fo kku lhkk lkeku fuokzpu 2012 tksuy@lsdvj eftlv sv dh vs fuax
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fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu& 2012 [email protected] eftLVªsV dh Vsªfuax. fuokZpu dks LorU=] fu’i{k ,oa “kkfUriw.kZ <ax ls lEiUUk djkus dk nkf;Ro tksuy eftLVªsV ,oa lsDVj eftLVªsV dk gSA

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fuokZpu dks LorU=] fu’i{k ,oa “kkfUriw.kZ <ax ls lEiUUk djkus dk nkf;Ro tksuy eftLVªsV ,oa lsDVj eftLVªsV dk gSA

[email protected] {ks= esa vkus okys erns; LFkyksa ij fuokZpu lEiUu djkus gsrq ernku Vksfy;ksa dk fpUghdj.k dj fuokZpu lkexzh ,oa bZ0oh0,e0 vkfn le; ls izkIr dj xUrO; LFky dks izLFkku djkuk lqfuf”pr djsaxsA

fufoZ?u fuokZpu lEiUu djkus gsrq erns; LFkyksa dk fujh{k.k] fu’i{k ernku esa lEHkkfor O;o/kku dk fujkdj.k rFkk ernku ds mijkUr lqjf{kr vfHkj{kk esa ernku Vksfy;ksa dks okil laxzg dsUnz rd ykus ds mRrj nkf;Ro dk fuoZgu vkidks djuk gSA

vki izcq) ,oa dq”ky vf/kdkjh gSaA blfy, vkidks ;g egRoiw.kZ nkf;Ro lkSaik x;k gSA tksuy ,oa lsDVj eftLVªsV ds :i esa vkids drZO; vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gSaA

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1- ernku ls iwoZ %&

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu esa yxs [email protected] eftLVªsV fu;r frfFk o le; ij izHkkjh vf/kdkjh ;krk;[email protected] ls viuk okgu] ykx cqd o bZa/ku vkfn dh iphZ izkIr dj ysaA vkils lEcfU/kr [email protected] dk fooj.k] lEcfU/kr :V pkVZ ,oa ekufp= vkidks okgu miyC/k djk;s tkus dh frfFk dks gh fn;k tk;sxkA

okgu izkIr gksus ds rqjUr i”pkr vki vius fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks muds eksckby Qksu ij lwfpr djrs g,q vius lsDVj vFkok tksu esa iM+us okys erns; LFkyksa dk Hkze.k djus fudy iM+saxsA vki vius lsDVj vFkok tksu ds lHkh ernku dsUnz ,oa izR;sd ernku dsUnz esa fLFkr lHkh erns; LFkyksa dk Hkze.k djsaxs rFkk Hkze.k ds mijkUr fuEu fcUnqvksa ij viuh lqLi’V vk[;k fu/kkZfjr fnukad ds vuqlkj gksus okyh leh{kk cSBd esa vius tksuy eftLVªsV ds ek/;e ls vius fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks miyC/k djk;saxsA

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fn;s x;s :V pkVZ ds vuqlkj ekxZ dk lR;kiu djsa rFkk ;g ns[k ysa fd ernku ds fnu vius lsDVj ;k tksu dk iwjk jkm.M ysus ds fy, dkSu lk ekxZ lcls vf/kd lqxe rFkk U;wure le; ysus okyk gksxkA

ernku Vksfy;ksa dks ys tkus okys Hkkjh okguksa ds vkokxeu esa dkbZ leL;k rks ugha gksxh \ ;fn dksbZ leL;k ifjyf{kr gks rks mldk mYys[k djsaA

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izR;sd erns; LFky esa vUnj tkdj ;g ns[k ysa fd miyC/k LFkku fuokZpu yM+us okys vH;fFkZ;ksa dh la[;k ds vk/kkj ij lHkh ernku vfHkdrkZvksa ds cSBus ds fy, i;kZIr gS ;k ughaA

;fn erns; LFky ds vUnj lHkh vfHkdrkZvksa ds cSBus dk Ik;kZIr LFkku ugha gS rks muds cSBus ;k ernku Vksyh dks ckgj cSBkus vkfn dh oSdfYid O;oLFkk dk mYys[k djsaA

dksbZ ,slk erns; LFky rks ugha gS tgka jSEi cuk;s tkus dh vko”;drk gks vkSj ogka vHkh rd jSEi ugha cuk;k x;k gSA vius fjiksZV esa bldk mYys[k djsaA

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;g ns[k ysa fd erns; LFky ls 200 ehVj dh ifjf/k ds vUnj fdlh vH;FkhZ }kjk izpkj&izlkj gsrq dksbZ cSuj] iksLVj] gksfMZax] dV&vkmV vFkok nhokj ys[ku vkfn rks ugha fd;k x;k gSA ;fn ,slk ik;k tk;s rks mls rRdky lkQ djk nsa rFkk bldk mYys[k viuh fjiksZV esa djsaA

izpkj gsrq izR;kf”k;ksa }kjk iz;ksx esa yk;s tk jgs okguksa dk dkfQyk fdlh Hkh n”kk esa nl okguksa ls vf/kd dk ugha gks ldrkA ;g ns[ksa fd bl vkns”k dk dksbZ mYy?kau rks ugha dj jgk gSA ;fn ,slk djrs gq, ik;k tk;s rks fu;ekuqlkj rRdky dk;Zokgh djsaA

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;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsa fd izpkj esa iz;ksx fd;s tk jgs okgu ,oa /ofu izlkjd ;U= dh vuqefr lEcfU/kr fjaVfuaZx vf/kdkjh ls yh x;h gSA ;fn dksbZ mYy?kau ik;k tk; rks lEcfU/kr okgu ;k ykmMLihdj tSlh Hkh fLFkfr gks] dks lEcfU/kr Fkkus ds lg;ksx ls lht djkuk lqfuf”pr fd;k tk;A

;g ns[k ysa fd fcuk iwoZ vuqefr ds dksbZ tulHkk u dh tk;sA mYy?kau ik;s tkus dh n”kk esa mYys[k djsa rFkk leqfpr dk;Zokgh djsaA

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ernkrk igpku i=ksa rFkk ernkrk iphZ dh miyC/krk ds lEcU/k esa xzke okfl;ksa ls ckrphr dj tkudkjh izkIr djsaA ernkrk igpku&i= gsrq QksVks [khapus vFkok ernkrk igpku i= miyC/k djk;s tkus ds lEcU/k esa ;fn dksbZ f”kdk;r gks rks mldh lwpuk lEcfU/kr mi&ftykf/kdkjh dks eksckby Qksu ij nsrs gq, viuh fjiksZV esa mldk mYys[k djsaA

bl rF; dk vius <ax ls irk yxkus dk iz;kl djsa fd ncaxksa ;k izHkko”kkyh O;fDr;ksa }kjk Mjk&/kedk dj ;k fdlh izdkj dk ykyp nsdj ernkrkvksa ls muds igpku&i= tek djkus ds iz;kl rks ugha fd;s x;s gSa \ ;fn ,slk dkbZ izdj.k ik;k tk;s rks mldk fo”ks’k mYys[k viuh fjiksZV esa djsaA

