressed Photo: OSHA.gov 1 Chain catcher to prevent a broken or dislodged chain from striking the logger. 2 Flywheel 3 Clutch 4 Decompression valve 5/7 Anti-vibration handle system is recommended by OSHA to limit ergonomic stress to the logger’s joints 6 Hand guard 8 Muffler to reduce engine noise 9 Chain brake to stop the chain if kickback occurs, if the saw was placed into service after February 9, 1995 10 Throttle which will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released 11 Throttle interlock which prevents the throttle from activating until the interlock is depressed Photo: OSHA.gov

23. Before Starting the Saw Chainsaw fueled at least 10 feet from sources of ignition Fuel container should meet the following requirements identified in 1910.266(d)(9): Must be metal or plastic  Must not exceed a 5 gallon capacity Must be approved by the Underwriters Laboratory (UL), Factory Mutual (FM), the Department of Transportation (DOT), or other Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). 1910.266(e)(2)(iv) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition. 1910.266(e)(2)(v) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.1910.266(e)(2)(iv) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition. 1910.266(e)(2)(v) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.

24. Before Starting the Saw Controls, chain tension, and all bolts and handles checked to ensure they are functioning properly and adjusted according to the manufacturer's instructions Chainsaw started at least 10 feet from fueling area, with chain brake engaged, and with chainsaw on the ground or otherwise firmly supported 1910.266(e)(2)(vi) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting a chain saw is prohibited. Check controls, chain tension, and all bolts and handles to ensure they are functioning properly and adjusted according to the manufacturer’s instructions Start the saw at least 10 feet from fueling area, with chain brake engaged, and with two point contact when cranking, either as shown or with a leg lock. NEVER DROP START. Show a leg lock. Thumb and finger position on handles. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(e)(2)(vi) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting a chain saw is prohibited. Check controls, chain tension, and all bolts and handles to ensure they are functioning properly and adjusted according to the manufacturer’s instructions Start the saw at least 10 feet from fueling area, with chain brake engaged, and with two point contact when cranking, either as shown or with a leg lock. NEVER DROP START. Show a leg lock. Thumb and finger position on handles. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

25. Both hands on the handles Secure footing maintained Obstacles cleared that interfere with cutting the tree or retreating Chainsaw should not be used above shoulder level While Running the Saw Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(e)(2)(vii) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged. 1910.266(e)(2)(viii) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation. 1910.266(e)(2)(ix) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw. 1910.266(e)(2)(x) Prior to felling any tree, the chain-saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path. 1910.266(e)(2)(xi) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead. 1910.266(e)(2)(xii) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(e)(2)(vii) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged. 1910.266(e)(2)(viii) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation. 1910.266(e)(2)(ix) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw. 1910.266(e)(2)(x) Prior to felling any tree, the chain-saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path. 1910.266(e)(2)(xi) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead. 1910.266(e)(2)(xii) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.

26. Throttle released, chain brake on prior to retreating Chainsaw is off or chain brake engaged whenever it’s carried more than two steps or on hazardous terrain While Running the Saw While Running the Saw [1910.266(e)(2)] Keep hands on the handles, and maintain secure footing while operating the chainsaw. Clear the area of obstacles that might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path. Do not cut directly overhead. Shut off or throttle released prior to retreating. Shut off or the chain brake engaged whenever the saw is carried more than 50 feet, or on hazardous terrain. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division While Running the Saw [1910.266(e)(2)] Keep hands on the handles, and maintain secure footing while operating the chainsaw. Clear the area of obstacles that might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path. Do not cut directly overhead. Shut off or throttle released prior to retreating. Shut off or the chain brake engaged whenever the saw is carried more than 50 feet, or on hazardous terrain. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

27. Potential hazards eliminated or minimized Felling direction determined Retreat path planned and cleared Hinge size determined Proper felling techniques used Manual Felling Photo: Courtesy of CDC.gov Considerations Prior to Felling Checklist What hazards are present in the area where the logger will be working. [1910.266(h)(2)(i-iv)] Determine the felling direction and how to deal with forward lean, back lean, and/or side lean. [1910.266(h)(2)(ii)] Provide a retreat path so the logger can reach safety while the tree is falling. [1910.266(h)(2)(i)] Determine the proper hinge size to safely guide the tree in its fall. [1910.266(h)(2)(vi)] Proper felling methods allow the logger to safely fell the tree. [1910.266(h)(2)(v-vii)] Photo: Courtesy of CDC.gov Considerations Prior to Felling Checklist What hazards are present in the area where the logger will be working. [1910.266(h)(2)(i-iv)] Determine the felling direction and how to deal with forward lean, back lean, and/or side lean. [1910.266(h)(2)(ii)] Provide a retreat path so the logger can reach safety while the tree is falling. [1910.266(h)(2)(i)] Determine the proper hinge size to safely guide the tree in its fall. [1910.266(h)(2)(vi)] Proper felling methods allow the logger to safely fell the tree. [1910.266(h)(2)(v-vii)]

