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DNA & Translation. Gene : section of DNA that creates a specific protein Approx 25,000 human genes Proteins are used to build cells and tissue Protein synthesis involves two processes: 1) Transcription 2) Translation. DNA and Translation. Transcription Review.

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DNA & Translation

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Dna translation

DNA &

Translation


Dna and translation

Gene: section of DNA that creates a specific protein

Approx 25,000 human genes

Proteins are used to build cells and tissue

Protein synthesis involves two processes:

1) Transcription

2) Translation

DNA and Translation


Dna translation

Transcription Review

  • Transcription takes place in the nucleus

    • 1) DNA double helix is broken apart

    • 2) mRNA nucleotides match up

    • 3) Finished mRNA detaches, and moves to a ribosome


Dna translation

Codon: Combination of 3 mRNA nucleotides

Each mRNA codon matches with 1 of 20 amino acids

Ribosome reads codons 1 at a time

AUG codon: Activates the ribosome (start codon)

UAA or UAG or UGA codon: deactivates the ribosome (stop codon)

The Genetic Code


Dna translation

Translation Overview

  • Defined: Process of making proteins

    • Step 1: mRNA enters ribosome

    • Step 2: Ribosome reads one mRNA codon at a time

    • Step 3: tRNA delivers amino acids until a protein is created


Translation details

Translation begins when the mRNA codon “AUG” is read by a ribosome

Ribosome reads one codon at a time

AUG = methionine

GCU = alanine

tRNA carries over the proper amino acid

tRNA anticodon matches with the mRNA codon

Prevents delivery of wrong amino acid

One by one, amino acids are linked together

Translation ends when a “stop” codon is reached

What just happened?: A ribosome made a protein

Translation Details


Dna translation

Now the codon and anticodon match. This ensures the proper amino acid (serine) is delivered.

This is why the anticodon is important!

Because the codon and anticodon don’t match, the wrong amino acid will not be delivered.


Dna translation

  • Questions to answer:

  • In order, list the amino acids that will be delivered to this ribosome.

  • What is the anticodon of each codon?

  • When finished, how many amino acids in size is this protein?

tRNA

UAC

tRNA

GGC

tRNA

UCA

tRNA

GGU

tRNA

CCU

tRNA

AGA

Six

Methionine

(MET)

Proline

(PRO)

Serine

(SER)

Proline

(PRO)

Glycine

(GLY)

Serine

(SER)

Ribosome

tRNA

UAC

tRNA

GGC

tRNA

UCA

tRNA

GGU

tRNA

CCU

tRNA

AGA

ignore

GAU AUG CCG AGU CCA GGA UCU UGA

start

stop


Practice problem

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid

Practice Problem

Threonine

T G A

A C U

U G A


Dna translation

Practice Problem

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid

Lysine

T T C

A A G

U U C


Practice problem1

Always use mRNA to find the amino acid

Practice Problem

C

C

A

G

G

U

C

C

A

glycine


Review

Review

  • Define transcription? Translation?

  • What are genes and how are they different from chromosomes?

  • How many nucleotides make a codon?

  • The anticodon can be found on which object?

  • The anticodon must match the ______.

  • Place the following steps in order from start to finish:

    a. Proteins are assembled

    b. Ribosome reads a codon one at a time

    c. mRNA arrives at the ribosome

    d. tRNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome

    7) Be able to solve practice problems similar to the three examples on slides #8-11.


Mrna codes

mRNA codes


Mrna codes1

mRNA codes


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