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;g Hkh ns[ksa fd ikfVZ;ksa] izR;kf”k;ksa ;k muds leFkZdksa }kjk ernkvksa dks oL=] /ku ;k efnjk vkfn dk izyksHku nsdj vius i{k esa izHkkfor djus dk iz;kl rks ugha fd;k tk jgk gS \ ;fn ,slk dksbZ ekeyk ik;k tk;s rks lk{; lfgr foLr`r fooj.k fjiksZV esa nsaA

;fn fdlh izR;k”kh }kjk lkEiznkf;d ruko ;k tkfrxr oSeuL;rk QSykus okys dksbZ Hkk’k.k vFkok vQokg QSyk;s tkus lEcU/kh dksbZ tkudkjh izkIr gks rks i;kZIr lk{; lfgr fooj.k viuh fjiksZV esa nsaA

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vius tksu ;k lsDVj esa iM+us okys lHkh Fkkuksa ,oa iqfyl pkSfd;ksa] [email protected] eq[;ky;] uxj iapk;[email protected] ikfydk] LFkkuh; fpfdRlky; rFkk vU; lEHkzkUr ukxfjdksa ds nwjHkk’k uEcj viuh tkudkjh gsrq uksV djds ns[k ysaA iwjs pquko ds nkSjku dHkh Hkh vkidks budh vko”;drk iM+ ldrh gSA

izR;sd erns; LFky ij miyC/k nwjHkk’k dk fooj.k uksV dj ysaA ;fn erns; LFky ij nwjHkk’k u gks rks erns; LFkyksa ds fudVre pkyw nwjHkk’k dk uEcj ,oa nwjHkk’k Lokeh dk fooj.k vius ikl uksV dj ysaA bldh lwpuk vius fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks viuh fjiksZV ds ek/;e ls miyC/k djk;saA

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erns; LFky ds {ks= esa iwoZ pquko esa gqbZ ernku lEcU/kh ?kVukvksa dh tkudkjh izkIr djsa rFkk mldk mYys[k viuh fjiksZV esa djsaA

erns; LFky {ks= esa fo|eku Hkwfe lEcU/kh] tkfr ,oa /keZ lEcU/kh rFkk fdlh izdkj dh jaft”k vkfn ds fooknksa dh tkudkjh izkIr dj erns; LFky dh laosnu”khyrk dk vkadyu vius foosd ls djsa rFkk fjiksZV esa bldk mYys[k djsaA

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mijksDr funsZ”kksaZ ds vfrfjDr dfri; vU; fcUnqvksa ij vk[;k layXu izk:i ij miyC/k djk;h tkuh gSA d`i;k bu fcUnqvksa dks Hkh Hkyh izdkj ns[k ysa rFkk rnuqlkj viuh fjiksZV tksuy eftLVªsV ds ek/;e ls fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks miyC/k djkuk lqfuf”pr djsaA

dk;Zikyd eftLVªsVksa dh “kfDr;ka rFkk n.M izfØ;k lafgrk 1973] Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk 1860] yksd izfrfuf/kRo vf/kfu;e 1950 ,oa yksd izfrfuf/kRo vf/kfu;e 1951 ds fofHkUu izkfo/kkuksa ,oa fuokzpu lEcU/kh vijk/kksa dk O;kSjk layXud ds :i esa funsZ”kksa ds vUr esa fn;k tk jgk gSA vr% budk /;ku iwoZd v/;;u dj ysa rFkk vko”;drk iM+us ij foosdiw.kZ iz;ksx djsaA

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2- “kkfUriw.kZ ernku gsrq dk;Zokgh

oYujsfcfyVh [email protected]”khyrk dk fu/kkZj.kA

lsDVj eftLVªsV erns; LFkyksa ds fujh{k.k ds lkFk&lkFk ogka turk ls lEidZ dj muls ,sls O;fDr;ksa ftUgsa ernku djus ls Mjk;k&/kedk;k tkrk gS] ls okrkZ djsaxsA ;g tkuus dk iz;kl djsaxs fd fdlh ernkrk dks oksV Mkyus ls jksds tkus dh vk”kadk rks ugha gSA ;fn ,slk ikrs gSa rks mldh lwpuk miyC/k djk;saxsA blds fy, vko”;d gksxk fd lsDVj eftLVªsV ogka nks&rhu ?k.Vk O;rhr djsa vkSj turk esa ?kqy&feydj bu ckrksa dh tkudkjh izkIr djsaA

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lsDVj eftLVªsV vius {ks= ds laonsu”khy erns; LFkyksa ds lEcU/k esa ;g irk djsaxs fd laonsu”khyrk dk eq[; fcUnq D;k gS \ fdl izdkj ls bls de fd;k tk ldrk gS \ bldks de djus dk iz;kl djsaxs vkSj mldh fjiksVZ izLrqr djsaxsA

lsDVj eftLVªsV dks :V&pkVZ miyC/k djk;k x;k gSA :VpkVZ ds vuqlkj erns; LFkyksa dk Hkze.k djsaxs vkSj bl fcUnq dk fo”ks’k /;ku j[ksaxs fd fdlh ,sls ernku LFky tgka ij iksfyax ikfVZ;ksa dks igq¡pus esa 250 ehVj ls vf/kd iSny rks ugha pyuk iM+rk gS ;k mlds fy, dksbZ vPNk fodYi gks ldrk gS] bl ij lq>ko Hkh nsaxsA

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lsDVj eftLVªsV bl ckr ij Hkh /;ku nsaxs fd erns; LFkyksa ij “kkSpky;] ihus dk ikuh vkfn dh O;oLFkk miyC/k gS ;k ughaA
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fØfVdy cwFk ds fpUghadj.k ds fy, 5 rjg ds ekin.M vk;ksx }kjk fu/kkZfjr gSa %&

1-,sls erns; LFky ftlesa Without family linkage Js.kh ds ernkrkvksa dh la[;k lEcfU/kr fo/kku lHkk {ks= ds vkSlr ls vf/kd gSA

2-,sls erns; LFky ftuds vUrxZr oYujscy ernkrkvksa dk [email protected] vkrs gksaA

3-,sls erns; LFky ftu ij foxr vke fuokZpu esa 75 izfr”kr ls vf/kd ernku gqvk rFkk ,d izR;k”kh ds i{k esa 75 izfr”kr ls vf/kd er iM+sA

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4- ,sls erns; LFky tgka foxr vke pquko esa fuokZpu lEcU/kh vijk/k @/kka/kyh ds dkj.k iqueZrnku gqvkA

5- ,sls erns; LFky tgka foxr vke pquko esa pqukoh jaft”k ds dkj.k [email protected] gqbZA

,sls cwFkksa dks fpUgkfdar dj mudh lwph vkidks miyC/k djk nh x;h gS ftldh vki tkap djsaxs fd mijksDr dkj.kksa esa ls dkSu ls dkj.k gSa] ftlds dkj.k cwFk fØfVdy dh Js.kh esa vkrs gSaA