28. Primary hazards include unstable logs and hazards associated with using chainsaws. Prior to limbing, the following is evaluated: Overhead hazards Butt movement forward Butt twist Butt off the ground “Danger trees” Prior to limbing, evaluate five potential hazards as follows: Overhead hazards Butt movement forward (creates back pressure on limbs) Butt twist (creates sideways pressure on limbs) Butt off the ground (creates tension on the tree stem) Danger trees Primary hazards include unstable logs, and hazards associated with using chainsaws. Limbing and Bucking must be done on the uphill side of each tree or log, where rolling or sliding of logs may be expected. Precautions, such as moving to a stable position, must be taken to prevent the logs or the butt from striking employees while limbing and bucking trees. 1910.266(h)(2)(i) Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the retreat path. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Prior to limbing, evaluate five potential hazards as follows: Overhead hazards Butt movement forward (creates back pressure on limbs) Butt twist (creates sideways pressure on limbs) Butt off the ground (creates tension on the tree stem) Danger trees Primary hazards include unstable logs, and hazards associated with using chainsaws. Limbing and Bucking must be done on the uphill side of each tree or log, where rolling or sliding of logs may be expected. Precautions, such as moving to a stable position, must be taken to prevent the logs or the butt from striking employees while limbing and bucking trees. 1910.266(h)(2)(i) Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the retreat path. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

29. 1910.266(h)(3) Limbing and bucking. 1910.266(h)(3)(i) Limbing and bucking on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable shall be done on the uphill side of each tree or log. 1910.266(h)(3)(ii) Before bucking or limbing wind-thrown trees, precautions shall be taken to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking an employee. These precautions include, but are not limited to, chocking or moving the tree to a stable position. As a tree falls it will often brush other trees and leaves broken live limbs or dead limbs hanging in surrounding trees. Sometimes falling trees will shoot off the stump and roll sideways or ahead creating pressures on tree limbs. Loggers should never limb a tree immediately after felling. It is often a good idea to drop several trees and then refuel the saw prior to limbing. This will provide ample time for overhead hazards to come down. 1910.266(h)(2)(ii) Before each tree is felled, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees, shall be evaluated by the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee. 1910.266(h)(2)(iii) Each tree shall be checked for accumulations of snow and ice. Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area or the area shall be avoided.1910.266(h)(3) Limbing and bucking. 1910.266(h)(3)(i) Limbing and bucking on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable shall be done on the uphill side of each tree or log. 1910.266(h)(3)(ii) Before bucking or limbing wind-thrown trees, precautions shall be taken to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking an employee. These precautions include, but are not limited to, chocking or moving the tree to a stable position. As a tree falls it will often brush other trees and leaves broken live limbs or dead limbs hanging in surrounding trees. Sometimes falling trees will shoot off the stump and roll sideways or ahead creating pressures on tree limbs. Loggers should never limb a tree immediately after felling. It is often a good idea to drop several trees and then refuel the saw prior to limbing. This will provide ample time for overhead hazards to come down. 1910.266(h)(2)(ii) Before each tree is felled, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees, shall be evaluated by the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee. 1910.266(h)(2)(iii) Each tree shall be checked for accumulations of snow and ice. Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area or the area shall be avoided.

