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Placing All Information Within Our Control?. Standards, Information Organization, and the 21 st Century Library. William E. Moen <[email protected]> Texas Center for Digital Knowledge College of Information, Library Science, & Technologies University of North Texas. What’s in a title?.

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Placing all information within our control

Placing All Information Within Our Control?

Standards,

Information Organization,

and the

21st Century Library

William E. Moen

<[email protected]>

Texas Center for Digital Knowledge

College of Information, Library Science, & Technologies

University of North Texas


What s in a title
What’s in a title?

  • No Longer Under Our Control: The Nature and Role of Standards in the 21st Century Library

  • Placing All Information Within Our Control? Standards, Information Organization, and the 21st Century Library

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


What s in a word parsing the title
What’s in a word? Parsing the title

Placing All Information Within Our Control? Standards, Information Organization, and the 21st Century Library

  • Information organization

  • Standards

    • A standard represents an agreement by a community to do things in a specified way to address a common problem

  • All Information

    • Recorded information: 5 exabytes (2002)

  • Our

  • Control

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


What kinds of control
What kinds of control?

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


What kinds of control1
What kinds of control?

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


What kinds of control2
What kinds of control?

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Control in the library community
Control in the library community

  • Bibliographic control

  • Vocabulary control

  • Authority control

  • Controlled access

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Control lis education indoctrination
Control: LIS education/indoctrination

  • 5210. Organization and Control of Information Resources I.

    • Descriptive cataloging and subject analysis of different kinds of information resources. Anglo-American Cataloging Rules; Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress classification systems; vocabulary control; subject headings; …

  • 5220. Organization and Control of Information Resources II.

    • Development of cataloging and classification systems. Problems in classification and subject headings…

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Changing language
Changing language

  • From control to finding/discovery

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Finding discovery and access
Finding, discovery, and access

  • Cutter’s Objectives of the catalog

    • To enable a person to find a book

    • To show what the library has

    • To assist in the choice of a book

  • Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

    • Find

    • Identify

    • Select

    • Access/acquire

  • Statement of Int’l Cataloguing Principles (Feb 2009)

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Objective and functions of the catalog
Objective and functions of the catalog

  • To find bibliographic resources in a collection as the result of a search…

  • To identify a bibliographic resource or agent (that is, to confirm that the described entity corresponds to the entity sought or to distinguish between two or more entities with similar characteristics);

  • To select a bibliographic resource that is appropriate to the user’s needs (… that meets the user’s requirements with respect to medium, content, carrier, etc….

  • To acquire or obtain access to an item described (that is, to provide information that will enable the user to acquire an item through purchase, loan, etc., or to access an item electronically through an online connection to a remote source)…

  • To navigate within a catalogue and beyond

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Changes to marc changes to the catalog
Changes to MARC, changes to the catalog

  • MARC Discussion Paper 41 (May 1, 1991)

    • Dictionary of Data Elements for Online Information Resources

  • MARC Discussion Paper 54 (Nov 22, 1991)

    • Providing Access to Online Information Resources

  • MARC Proposal 93-4 (November 20, 1992

    • Changes to the USMARC Bibliographic Format (Computer Files) to Accommodate Online Information Resources

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Changing language1
Changing language

  • From control to finding/discovery

  • From cataloging to resource description

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Description and representation
Description and representation

  • Representation

    • Surrogate records

    • Choosing to represent important aspects of an object

  • Resource Description

    • What we do in library cataloging practices

    • Resource Description and Access (RDA)

      • Guidelines for the creation of data to populate

    • Expressed in various metadata schemes

      • MARC

      • Dublin Core

      • VRA Core

      • MODs

I've often said librarians should like any metadata they see. Roy Tennant

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Changing language2
Changing language

  • From control to finding/discovery

  • From cataloging to resource description

  • From searching to finding/discovery

Librarians like to search but users want to find. Roy Tennant

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Searching
Searching

Rice University -- March 16, 2009



Searching1
Searching

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Discovering and finding
Discovering and finding

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Discovery and finding
Discovery and finding

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Discovering and finding1
Discovering and finding

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Resource description from the masses
Resource description from the masses

  • Folksonomies

  • Social tagging

  • Tag clouds

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Library thing taylor
Library Thing -- Taylor

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Tags for taylor
Tags for Taylor

http://www.librarything.com/work/28622

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Tagcrowd tool tag cloud for lecture notes
TagCrowd tool: Tag cloud for lecture notes

http://tagcrowd.com/

Top 50 terms of 667 potential from 4,000 in document

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


A few ideas for libraries
A few ideas for libraries

  • Rethinking our resource description practices

    • Adding value for the benefit to our users

  • Digital repositories of local resources

  • Digital repository infrastructure

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Richness of marc
Richness of MARC

Rice University -- March 16, 2009



Example results
Example results

  • 7,595,887 LC-created records in dataset

  • Type of Record: Book, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets

  • Total number of unique fields: 167

  • Number of fields accounting for 80% of occurrences: 14 fields (8.3%)