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Hkkjr fuokZpu vk;ksx ds fo”ks’k funsZ”kksa ds vUrxZr tksu vFkok lsDVj esa fLFkr ,sls [email protected]@vkcknh {ks=] tgka ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dh /kedh fn;s tkus] Mjkus vFkok LorU= ,oa fu’i{k ernku fd;s tkus esa ck/kk igqapkus dh lEHkkouk gS] ,sls [email protected]@vkcknh {ks= dh cwFkokj igpku dh tk;sxhA

lsDVj eftLVªsV }kjk bl lEcU/k esa izR;sd erns; LFky ds foLrkj {ks= ¼dSpesUV ,fj;k½ dk Hkh Hkze.k fd;k tk;sxkA bl lEcU/k esa lEcfU/kr Fkkuk/;{kksa] rglhynkj] [k.M fodkl vf/kdkjh ,oa vU; xzke Lrjh; deZpkfj;ksa ls Hkh ijke”kZ fy;k tk;sxkA rnksijkUr ,sls [email protected]@vkcknh {ks= dk fpUgkadu] tgka LorU= ,oa fu’i{k pquko esaa ck/kk igq¡p ldrh gS vfUre :i ls fd;k tk;sxkA bl gsrq lEcfU/kr {ks= esa gqbZ foxr ?kVukvksa ,oa orZeku lEHkkoukvksa ds vk/kkj ij Hkh vkadyu fd;k tk;sxkA

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lsDVj eftLVªsV }kjk bl izdkj ds [email protected]@ vkcknh {ks= ds LFkkuh; yksxksa ls lEidZ fd;k tk;sxk rFkk ,sls yksxksa dks fpfUgr fd;k tk;sxk] tks yksxksa dks Mjkus] /kedkus rFkk LorU= ,oa fu’i{k pquko esa ck/kk igq¡pkus okyksa ds lEcU/k esa lwpuk nsaxs rFkk ,slss O;fDr;ksa ds fujUrj lEidZ esa jgsaxs] ftlls Mjkus] /kedkus rFkk fu’i{k pquko esa ck/kk igq¡pkus dk iz;kl djus okys O;fDr;ksa ds fo:) dk;Zokgh lqfuf”pr dh tk ldsA ,sls O;fDr;ksa dh lwph fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks miyC/k djkbZ tk;sA

ernku ds fnu mi;qZDr izdkj ls oYujscy ernkrkvksa ds {ks=ksa esa lsDVj eftLVªsV rFkk rSukr lpy iqfyl ny de ls de nks ckj Hkze.k djsxk rFkk gj izdkj ls ;g lqfuf”pr djsxk fd ,sls ernkrkvksa dks ernku djus esa dksbZ dfBukbZ u gksA

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“kkfUr ,oa dkuwu O;oLFkk lEcU/kh dksbZ leL;k gks rks lEcfU/kr Fkkuk izHkkjh dks voxr djk;sa rFkk mldk fujkdj.k ,oa ml ij “kh?kz dk;Zokgh djkuk lqfuf”pr djsaA

lsDVj eftLVªsV vius {ks= dh vko”;drkvksa ,oa leL;kvksa dh fyf[kr fjiksVZ leh{kk cSBd esa vius tksuy eftLVªsV dks izLrqr djsaA tksuy eftLVªsV vius tksu ls lEcfU/kr lsDVjksa dh ladfyr lwpuk viuh lqLi’V vk[;k lfgr fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh dks miyC/k djk;saxsA

iksfyax ikVhZ izLFkku fnol ij vkidks dfri; lkexzh] izi=] fyQkQs ,oa vkjf{kr bZ0oh0,e0 vkfn miyC/k djkbZ tk;sxhA ;g lkexzh lhfer ek=k esa gS] vr% /;ku jgs fd bldk nq:i;ksx u gksA

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3- izLFkku fnol

loZizFke ernku dehZ izLFkku LFky ij yxs lwpuk iV~Vksa vFkok izHkkjh vf/kdkjh ¼dkfeZd½ ls fMdksfMax fLyi ftlesa okgu la[;k] erns; LFky la0 ,oa uke] uEcj rFkk fo/kku lHkk dk [email protected] vkfn dk fooj.k gksxk] izkIr djsa] rkfd M~;wVh ij yxk;s x;s leLr ernku dkfeZdksa dks ;g Kkr gks lds fd mldh M~;wVh fdl fo/kku lHkk {ks= esa fdl erns; LFky ij yxh gS rFkk fdl uEcj ds okgu ls mldks xUrO; LFky ds fy, jokuk gksuk gSA

lsDVj eftLVªsV lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd muds lsDVj ds leLr ihBklhu vf/kdkfj;ksa us fuokZpu lEcU/kh leLr lkexzh izkIr dj yh gSA

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lkexzh izkIr gksus ds mijkUr vki ernku Vksfy;ksa dk iw.kZ gksuk] muds ikl ys[[email protected] lEcU/kh lkexzh bZ0oh0,e0 bR;kfn] lEcfU/kr iqfyl dfeZ;ksa dk okgu esa mifLFkr gksuk] Vª[email protected] ,oa okgu uEcj Kkr dj fu;r ekxZ dk irk djus ds mijkUr gh lEcfU/kr okgu jokuk djsaxsA

tc vkids [email protected] dh leLr Vksfy;ka vius&vius xUrO; LFky dks izLFkku dj tk;sa rks izek.k i= gLrk{kfjr dj lsDVj eftLVsªsV vius ls lEcfU/kr tksuy eftLVªsV dks nsaxs rFkk tksuy eftLVªsV fuokZpu vf/kdkjh dks nsaxsA

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tksuy @ lsDVj eftLVªsV ;g vo”; lqfuf”pr djsa fd iksfyax ikfVZ;kaa fu/kkZfjr okgu ls fu/kkZfjr :V ls gh vius xUrO; LFky ds fy, izLFkku djsaA

leLr iksfyax ikfVZ;ksa esa lfEefyr deZpkfj;ksa dks nh tkus okyh /kujkf”k Hkh lHkh lsDVj eftLVªsV] ofj’B dks’kkf/kdkjh] ls izkIr djsaxsA ernku dfeZ;ksa dks ;g /kujkf”k erns; LFky ls vyx LFkku ij forfjr ugha dh tk;sxhA

[email protected] eftLVªsV ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd lHkh iksfyax ikfVZ;ka le; ls fu/kkZfjr iksafyx cwFk ij igq¡p tk;sa rFkk vius erns; LFky ij gh fuokl djsa rFkk LFkkuh; fdlh Hkh O;fDr ;k O;fDRk;ksa dk vkfrF; Lohdkj u djsaA

slide24

fdlh Hkh n”kk esa ihBklhu vf/[email protected] vf/kdkjh vius erns; LFky ls vuqifLFkr ugha jgsaxsA ernku LFky ij vuqifLFkr ik;s tkus okys ernku dfeZ;ksa ds lEcU/k esa lwpuk tksuy eq[;ky; dks nsa rkfd muds fo:) dk;Zokgh gks lds vkSj oSdfYid O;oLFkk djk;h tk ldsA