30. “Danger Trees" Lodged trees Entangled trees Lodged Tree (also called A Hung Tree) A cut tree that has not fallen completely to the ground, but is lodged or leaning against another tree.  This is extremely dangerous. Do NOT work in the presence of hung trees.  Have these death-traps pushed or pulled down by a machine. Caused by poor judgment of felling path or inaccurate cutting. 1910.266(h)(1)(vi) Each danger tree shall be felled, removed or avoided. Each danger tree, including lodged trees and snags, shall be felled or removed using mechanical or other techniques that minimize employee exposure before work is commenced in the area of the danger tree. If the danger tree is not felled or removed, it shall be marked and no work shall be conducted within two tree lengths of the danger tree unless the employer demonstrates that a shorter distance will not create a hazard for an employee. 1910.266(h)(1)(vii) Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken branches and limbs or other damage before they are felled or removed. Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree. 1910.266(h)(1)(ix) Domino felling of trees is prohibited. Note to paragraph (h)(1)(ix): The definition of domino felling does not include the felling of a single danger tree by felling another single tree into it. Illustration & Photo: OSHA.gov Lodged Tree (also called A Hung Tree) A cut tree that has not fallen completely to the ground, but is lodged or leaning against another tree.  This is extremely dangerous. Do NOT work in the presence of hung trees.  Have these death-traps pushed or pulled down by a machine. Caused by poor judgment of felling path or inaccurate cutting. 1910.266(h)(1)(vi) Each danger tree shall be felled, removed or avoided. Each danger tree, including lodged trees and snags, shall be felled or removed using mechanical or other techniques that minimize employee exposure before work is commenced in the area of the danger tree. If the danger tree is not felled or removed, it shall be marked and no work shall be conducted within two tree lengths of the danger tree unless the employer demonstrates that a shorter distance will not create a hazard for an employee. 1910.266(h)(1)(vii) Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken branches and limbs or other damage before they are felled or removed. Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree. 1910.266(h)(1)(ix) Domino felling of trees is prohibited.

31. “Danger Trees" Spring poles Dead trees/limbs Stalled trees Spring Poles: The safest way to release a springpole is to shave a sufficient amount of wood from the underside of the springpole to allow the wood fiber on the top side to release slowly. To decide optimum point of springpole release, determine a straight vertical line from the stump to where it meets a straight horizontal line from the highest point of bend, and come down at a 45° angle from where the two lines intersect. Never cut a spring pole from behind You will regret it! Stalled Tree A tree that has just begun to fall but is stopped by its own stump.  This is almost as dangerous as a lodged tree and requires a machine to push it over. Caused by a Dutchman notch. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Spring Poles:

32. Felling Direction Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

33. Clear fall path A clear fall path is an important factor in deciding what direction to fell a tree. Fall path should be visualized in all directions and identify those directions that are free of other trees. Finding a clear path will eliminate lodged trees, throwback, and damage to the tree being felled as well as the other trees. Felling Direction This planning step is very important because it determines the location and type of cuts to be made as well as limits damage to the tree and harm to yourself. 1910.266(h)(2)(ii) Before each tree is felled, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees, shall be evaluated by the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee. 1910.266(h)(2)(iii) Each tree shall be checked for accumulations of snow and ice. Accumulations of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area or the area shall be avoided. 1910.266(h)(2)(iv) When a spring pole or other tree under stress is cut, no employee other than the feller shall be closer than two trees lengths when the stress is released. 1910.266(h)(2)(v) An undercut shall be made in each tree being felled unless the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee. The undercut shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in the intended direction.This planning step is very important because it determines the location and type of cuts to be made as well as limits damage to the tree and harm to yourself.

34. Clear landing Felling a tree onto stumps, large rocks, or uneven ground should be avoided This will prevent or reduce cracking and other damage to the tree, and limit the potential for rebound of the tree Lean of tree Generally easier and safer to fell a tree in direction that it is already leaning This makes for a cleaner fall and eliminates the need to use wedges, allowing gravity to do the work. Felling Direction Pay attention to these things when cutting. Pay attention to these things when cutting.

35. Felling Direction Ease of removal When possible, the butt of felled tree should face the skid road, and tree consistent with felling pattern of other trees. Makes for efficient limbing and removal Slope of ground Fell in direction that will minimize chance the tree will roll/slide. Pay attention to these things when cutting. Pay attention to these things when cutting.

36. Discuss the possible outcomes of felling the tree in the directions shown. Illustration: OSHA.gov Discuss the possible outcomes of felling the tree in the directions shown. Illustration: OSHA.gov

37. Retreat Path Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. Retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the retreat path. 1910.266(h)(2)(i) Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the retreat path. 1910.266(h)(2)(i) Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternate path. Once the backcut has been made the feller shall immediately move a safe distance away from the tree on the retreat path.