  • Number of fields accounting for 90% of occurrences: 21 fields (12.6%)

  • Approximately 110 fields (66%) occur in less than 1% of all records

    [Note: Fields are cataloger-supplied, not system-supplied]

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Commonly occurring used elements
Commonly occurring/used elements

  • Commonly occurring across all Type of Records

    • LC-created: Commonly occurring fields: 7; Commonly occurring subfields: 10

    • Non-LC-created: Commonly occurring fields: 6; Commonly occurring subfields: 20

  • Commonly occurring elements in specific Type of Records

    • Sample results: Books, Pamphlets, and Printed SheetsRecords

      • LC-created: Commonly occurring fields:16; Commonly occurring subfields:70

      • Non-LC-created: Commonly occurring fields:25; Commonly occurring subfields: 107

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Adopting new cataloging practices
Adopting new cataloging practices

  • Select the appropriate metadata scheme.

    • Use level of description and schema (DC, LOM, VRA Core, etc,) appropriate to the bibliographic resource. Don’t apply MARC, AACR2, and LCSH to everything.

    • Consider …abandoning the use of controlled vocabularies [LCSH, MESH, etc] for topical subjects in bibliographic records.

  • Manually enrich metadata in important areas

    • Enhance name, main title, series titles, and uniform titles for prolific authors in music, literature, and special collections.

  • Automate Metadata Creation

    • Encourage the creation of metadata by vendors, and its ingestion into our catalog as early as possible in the process.

    • Import enhanced metadata whenever, wherever it is available from vendors and other sources.

      Rethinking How We Provide Bibliographic Services for the University of California (December 2005)

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Digital repositories of local information
Digital repositories of local information

  • Types of digital repositories

    • Institutional repository

      • Rice University's Digital Scholarship Archive

      • Rice University Repositories for Technical Papers

    • Learning objects repository

    • Data repository

  • Differentiated by

    • Types of objects

    • Types of metadata

    • Purpose

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Repositories the technical side
Repositories – The technical side

  • Database component

  • Metadata component

  • Search and browsing component

  • Web interface component

  • Submission component

  • Administration component

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Repositories the human side
Repositories – The human side

  • Collection – what will be in the repository?

  • Submission – who can submit to repository?

  • Organization – how will resources be organized?

  • Administration – who is responsible for its operation?

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Learning object repositories
Learning object repositories

  • Focused on digital material to be used for education

  • Learning object: A digital resource (simple or complex) that can be used to support learning

  • Examples

    • Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Project

      • http://txcdk1.unt.edu/THECBLOR/

    • The Orange Grove

      • http://www.theorangegrove.org/

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Digital repository infrastructure
Digital repository infrastructure

  • Helping to manage scholarly digital output

  • Preserving for long-term access

  • Putting the library in the digital production workflow

  • Making the resources visible

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Managing scholarly output for access
Managing scholarly output for access

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Mark leggott s repository landscape

Private

Shared

Mark Leggott’s repository landscape

Open

Object Space

User

Space

Individual

Create

Collaborate

Publish

Re-Use

Group

Department

Library

University

External

Preservation, Migration, Transformation

Based on Richard Green, RepoMMan Project

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Oaister org
OAIster.org

  • An automatically created union catalog of digital resources

  • Contains over 20,000,000 records describing freely-available and restricted-access digital resources

  • Uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

  • Harvests the descriptive metadata (records) and makes those searchable

  • Currently harvesting from over 1092 digital repositories

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Exposing metadata via oai pmh
Exposing metadata via OAI-PMH

From: http://www.oaforum.org/tutorial/

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


We can
We can…

  • Think differently

  • Be open to using OPM – other people’s metadata

  • Help users discover information – through a wide variety of tools

  • Collect, manage, and make visible digital resources

  • Insert the library in the scholarly production process

  • Forget about bringing it all within our control

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Favorite resources
Favorite resources

  • Karen Coyle's InFormation

    • http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/

  • Lorcan Dempsey’s Weblog

    • http://orweblog.oclc.org/

  • Loomware: Mark Leggott's blog

    • http://loomware.typepad.com/

  • Next Generation Catalogs For Libraries

    • http://dewey.library.nd.edu/mailing-lists/ngc4lib/

  • Designing the future -- Library Systems and Data Formats

    • http://futurelib.pbwiki.com/

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


Favorite resources1
Favorite resources

  • Karen Calhoun. (2006). The Changing Nature of the Catalog and its Integration with Other Discovery Tools

    • http://www.loc.gov/catdir/calhoun-report-final.pdf

  • Lorcan Dempsey. (2006). The Library Catalogue in the New Discovery Environment: Some Thoughts

    • http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue48/dempsey/

  • Bibliographic Services Task Force. (2005). Rethinking How We Provide Bibliographic Services for the University of California

    • http://libraries.universityofcalifornia.edu/sopag/BSTF/Final.pdf

  • Roy Tennant. (2004). A Bibliographic Metadata Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    • http://roytennant.com/metadata.pdf

Rice University -- March 16, 2009


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