;g lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd fuokZpu lkexzh bZ0oh0,e0] ernkrk lwph] vkfn lkexzh lqjf{kr :i ls erns; LFky ij igq¡p x;h gS vkSj ernku dh frfFk rd iw.kZ lqjf{kr gSA leLr lsDVj eftLVªsV ;g Hkh Kkr dj ysa fd ihBklhu vf/kdkfj;ksa }kjk dk;ksZi;ksxh bZ0oh0,e0 gh izkIr dh x;h gS vkSj mls lapkfyr djus dh izfØ;k dh Hkyh&Hkkafr tkudkjh gSA bl dkj.k ls ernku esa dksbZ ck/kk mRiUu u gksus ik;sA blds fy, ;g Hkh vko”;d gS fd bZ0oh0,e0 dks fof/kor lapkfyr djus dh tkudkjh vki Hkh dj ysaA

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tSlk fd vki voxr gh gS fd ernku dkfeZdksa dks 3 ckj iwokZH;kl djk;k tk jgk gS fQj Hkh vki vius Lrj ls ernku dkfeZdksa dks ernku dh vkSipkfjd ,oa vU; tfVyrkvksa dks nwj djus dk iz;kl djsa rFkk mudh izR;sd leL;k dk fujkdj.k djsaA

ernku dkfeZdksa dks vius Lrj ls iqu% voxr djk nsa fd ernku fnol ls fnukad dks izkr% 6 cts ls leLr vko”;d O;oLFkk;sa iw.kZ dj erns; LFky ds vUnj vius LFkku xzg.k dj ysaxs] blesa fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ ykijokgh u cjrh tk;s rkfd fuf”pr le; izkr% 7 cts ls ernku izkjEHk gks ldsA

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[email protected] eftLVªsV vius Hkze.k ds nkSjku ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs ernku dh lekfIr ds le; ds 48 ?k.Vs iwoZ dh le;kof/k esa fdlh Hkh vH;[email protected] rFkk jktuSfrd nyksa }kjk pquko izpkj ugha fd;k tk jgk gSA ;fn dksbZ pquko izpkj djrk gqvk ik;k tk;s rks vkn”kZ vkpkj lafgrk ds mYy?kau dh lwpuk ftyk fuokZpu dk;kZy; dks nh tk; rFkk rRdky pquko izpkj vkfn cUn djk fn;s tk;saA

pwafd fuokZpu tSls egRoiw.kZ dk;Z ds “kkfUriw.kZ lapkyu dk mRrj nkf;Ro vkidks lkSaik x;k gS blls ;g vkids }kjk jkf= foJke Hkh vius&vius eq[;ky; ij gh djuk gSA vkids lqj{kk ,oa “kkfUr O;oLFkk ds fy, iqfyl cy dh O;oLFkk dh x;h gSA

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leLr [email protected] eftLVªsV ;g Hkh ns[ksaxs fd iksfyax LVs”ku ij leLr O;oLFkk;sa iw.kZ gSa rFkk cSjhdsfVax izdk”k O;oLFkk] iksfyax LVs”ku cuuk vkfn O;oLFkk;sa eqdEey gSaA

mi&ftykf/[email protected] rglhynkj dks funsZf”kr fd;k x;k gS fd {ks= esa iM+us okys leLr iksfyax cwFkksa ij ,d jktLo deZpkjh dh rSukrh dj nsa] tks leLr O;oLFkkvksa gsrq mRrjnk;h gksxkA ;fn lsDVj eftLVªsV ds fujh{k.k ij dksbZ deh ik;h tkrh gS rks mls rqjUr nwj djk;saxsA

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4- ernku fnol

lsDVj eftLVªsV vius {ks= esa ernku dh frfFk dks izkr% 04 cts ls Hkze.k ij fudysaxs vkSj izkr% 07 cts ls iwoZ leLr cwFkksa dk fujh{k.k dj lHkh O;oLFkk;sa lqfuf”pr djk;saxs rkfd ernku fu;r le; ls izkjEHk gks ldsA

ernku ds fnu lsDVj eftLVªsV ;g Hkh ns[ksaxs fd oYujscy fpfUgr {[email protected];ksa ls ernkrk ernku gsrq mifLFkr gks jgs gSa vFkok ugha \ bl gsrq ernkrk lwph dh lR;kfir izfr dk voyksdu dj Kkr fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;fn ,slh fLFkfr ikbZ tkrh gS rks lsDVj esa yxk;s x;s iqfyl cy dks ,sls {ks=ksa esa Hkstk tk;sxk rFkk ;g lqfuf”pr fd;k tk;sxk fd ernkrk vius erkf/kdkj dk LorU= ,oa fuHkZ; gksdj iz;ksx djsaA

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lsDVj eftLVªsV vius&vius {ks= esa ;g lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd iksfyax LVs”ku ij dksbZ Hkh O;fDr ;k jktuSfrd ny 200 eh0 dh ifjf/k esa dksbZ Vs.V vFkok “kkfe;kuk u yxk;saA 200 eh0 dh ifjf/k ds ckgj ;fn og dksbZ dSEi yxkrk gS rks mlesa vf/kdre ,d est] nks dqlhZ] /kwi vFkok cjlkr ls cpus ds fy, Åij Nrjh ;k f=iky dk diM+k yxk gksA

200 ehVj dh ifjf/k esa dksbZ Hkh mEehnokj er;kpuk ugha djsxkA lsDVj eftLVª[email protected] eftLVªsVksa mEehnokjksa }kjk yxk;s x;s dSEi esa HkhM+ ,df=r ugha gksus nsaxsA tks O;fDr ernku dj pqds gksa mudks ,sls dSEiksa esa fcydqy cSBus ugha nsaxsA

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;fn LFky futh dk gS rks izR;sd ,sls dSEi yxkus gsrq LFkku ls lEcfU/kr “kkldh; vf/kdkjh] LFkkuh; vf/[email protected] ikfydk ifj’[email protected] iapk;[email protected] iapk;r ds vf/kdkfj;ksa ls dSEi yxkus dh vuqefr ysuh gksxhA

bl dSEi esa fdlh izdkj dk /ofu foLrkjd ;U= ;k bLrgkj yxkuk iw.kZr% fuf’k) gSA lkFk gh dksbZ O;fDr fdlh ds dSEi ls izpkj lkexzh dk forj.k ugha djsxk vkSj u gh dksbZ cSuj] >.Mk vFkok mEehnokj ds uke dk dksbZ cksMZ vkfn yxk;saxsA dsoy ernkrkvksa dks vko”;d fooj.k dh iphZ tks lQsn dkxt ij gksxh ftl ij ny dk fpUg vkSj u gh mEehnokj dk uke vafdr gks ns ldrs gSaA

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leLr tksuy eftLVªsVksa dk iw.kZ nkf;Ro gksxk fd og vius tksu dh izR;sd 2 ?k.Vs ds vUrjky ls ernku izfr”kr dh lwpuk nwjlapkj vFkok ok;jysl ds ek/;e ls dUVªksy :e vFkok ftyk fuokZpu dk;kZy; dks nsaxsA ;g lwpuk os vius lsDVj eftLVªsVksa ds ek/;e ls ,df=r djsaxs] og lwpuk izkr% 07 cts ernku izkjEHk gksus ij rnksijkUr 09 cts] 11 cts] 01 cts] 03 cts o vfUre fjiksZV 05 cts ernku lekfIr dh dq”kyrk lfgr HkstsaxsA