38. Retreat Path Illustration: OSHA.gov You must plan your escape route and clear a path BEFORE you begin cutting. Direction of Safe Retreat: 45 degrees from the sides and back on either side. NEVER move away directly behind the tree-you can be seriously hurt if the tree butt kicks back during the fall. How to Retreat: Using a bore cut and a release cut will make it easier to retreat in plenty of time. Don’t turn back on the falling tree. Walk quickly away to a distance of 20 feet from the falling tree. Position yourself behind a standing tree if possible. Illustration: OSHA.gov You must plan your escape route and clear a path BEFORE you begin cutting. Direction of Safe Retreat: 45 degrees from the sides and back on either side. NEVER move away directly behind the tree-you can be seriously hurt if the tree butt kicks back during the fall. How to Retreat: Using a bore cut and a release cut will make it easier to retreat in plenty of time. Don’t turn back on the falling tree. Walk quickly away to a distance of 20 feet from the falling tree. Position yourself behind a standing tree if possible.

39. Hinge Size The hinge is the wood between the undercut (face cut/notch) and the back cut. The purpose of the hinge is to provide sufficient wood to hold the tree to the stump during the majority of the tree’s fall, and to guide the tree’s fall in the intended direction. The position of the hinge will affect the direction of fall. The size of the hinge is important to prevent splitting, fiber pull, barber chairs, and other undesirable and unsafe conditions. Illustration: OSHA.gov The hinge is the wood between the undercut (face cut/notch) and the back cut. The purpose of the hinge is to provide sufficient wood to hold the tree to the stump during the majority of the tree’s fall, and to guide the tree’s fall in the intended direction. The position of the hinge will affect the direction of fall. The size of the hinge is important to prevent splitting, fiber pull, barber chairs, and other undesirable and unsafe conditions. Illustration: OSHA.gov

40. Felling Techniques Backcut Shall be made in each tree being felled Shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold tree to stump during most of its fall so hinge is able to guide the tree's fall in intended direction Shall be above level of horizontal facecut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback Exception: Backcut may be at or below horizontal facecut in tree pulling operations Requirement does not apply to open face felling where two angled facecuts rather than a horizontal facecut are used 1910.266(h)(2)(vi) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled. The backcut shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump during most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree’s fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vii) The backcut shall be above the level of the horizontal facecut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback. Exception: The backcut may be at or below the horizontal facecut in tree pulling operations. Note to paragraph (h)(2)(vii): This requirement does not apply to open face felling where two angled facecuts rather than a horizontal facecut are used.1910.266(h)(2)(vi) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled. The backcut shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump during most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree’s fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vii) The backcut shall be above the level of the horizontal facecut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback. Exception: The backcut may be at or below the horizontal facecut in tree pulling operations.

41. Felling Techniques Undercut Shall be made in each tree being felled unless the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee Shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in the intended direction 1910.266(h)(2)(v) An undercut shall be made in each tree being felled unless the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee. The undercut shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vi) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled. The backcut shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump during most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree's fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vii) The backcut shall be above the level of the horizontal facecut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback. Exception: The backcut may be at or below the horizontal facecut in tree pulling operations. Note to paragraph (h)(2)(vii): This requirement does not apply to open face felling where two angled facecuts rather than a horizontal facecut are used. Illustration: OSHA.gov 1910.266(h)(2)(v) An undercut shall be made in each tree being felled unless the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee. The undercut shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vi) A backcut shall be made in each tree being felled. The backcut shall leave sufficient hinge wood to hold the tree to the stump during most of its fall so that the hinge is able to guide the tree's fall in the intended direction. 1910.266(h)(2)(vii) The backcut shall be above the level of the horizontal facecut in order to provide an adequate platform to prevent kickback. Exception: The backcut may be at or below the horizontal facecut in tree pulling operations.