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tksuy eftLVª[email protected] eftLVªsV ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd muds {ks= esa dsoy miftyk fuokZpu vf/[email protected] lgk;d fuokZpu vf/[email protected] eftLVª[email protected] vks0 }kjk tkjh fd;s x;s ijfeVksa ds vk/kkj ij okgu py jgsa gSaA vU; fdlh izdkj dk okgu tks ernkrk dks <ksus dk dk;Z dj jgs gksa mUgsa pyus ugha fn;k tk;sxkA

;fn dksbZ okgu fcuk vuqefr ds pyrk ik;k tk; rks mls tCr dj ysaxsA ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd ftu okguksa dks ijfeV fn;k x;k gS mlesa vf/kd`r O;fDr ds vykok vU; dksbZ vukf/kd`r O;fDr u cSBk gksA

oSls ernkrk tks vius futh okgu ls ernku djus vk jgs gSa mUgsa jksdk ugha tk;sxkA

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vius&vius {ks= esa ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd vkids {ks= esa pyus okys okguksa dh leqfpr [email protected]”kh yh tk jgh gSA fo”ks’k :i ls okgu esa O;fDr;ksa dh la[;k @ “kL=ksa ,oa fuf’k) oLrqvksa dh Nkuchu dj yh x;h gSA

izR;sd lsDVj eftLVsªV lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd muds }kjk vius {ks= esa iM+us okys ernku dsUnz ij izR;sd ?k.Vs esa vfuok;Z :i ls Hkze.k fd;k tk jgk gSA leLr lsDVj eftLVª[email protected] eftLVªsV Hkze.k dh izfof’V ihBklhu vf/kdkjh ds ikl miyC/k iaftdk esa vafdr djsaxsA ;g Hkh vko”;d gS fd Hkze.k ds nkSjku ihBklhu vf/kdkjh ls feydj tc izLFkku djsa rks ihBklhu vf/kdkjh dks ;g voxr djk nsa fd vki fdl erns; LFky dh vksj tk jgs gSa rkfd fdlh Hkh vkdfLerk ij ihBklhu vf/kdkjh vkidks lwpuk miyC/k djk ldsaA

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[email protected] eftLVªsV ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr dj ysa fd dksbZ O;fDr ;fn “kL= ysdj Hkze.k dj jgk gS vFkok iz;ksx dj jgk gS rks ,slh fLFkfr esa mls rqjUr fgjklr esa ysdj lEcfU/kr Fkkuk/;{k dh vfHkj{kk esa vko”;d dk;Zokgh gsrq nsa nsaxsA

;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd muds {ks= es dksbZ “kjkc dh nqdku [qkyh rks ugha gS \ minzo djus okys O;fDr ds fo:) rRdky izHkkoh dk;Zokgh djsaA

;g Hkh ns[ksa fd mEehnokj vkSj muds vfHkdrkZvksa ds okgu] ftudks lEcfU/kr eftLVªsV }kjk ikl fn;k x;k gS] ernkrkvksa dks ykus esa iz;ksx rks ugha fd;s tk jgs gSaA ;fn ,slk djrs gq, ik;k tk;s rks okguksa dks rqjUr tCr dj fy;k tk;sA

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{ks= esa ;fn dksbZ vO;oLFkk gksrh gS rks mldk n`<+rk ls fujkdj.k fd;k tk;sA vki vius {ks= dks dnkfi ugha NksMsaxs] lEcfU/kr Fkkus dks izR;sd leL;k dh lwpuk rRdky Hkst nsaxs vkSj vius Lrj ls Hkh izHkkoh dk;Zokgh djsaxsA

ernku dsUnz ij lHkh iksfyax ,ts.V mlh Hkkx la[;k ds ernkrk gksus pkfg, rFkk lcds ikl ernkrk igpku i= vfuok;Z :i ls gksuk pkfg,A

ernku dsUnz ds vUnj rFkk 100 ehVj dh ifjf/k ds vUnj fuokZpu lEcU/kh inkf/kdkfj;ksa ds vfrfjDr fdlh Hkh O;fDr }kjk eksckby Qksu j[kuk oftZr gSA

dksbZ vukf/kdd`r O;fDr ernkrk ernku gsrq mifLFkr u gks vkSj u gh ernku djus ik;sA

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erns; LFky ij ernku vfHkdrkZ] ihBklhu vf/kdkjh }kjk fuxZr izos”k&i= “kjhj ij lkeus dh vksj vklkuh ls ns[kus okys Hkkx ij yxk;sxkA

;g fd iksfyax LVs”ku ij erns; LFky ds Hkhrj dksbZ vukf/kd`r O;fDr u cSBk gksA

;g Hkh fd ernku ds fnu dksbZ Hkh flusek pyrk gqvk u ik;k tk;s vksj ;fn ik;k tkrk gS rks mls rRdky cUn djok dj mlds fo:) dBksj dk;Zokgh dh tk;sA

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;g Hkh fd ihBklhu vf/[email protected] vf/kdkjh dks fuokZpu dk;Z djkus esa dksbZ ijs”kkuh vFkok dfBukbZ rks ugha gks jgh gSA ;fn gks jgh gS rks vius foosd ls leqfpr O;oLFkk lqfuf”pr djsaA

tks iqfyl dehZ iksfyax ikVhZ ,oa eftLVªsV ds lkFk M~;wVh ij jgsaxs] muds lkFk lkSgknZ iw.kZ lEcU/k j[ksaxs vkSj mudk fu’i{k] LorU=] “kkfUriw.kZ ,oa fufoZ?u pquko djkus esa lg;ksx nsaxsA

[email protected] eftLVªsV tc Hkh vius {ks= ds erns; LFky ij tk;sa] xkM+h ls mrjrs gh ,slh j.kuhfr cuk;s ,oa iqfyl deZpkfj;ksa dks bl rjg ls funsZ”k ns fd ml {ks= esa xM+cM+h djus okys O;fDr;ksa ds eu esa ng”kr mRiUu gks vkSj ;fn ksbZ mPJa`[ky O;fDr gks rks og rRdky Hkkx tk;sA

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ernku [email protected] ij [kM+s u jgsa cfYd dk;Z ij n`f’V j[krs gq, b/kj&m/kj yksxksa ,oa oLrqvksa dks ns[krs jgsa rFkk yxkrkj l?ku tkap iM+rky ,oa iwNrkN djrs jgsaA

[email protected] eftLVªsV ;g Hkh lqfuf”pr djsaxs fd ernku dh vof/k esa fdlh Hkh ernku dsUnz esa dksbZ v”kkfUr iSnk u gks vkSj ernku fu’i{k] “kkfUriw.kZ vkSj fufoZ?u lEiUu gksA

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5- ernku ds mijkUr

ihBklhu vf/kdkjh }kjk er i= ys[kk ¼17lh½ HkyhHkkafr rS;kj dj lHkh iksfyax ,ts.Vksa ds gLrk{kj djk fy;s x;s gSaA bZ0oh0,e0 daVªksy ;wfuV dk ^^Dykst** cVu nckdj fof/kor lhy fd;k x;k gSA cSVjh dk fLop vkQ dj fn;k x;k gSA lkafof/kd rFkk vlkafof/kd fyQkQksa dks HkyhHkkafr rS;kj dj lhy dj fy;k x;k gSA ihBklhu Mk;jh esa ldq”ky ernku lEiUu gksus dh vaduk dh x;h gS

ernku dh leLr ernku Vksfy;ka vius ls lEcfU/kr bZ0oh0,e0 e”khu o vU; leLr vfHkys[kksa lfgr fu;r okgu ls ,oa ftl ekxZ ls ernku LFky x;h Fkh mlh ekxZ ls okil vk;saxhA tc fdlh okgu dh leLr ernku Vksfy;ka ,df=r gks tk;asa rks okgu pydj bZ0oh0,e0 e”khu ,oa vU; lkexzh ysdj vius LFkku ij igq¡psxkA okgu fdlh Hkh fLFkfr esa u rks vius fu;r ekxZ ls gVsxk vkSj u gh jkLrs esa :dsxkA dgha Hkh okgu ds pk; ;k Hkkstu vkfn ds fy, jksdus ls vuko”;d Hkze gksrk gS ftl dkj.k fu’i{k fuokZpu ij iz”u fpUg yxrs gq, vuko”;d f”kdk;rsa gksrh gSaA

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vkidks lqfuf”pr djuk gS fd ernku ds mijkUr leLr Vksfy;ka mlh “kkldh; okgu ls leLr fuokZpu lkexzh ds lkFk lEcfU/kr laxzg dsUnz LFky ij igq¡p x;h gSA mldh lwpuk lEcfU/kr lgk;d fuokZpu vf/[email protected],l0Mh0,e0 dks] ftyk fuokZpu vf/kdkjh dks] miftyk fuokZpu vf/kdkjh dks ,oa daVªksy :e dks ns nsaA

tc vkids {ks= esa leLr erns; LFkyksa ls lEcfU/kr bZ0oh0,e0 e”khus] lhYM vfHkys[k ,oa vU; vfHkys[k tek gks tk;sa rc lEcfU/kr fuokZpu vf/kdkjh] ftyk fuokZpu vf/[email protected] ftyk fuokZpu vf/kdkjh ,oa daVªksy :e dks voxr djk;saxsA

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fdlh Hkh n”kk esa dksbZ [email protected] eftLVªsV rc rd ml LFky dks ugha NksMsaxs tc rd mlds {ks= ls lEcfU/kr leLr erns; LFkyksa dh bZ0oh0,e0 e”khu] lhYM vfHkys[k ,oa vU; vfHkys[k fof/kor u tek dj fn;s x;s gksaA

leLr lsDVj eftLVªsV bl vk”k; dk izek.k i= fd muds lsDVj ds izR;sd erns; LFky ij pquko “kkfUr iwoZd rFkk fufoZ?u lEiUu gqvk rFkk fdlh Hkh erns; LFky ij iquZernku dh vko”;drk ¼tSlk Hkh gks½ vius tksuy eftLVªsV dks nsaxs rFkk tksuy eftLVªsV mUgsa ladfyr dj fuokZpu vf/kdkjh dks miyC/k djk;saxsA bl lwpuk esa vki viuk vkoklh; irk ,oa nwjHkk’k gks rks nwjHkk’k uEcj rFkk eksckby uEcj Hkh vafdr djsaxsA

rRi”pkr fjVfuaZx vf/kdkjh gh [email protected] eftLVªsV dks ifjlj NksM+us dh vuqefr nsaxsA

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ernku fnol ij lwpukvksa dk izs’k.k

1- izFke lwpuk %& ernku izkjEHk gksus dh izkr% 7 cts

2- f}rh; lwpuk %& izkr% 09 cts] 11 cts] vijkg~u 01 cts ,oa 03 ctsA

v& O;oLFkk lEcU/kh

c& “kkfUr iwoZd ernku dh fLFkfr

l& dksbZ vfiz; ?kVuk lEcU/kh

n& ernku dk izfr”kr

3- r`rh; lwpuk %& lk;a 05 cts ernku lekfIr ij ernku ldq”ky lEiUu gksus lEcU/kh lwpuk ,oa ernku dk izfr”krA

4- prqFkZ lwuk %& lHkh ernku Vksfy;ka ernku ds mijkUr erns; LFky ls jokuk gks pqdh gSaA

5- iape lwpuk %& lHkh ernku Vksfy;ksa }kjk bZ0oh0,e0 e”khu ,oa vU; lhYM vfHkys[k vkfn laxzg LFky ij fo/kku lHkkokj cuk;s x;s dkmUVjksa ij tek dj fn;s x;s gSaA

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6- fuokZpu lEcU/kh vijk/k

Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk ds vUrxZr n.Muh; vijk/k

/kkjk 171 [email protected]& fdlh nwljs O;fDr ds uke ls oksV Mkyuk

bl /kkjk ds vUrxZr vijk/k gSA

/kkjk 171 ,[email protected]& blds fy, ,d o’kZ dk dkjkokl vFkok vFkZn.M vFkok nksuksa gh ltk dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 171 [email protected]& xyr oksV Mkyus vFkok Myokus ds fy, fj”or nsukA blds fy, ,d o’kZ dh ltk vFkok vFkZn.M vFkok nksuksa dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 171 [email protected]& xyr rjhds ls oksV Mkyus gsrq ncko MkyukA blds fy, ,d o’kZ dh ltk vFkok vFkZn.M vFkok nksuksa dk izkfo/kku gSA

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/kkjk 171 [email protected]& foi{kh mEehnokj ds O;fDrxr pfj= ,oa vkpj.k ds lEcU/k esa >wBk c;ku nsus ds fy, vFkZn.M dh ltk dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 171 ,[email protected]& pquko lEcU/kh lsok ftldk lEcU/k vke lHkk rFkk izpkj ls gks ds lEcU/k esa gSa rFkk ys[kk izLrqr djuk rFkk xyr Hkqxrku djukA

/kkjk 171 [email protected]& fu;eksa ds vuqlkj pquko lEcU/kh ys[kk dk j[k&j[kko u djukA

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7- yksd izfrfuf/kRo vf/k0 ds vUrxZr vijk/k

laKs; vijk/k

/kkjk 125& fuokZpu ds nkSjku oxksZa ds chp /keZ] tkfr lEiznk; Hkk’kk ds vk/kkj ij “k=qrk vFkok ?k`.kk dh Hkkouk mRiUu djuk vFkok QSykuk vFkok bldk iz;kl djukA blds fy, rhu o’kZ dk dkjkokl] tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 127d& iqfLrdkvksa] iksLVjksa vkfn ds eqnz.k ij izfrcU/k

dksbZ O;fDr ,slk iksLVj ;k iqLrd ftlds eq[; i`’B ij mlds eqnzd vkSj izdk”kd ds uke vkSj irs u gks] u Nki ldsxk vkSj u gh izdkf”kr djsxk vkSj u gh djk;sxkA mYy?kau dh n”kk esa 6 ekg dk dkjkokl vFkok 2000 #i;s rd dk tqekZuk ;k nksuk n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

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/kkjk 129& pquko esa fu;qDr dksbZ Hkh vf/[email protected] deZpkjh fdlh vH;FkhZ ds fy, fdlh izdkj ds izsjd dk dke ugha djsxkA mYy?kau dh n”kk esa 6 ekg dk dkjkokl vFkok tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku

  • gSA
  • /kkjk 130& ernku dsUnzksa ij ernku ds fy, fu;r le; ds nkSjku Lo;a vukpkj djuk ;k ihBklhu vf/kdkjh ds fof/k laxr funsZ”kksa dh vogsyuk djukA blds fy, 3 ekg dk dkjkokl ;k vFkZn.M ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA
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/kkjk 132& fuokZpu esa vius in dk nq:i;ksx djuk vFkok drZO; dk lqpk: :i ls ikyu u djukA

/kkjk 134[k& ernku dsUnz ;k blds fudV voS/k :i ls “kL= dk izn”kZu& blds fy, vFkZ n.M ;k nks o’kZ dk dkjkokl vFkok nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 135d& cwFk dSipfjax bl /kkjk ds vUrxZr vijk/k gS& blds fy, 3 o’kZ rd dh ltk tks de ls de ,d o’kZ rd dh gksxhA ;fn ;g vijk/k ljdkjh O;fDr }kjk fd;k tkrk gS rks ltk 5 o’kZ rd dh gksxh tks de ls de 3 o’kZ gksxh rFkk vkfFkZd n.M dk Hkh izkfo/kku gSA

slide48

/kkjk 136& bl /kkjk esa of.kZr fuEu vijk/k Hkh laKs; vijk/k dh Js.kh esa gSa %&

fuokZpu esa diViwoZd fdlh ds uke dks oksVj fyLV ls gVkukA

fjVfuaZx vQlj ds funsZ”kksa ds }kjk ;k mlds v/khu yxk;h x;h lwpuk vFkok nLrkost dks diV iwoZd gVkuk ;k u’V djukA

er i= ;k “kkldh; fyQkQs dks fo:fir djukA

fcuk fdlh fof/kd vf/kdkj ds fdlh O;fDr dk eri= nsuk vFkok fdlh ds dCts ls er i= Nhuuk ;k ysukA

fcuk fdlh funsZ”ku ds diViwoZd iwoZorhZ dk;ksZa esa dksbZ dk;Z djuk ;k djus dk iz;Ru djuk ;k lgk;rk djukA

ljdkjh deZpkjh }kjk mYy?kaau djus ij 2 o’kZ dk dkjkokl ;k tqekZuk vFkok nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA lkekU; O;fDr }kjk vijk/k djus ij 6 ekg dk dkjkokl dk izkfo/kku gSA

slide49

vlaKs; vijk/k

/kkjk 126& ernku lekfIr ds fy, fu;r fd;s x;s le; ds lkFk lekIr gksus okys 48 ?k.Vksa dh dky&vof/k ds nkSjku fuokZpu ds lEcU/k esa lkoZtfud lHkk vFkok tqywl vFkok py fp= Vhoh vkfn ds ek/;e ls turk ds le{k izn”kZu djuk vFkok laxhr vkfn ds ek/;e ls vuqfpr izpkj djuk blds fy, 2 o’kZ dk dkjkokl vFkok tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 127& fuokZpu lHkkvksa esa minzo& blds fy, 6 ekg dk dkjkokl] tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M nsus dk izkfo/kku gSA

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/kkjk 128& ernku ds nkSjku xksiuh;rk ds fo:) dk;Z djuk& blds fy, 3 ekg dk dkjkokl vFkok tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 131& ernku dsUnz ;k mlds fudV fod`r vkpj.k izn”kZu& blds fy, 3 ekg dk dkjkokl] tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

/kkjk 134d& fdlh ljdkjh lsod vFkok fdlh vU; O;fDr }kjk fuokZpu vfHkdrkZ] ernku vfHkdrkZ ;k x.kuk vfHkdrkZ ds :i esa voS/k dk;Z djuk& blds fy, 3 ekg dk dkjkokl] tqekZuk ;k nksuks n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

slide51

/kkjk 135x& ernku ds fnu ernku lekIr gksus ds fy, fu;r le; ds lkFk lekIr gksus okyh 48 ?k.Vksa dh vof/k ds nkSjku ernku {ks=ksa ds Hkhrj fdlh Hkh LFkku ij “kjkc vkfn dh fcØh ij jksd dk izkfo/kku& mYy?kau djus ij 6 ekg dk dkjkokl] tqekZuk ;k nksuksa n.M dk izkfo/kku gSA

slide52

n.M izfØ;k lafgrk ds vUrxZr eftLVªsV ds vf/kdkj

/kkjk 44& eftLVªsV }kjk fxj¶rkjh& ;fn fdlh eftLVªsV dh mifLFkfr esa mldh vf/kdkfjrk ds vUnj dksbZ vijk/k fd;k tkrk gS rks ;g vijk/kh dks Lo;a fxj¶rkj dj ldrk gS ;k fxj¶rkj djus ds fy, fdlh O;fDr dks vkns”k ns ldrk gSA

/kkjk 50& fxj¶rkj fd;s x;s O;fDr dks mldh fxj¶rkjh ds lEcU/k esa tks Hkh vf/kdkj] mlls voxr djk;k tk;sxkA

/kkjk 55& fxj¶rkj fd;s x;s O;fDr dks vf/kdkfjrk j[kus okys eftLVªsV ds le{k ;k fdlh iqfyl Fkkus ds Hkkj lk/kd vf/kdkjh ds le{k Hkstk tk;sxkA

slide53

/kkjk 167& fxj¶rkj fd;s x;s O;fDr dks 24 ?k.Vs ls vf/kd fu:/k ugha fd;k tk;sxkA

/kkjk 129& bl /kkjk ds vUrxZr flfoy cy ds iz;ksx ls fof/k fo:) teko dks frrj&fcrj djk;k tk ldrk gSA

/kkjk 130& fof/k fo:) teko dks frrj&fcrj djus ds fy, l”kL= cy iz;ksxA

/kkjk 144& iwjs tuin esa fu’ks/kkKk ikfjr dh x;h gS ftldk mYy?kau 188 vkbZ0 ih0 lh0 ds vUrxZr n.Muh; gSA

slide54

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu&2012

[email protected] eftLVªsV dk izek.k&i= la[;k&1

fo/kku lHkk {ks= %&

[email protected] dh la0 o uke %&

izekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd eSus vius [email protected] dk nkSjk dj fy;k gS ,oa lHkh erns; LFkyksa dks ns[k fy;k gSA eSa vius lsDVj ds leLr jkLrksa ,oa vU; leL;kvksa ls voxr gks x;k gw¡A

fnukad ------------------------------------------ [email protected] eftLVªsV------------

uke o inuke

slide55

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu&2012

[email protected] eftLVªsV dk izek.k&i= la[;k&2

fo/kku lHkk {ks= %&

[email protected] dh la0 o uke %&

izekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd esjs lsDVj ds vUrxZr ftruh Hkh ernku Vksfy;ka gSa] og lc vius esa iw.kZ gSa vkSj vius erns; LFkyksa dks fu;r okgu }kjk izLFkku dj pqdh gSA mUgsa fu;r ekxZ ls tkus gsrq funsZf”kr dj fn;k x;k gS rFkk ;g Hkh funsZf”kr dj fn;k x;k gS fd og fu;r ekxZ ls gh okilh ds xUrO; LFkku ij igq¡psaxsA

fnukad ------------------------------------------ [email protected] eftLVªsV-----------------------