42. Type of Cuts The safe felling of a tree includes making three precise and strategic cuts The notch created by the top and bottom cuts in the picture above is called an “Open-face Notch.” The top cut is the first of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch The notch is made on the side of the tree facing the intended direction of fall. Top Cut Starting Point Important—begin at any height as long as you allow enough room for the undercut 2 Angle of Attack Important—cut downward at an angle of 70 degrees 3 Ending Point Stop when the cut reaches ¼ to ? of the trunk’s diameter or when the cut reaches 80% of the tree’s diameter at chest level The undercut is the second of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch The notch is made on the side of the tree facing the direction that you want it to fall 1 Starting Point Important—begin at the level that will create at least a 70 degree notch opening 2 Angle of Attack Important—cut upward at a 20-degree angle 3 Ending Point Very important—stop when the cut reaches the end point of the face cut Finally, the backcut releases the tree, and the hinge guides the tree down Illustration: OSHA.gov The safe felling of a tree includes making three precise and strategic cuts The notch created by the top and bottom cuts in the picture above is called an “Open-face Notch.” The top cut is the first of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch The notch is made on the side of the tree facing the intended direction of fall. Top Cut Starting PointImportant—begin at any height as long as you allow enough room for the undercut 2 Angle of AttackImportant—cut downward at an angle of 70 degrees 3 Ending PointStop when the cut reaches ¼ to ? of the trunk’s diameter or when the cut reaches 80% of the tree’s diameter at chest level The undercut is the second of two cuts that result in a V-shaped notch The notch is made on the side of the tree facing the direction that you want it to fall 1 Starting PointImportant—begin at the level that will create at least a 70 degree notch opening 2 Angle of AttackImportant—cut upward at a 20-degree angle 3 Ending PointVery important—stop when the cut reaches the end point of the face cut Finally, the backcut releases the tree, and the hinge guides the tree down Illustration: OSHA.gov

43. Types of Notches Illustration: OSHA.gov Illustration: OSHA.gov

44. Examples: How does this cut look? This there anything wrong with the way this tree was felled? Point out the hinge and the cut. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Examples: How does this cut look? This there anything wrong with the way this tree was felled? Point out the hinge and the cut. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

45. Poor hinge. No back cut. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Poor hinge. No back cut. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

46. This individual doesn’t have his thumb around the handle of the saw Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division This individual doesn’t have his thumb around the handle of the saw Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

47. Training Frequency Prior to initial assignment Whenever assigned new tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles Employee demonstrates unsafe job performance 1910.266(i) Training. 1910.266(i)(1) The employer shall provide training for each employee, including supervisors, at no cost to the employee. 1910.266(i)(2) Frequency. Training shall be provided as follows: 1910.266(i)(2)(i) As soon as possible but not later than the effective date of this section for initial training for each current and new employee; 1910.266(i)(2)(ii) Prior to initial assignment for each new employee; 1910.266(i)(2)(iii) Whenever the employee is assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines or vehicles; and 1910.266(i)(2)(iv) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(i) Training. 1910.266(i)(1) The employer shall provide training for each employee, including supervisors, at no cost to the employee. 1910.266(i)(2) Frequency. Training shall be provided as follows: 1910.266(i)(2)(i) As soon as possible but not later than the effective date of this section for initial training for each current and new employee; 1910.266(i)(2)(ii) Prior to initial assignment for each new employee; 1910.266(i)(2)(iii) Whenever the employee is assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines or vehicles; and 1910.266(i)(2)(iv) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

48. Training Content Safe performance of assigned work tasks Recognition of safety and health hazards Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site Requirements of this standard 1910.266(i)(3) "Content." At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements: 1910.266(i)(3)(i) Safe performance of assigned work tasks; 1910.266(i)(3)(ii) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and vehicles the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions; 1910.266(i)(3)(iii) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards; 1910.266(i)(3)(iv) Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and health hazards in the logging industry; 1910.266(i)(3)(v) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site; and 1910.266(i)(3)(vi) The requirements of this standard. 1910.266(i)(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe job performance, or assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles; may be limited to those elements in paragraph (i)(3) of this section which are relevant to the circumstances giving rise to the need for training. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division 1910.266(i)(3) "Content." At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements: 1910.266(i)(3)(i) Safe performance of assigned work tasks; 1910.266(i)(3)(ii) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and vehicles the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions; 1910.266(i)(3)(iii) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards; 1910.266(i)(3)(iv) Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and health hazards in the logging industry; 1910.266(i)(3)(v) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site; and 1910.266(i)(3)(vi) The requirements of this standard. 1910.266(i)(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe job performance, or assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles; may be limited to those elements in paragraph (i)(3) of this section which are relevant to the circumstances giving rise to the need for training. Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

49. Employer must ensure that each employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job. Each employee shall work under the close supervision of a designated person until employee demonstrates the ability to safely perform their new duties independently. Training 1910.266(i)(5) "Portability of training. "1910.266(i)(5)(i) Each current employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements. 1910.266(i)(5)(ii) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements prior to initial assignment. 1910.266(i)(5)(iii) The employer shall train each current and new employee in those elements for which the employee has not received training. 1910.266(i)(5)(iv) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job. 1910.266(i)(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained as specified in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, shall work under the close supervision of a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the employer the ability to safely perform their new duties independently.1910.266(i)(5) "Portability of training. "1910.266(i)(5)(i) Each current employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements. 1910.266(i)(5)(ii) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements prior to initial assignment. 1910.266(i)(5)(iii) The employer shall train each current and new employee in those elements for which the employee has not received training. 1910.266(i)(5)(iv) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job. 1910.266(i)(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained as specified in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, shall work under the close supervision of a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the employer the ability to safely perform their new duties independently.