uke o inuke

slide56

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu&2012

[email protected] eftLVªsV dk izek.k&i= la[;k&3

fo/kku lHkk {ks= %&

[email protected] dh la0 o uke %&

izekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd esjs lsDVj ls lEcfU/kr ernku Vksfy;ka iw.kZ gSa rFkk lEcfU/kr erns; LFkyksa ij igq¡p pqdh gSaA leLr Vksfy;ksa ds ikl fuokZpu lkexzh iw.kZ gSa ,oa leLr Vksfy;ksa dks Vh0,[email protected],0 dk Hkqxrku udn izkIr gks pqdk gSA

fnukad ------------------------------------------ [email protected] eftLVªsV--------------------

uke o inuke

slide57

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu&2012

[email protected] eftLVªsV dk izek.k&i= la[;k&4

fo/kku lHkk {ks= %&

[email protected] dh la0 o uke %&

izekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS ernku mijkUr esjs lsDVj esa lEcfU/kr leLr ernku Vksfy;ka vius LFky ij igq¡p x;h gSaA leLr ernku Vksfy;ksa us bZ0oh0,e0 e”khu ,oa vU; vfHkys[k tek dj fn;s gSaA

esjs lsDVj esa lekfo’V leLr erns; LFkyksa ij ernku ldq”ky lEiUu gqvk vkSj fdlh izdkj dh dksbZ vfiz; ?kVuk ugha gqbZ gSA

fnukad ------------------------------------------ [email protected] eftLVªsV--------------------

uke o inuke

slide58

fo/kku lHkk lkekU; fuokZpu&2012 ds lEcU/k esa lwpuk

fo/kku lHkk dk uke ---------------------------------------- lsDVj la[;k -----------------------------

lsDVj eq[;ky; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

lsDVj esa lfEefyr ernku LFkyksa ds uEcj -------------------------------------------------------

erns; LFkyksa dh la[;k o uke &

1- leLr erns; LFkyksa dk Lo;a Hkze.k djsa] ;g lwpuk erns; LFkyokj rS;kj dh tk;sxhA

2-¼d½ fo/kku lHkk {ks= rd :V pkVZ esa fn;s x;s fu/kkZfjr ekxZ dks Lo;a ns[kdj crk;sa fd D;k ;g ekxZ fu/kkZfjr ernku LFky rd okgu igq¡pus ds fy, lgh gSA dgha dksbZ vojks/[email protected] gks rks mYys[k djsaA

¼[k½ D;k ernku dsUnz Hkou ernku djkus gsrq mi;qDr gSA vLFkkbZ erns; ;fn gS rks o’kkZ ds le; D;k oSdfYid O;oLFkk dh tk;sxh] mYys[k djsaA

¼x½ erns; LFkyksa ij ihus ds ikuh dh O;oLFkk dSlh gS] gS.M iEi lgh gS ;k ughaA

¼?k½ erns; LFkyksa ij ernkrkvksa ds [kM+s gksus ds fy;s D;k i;kZIr LFkku gS \

¼³½ erns; LFky dh f[kM+dh njoktk ,oa Nr dh orZeku fLFkfr dSlh gSA

slide59

3-d& D;k lsDVj esa iwoZ fuokZpuksa esa fdlh izdkj dk fookn gqvk gS \

[k& ,sls fookn dk iw.kZ bfrgkl ,oa fooj.k

x& ,slh dk;Zokgh ij lsDVj ds {ks= ds yksxksa dh izfrfØ;k D;k gS \

4-d& orZeku esa ml lsDVj esa dksbZ fookn gS rks mldk fooj.kA

[k& ,sls fookn ds fujkdj.k gsrq ftyk iz”[email protected] }kjk vHkh rd dh x;h dk;Zokgh A

x& ,slh dk;Zokgh ij lsDVj ds {ks= ds yksxksa dh izfrfØ;k D;k gS \

5-d& lsDVj ds {ks= ds O;fDr;[email protected]/k;ksa ds uke tks orZeku fuokZpu esa O;o/kku dj ldrs gSaA

[k& ,sls O;fDRk;ksa @ vijkf/k;ksa ds lEcU/k esa vHkh rd dh x;h dk;zokgh \

x& ,slh dk;Zokgh ds lEcU/k esa lsDVj ds {ks= ds yksxksa dh izfrfØ;k \

?k& vkidk lq>ko&

slide60

6-d& D;k lsDVj ds {ks= ds ,sls [email protected] {ks= tgka LorU= ,oa fu’i{k ernku esa ck/kk igq¡pkbZ tk ldrh gS] ds [email protected] vkcknh {ks= dk mYys[k djsaA

[k& ,sls izeq[k O;fDr tks fucZy oxZ ds ernkrkvksa dks ernku djus ls jksdus dk iz;kl dj jgs gSa] ds [email protected] dk [email protected]

7- eksgYys esa fdrus “kL= ykblasl gSa \ d;k lHkh ds “kL= tek djk fy;s x;s gSa ;k ugha \

8-d& erns; LFky dk VsyhQksu uEcj ;fn dksbZ gks

[k& erns; LFky ds utnhd dk VsyhQksu uEcj

x& VsyhQksu /kkjd dk uke o irk

9- dksbZ vijk/kh tks vc rd fxj¶rkj ugha gqvk] dh lwphA

10- lsDVj {ks= esa dksbZ laØfer chekjh rks ugha QSyh gSA

11- lsDVj {ks= esa pkSdhnkj gS vfkok ugha] mldk uke] irk o dSlh Nfc gSA

slide61

12- D;k vkidh n`f’V esa ;g erns; LFky %&

lkekU;@laonsu”[email protected]”khy gS] laonsu”khyrk dk dkj.k fyf[k,A

13- bl ernku LFky ds fy, iz”kklu }kjk okafNr dk;Zokgh dh laLrqfr&

14- foxr fo/kku lHkk fuokZpu esa fudVre izfr)Unh dk uke rFkk orZeku pquko esa mldh D;k Hkwfedk gS \

15- D;k vkius fo/kku lHkk {ks= ds lEcfU/kr Fkkus ij Hkze.k dj fy;k gS ;k ugha %&

16- Fkkus ij j[kh fuokZpu dh iaftdk tks vkids ernku dsUnzksa ds fo’k; esa dh xbZ fVIif.k;ksa ij vkidh jk; gS &

viuk Li’V er nsa&

17- D;k ernku LFky ij fodykaxksa ds fy, jSEi dh vko”;drk gS ;fn gka rks yxHkx fdruk yEck fuekZ.k djuk iMs+xk rFkk fuekZ.k esa yxHkx fdruk [kpZ vk;sxkA

18- erns; LFkys ds vUnj ernku vfHkdrkZvksa ds cSBus dh i;kZIr txg miyc/k gS ;k ugha \ ;fn ugha rks oSdfYid O;oLFkk D;k gks ldrh gS] mYys[k djsaA

lsDVj eftLVsªsV dk uke &--------------------------------

foHkkxh; inuke ------------------------------------------------------------

¼dk;kZy; uke lfgr½----------------------------------------------------------

eksckby Qksu uEcj -----------------------------------------------------------------

?kj dk Qksu uEcj ------------------------------------------

?kj dk irk -------------------------------------------

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