50. Training First aid training Employer shall assure each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first aid and CPR training. Employer shall assure each employee's first aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current. 1910.266(i)(7) First-aid training. 1910.266(i)(7)(i) The employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training meeting at least the requirements specified in Appendix B. 1910.266(i)(7)(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee’s first-aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current. First-aid and CPR training shall be conducted using the conventional methods of training such as lecture, demonstration, practical exercise and examination (both written and practical). The length of training must be sufficient to assure that trainees understand the concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures contained in the outline below. At a minimum, first-aid and CPR training shall consist of the following: 1. The definition of first aid. 2. Legal issues of applying first aid (Good Samaritan Laws). 3. Basic anatomy. 4. Patient assessment and first aid for the following: a. Respiratory arrest. b. Cardiac arrest. c. Hemorrhage. d. Lacerations/abrasions. e. Amputations. f. Musculoskeletal injuries. g. Shock. h. Eye injuries. i. Burns. j. Loss of consciousness. k. Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia) l. Paralysis m. Poisoning. n. Loss of mental functioning (psychosis/hallucinations, etc.). Artificial ventilation. o. Drug overdose. 5. CPR. 6. Application of dressings and slings. 7. Treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures. 8. Immobilization of injured persons. 9. Handling and transporting injured persons. 10. Treatment of bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals. Illustration: MS Clipart 1910.266(i)(7) First-aid training. 1910.266(i)(7)(i) The employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training meeting at least the requirements specified in Appendix B. 1910.266(i)(7)(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee’s first-aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current. First-aid and CPR training shall be conducted using the conventional methods of training such as lecture, demonstration, practical exercise and examination (both written and practical). The length of training must be sufficient to assure that trainees understand the concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures contained in the outline below. At a minimum, first-aid and CPR training shall consist of the following: 1. The definition of first aid. 2. Legal issues of applying first aid (Good Samaritan Laws). 3. Basic anatomy. 4. Patient assessment and first aid for the following: a. Respiratory arrest. b. Cardiac arrest. c. Hemorrhage. d. Lacerations/abrasions. e. Amputations. f. Musculoskeletal injuries. g. Shock. h. Eye injuries. i. Burns. j. Loss of consciousness. k. Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia) l. Paralysis m. Poisoning. n. Loss of mental functioning (psychosis/hallucinations, etc.). Artificial ventilation. o. Drug overdose. 5. CPR. 6. Application of dressings and slings. 7. Treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures. 8. Immobilization of injured persons. 9. Handling and transporting injured persons. 10. Treatment of bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals. Illustration: MS Clipart

51. Training Training conducted by a designated person. Training presented in a manner that employee is able to understand. Written certification record Illustration: MS Clipart 1910.266(i)(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person. 1910.266(i)(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this section is presented in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall assure that all training materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees being trained. 1910.266(i)(10) Certification of training. 1910.266(i)(10)(i) The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph (i) of this section by preparing a written certification record. The written certification record shall contain the name or other identity of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer. If the employer relies on training conducted prior to the employee’s hiring or completed prior to the effective date of this section, the certification record shall indicate the date the employer determined the prior training was adequate. 1910.266(i)(10)(ii) The most recent training certification shall be maintained.Illustration: MS Clipart 1910.266(i)(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person. 1910.266(i)(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this section is presented in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall assure that all training materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees being trained. 1910.266(i)(10) Certification of training. 1910.266(i)(10)(i) The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph (i) of this section by preparing a written certification record. The written certification record shall contain the name or other identity of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer. If the employer relies on training conducted prior to the employee’s hiring or completed prior to the effective date of this section, the certification record shall indicate the date the employer determined the prior training was adequate. 1910.266(i)(10)(ii) The most recent training certification shall be maintained.

52. Summary In this course, we discussed: Definitions Personal protective equipment Hazards Chainsaw safety Training Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division Illustration: NCDOL-OSH Division

53. Thank You For Attending! Final Questions?

54. Handouts Place all handouts at the end of this presentation.

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