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Classroom presentations to accompany Understanding Earth , 3rd edition. prepared by Peter Copeland and William Dupré University of Houston. Chapter 5 Volcanism. Volcanoes. Plumbing System of a Volcano. Fig. 5.1. May 1990 Eruption of Kilauea, Hawaii. James Cachero/Sygma.

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Classroom presentations to accompany understanding earth 3rd edition

Classroom presentations to accompany Understanding Earth, 3rd edition

prepared by

Peter Copeland and William Dupré

University of Houston

Chapter 5

Volcanism





Volcanic rocks

Major difference between plutonic

and volcanic rocks is texture, a

reflection of cooling rate.

Volcanic rocks


Material ejected from volcanoes

Nonvolatile material

Material ejected from volcanoes

  • Lava: magma that has flowed on the surface of the Earth.

  • Tephra: fragments that solidified in the air during eruption.


Types of lava

aa

pahoehoe

Types of Lava


Aa Lava

Pahoehoe

Lava

Fig. 5.3

Kim Heacox/DRX


Columbia plateau flow basalts
Columbia Plateau Flow Basalts

Fig. 5.2

Martin G. Miller


Tephra

Pyroclastic flow

Air-fall

Mudflow (lahar)

Tephra


Pyroclastic flow nue ardente

Mixture of hot gases, ash, and rocks

forming a super-heated and dense

current capable of moving 150 km/hr.

Pyroclasticflow (nueé ardente)




Volcanic bomb
Volcanic Bomb

Fig. 5.7

Science Source/Photo Researchers


Volcanic Breccia

Fig. 5.8

Doug Sokell/Visuals Unlimited


Submarine eruptions

Pillow basalt

Phreatic explosions

Submarine eruptions


Pillow lava
Pillow Lava

Fig. 5.4

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute


Phreatic

Explosion

in the

Pacific

Fig. 5.18

Maritime Safety Agency, Japan


Vesicular basalt
Vesicular Basalt

Fig. 5.5

Glen Oliver/Visuals Unlimited


Pyroclasic eruption at arenal volcano costa rica
Pyroclasic Eruption at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

Fig. 5.6

Gregory G. Dimijian/Photo Researchers


Eruptive styles and landforms

Shield volcanoes

Stratovolcanoes (composite)

Domes and cones

Fissure eruptions (flood basalts)

Submarine eruptions

Eruptive styles and landforms


Shield volcanoes

Low-viscosity lava flows

Low-silica magma — mafic

Basalt

Pahoehoe

Aa

Gently sloping flanks — between 2 and 10 degrees

Tend to be very large

Spatter cone — minor feature

Shield volcanoes


Shield volcano
Shield Volcano

Fig. 5.10


Olympus Mons

Shield Volcano

NASA, Viking Orbiter 1


Cinder cones

Formed of pyroclastics only

Steep sides — ~30 degrees

Relatively small

Short duration of activity

Cinder cones


Cinder Cone

Fig. 5.12


Cerro negro cinder cone near managua nicaragua in 1968
Cerro Negro Cinder Cone, near Managua, Nicaragua in 1968

Fig. 5.13

Mark Hurd Aerial Surveys


Volcanic domes

Forms above a volcanic vent

Viscous lava — usually silica-rich (or cooler magma)

Associated with violent eruptions

Volcanic domes




Lava

Dome

Fig.

5.11

Lyn Topinka/USGS


Composite volcano

Alternating pyroclastic layers and lava flows

Slopes intermediate in steepness

Intermittent eruptions over long time span

Mostly andesite

Distribution

Circum-Pacific Belt (“Ring of Fire”)

Mediterranean Belt

Composite volcano



Mt fujiyama japan
Mt Fujiyama, Japan

Fig. 5.15

Raga/The Stock Market


Before May, 1980

Emil Muench/Photo Researchers


After May, 1980

David Weintraub/Photo Researchers


Caldera

Depression at top of volcano produced during an eruption

May have younger domes within it

Caldera



Crater lake oregon
Crater Lake, Oregon

Fig. 5.17

Greg Vaughn/Tom Stack


Shiprock, New Mexico

an exposed volcanic pipe (diatreme)

Fig. 5.19

Fred Padula


Fissure eruptions

When low-viscosity lava is

issued from cracks in the Earth

tens of kilometers long.

Fissure eruptions




Laki fissure iceland erupted in 1783 extruding the largest lava flow in human history
Laki fissure (Iceland) erupted in 1783 extruding the largest lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.21

Tony Waltham


Lava floods

Mafic lava — solidifies to basalt lava flow in human history.

Fissure flows

Plateau basalts

Columnar structure or jointing

Lava floods


Fig. 5.22 lava flow in human history.


Columbia plateau flow basalts1
Columbia Plateau Flow Basalts lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.2

Martin G. Miller


Welded tuff california
Welded Tuff: California lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.23

1 foot

Gerals and Buff Corsi/Visuals Unlimited


Ash flow sheets draping topography japan
Ash-flow Sheets Draping Topography, Japan lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.24

S. Aramaki


Caution volcanologist at work
Caution: Volcanologist at Work lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.25

Maurice Krafft/Photo Researchers


Volcanic mudflow lahar

A mixture of water and pyroclastic lava flow in human history.

material in a concrete-like slurry

capable of moving up to 100

km/hour!

Volcanic Mudflow (lahar):


23 000 killed in 1985 by volcanic mudflows nevada del ruiz
23,000 killed in 1985 by volcanic mudflows, Nevada del Ruiz lava flow in human history.

Barbara and Robert Decker


Other material ejected from volcanoes

Volatile material lava flow in human history.

Other material ejected from volcanoes

  • Steam (H2O)

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2 )

  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

  • Many other constituents


Sulfur-encrusted fumerole: lava flow in human history.

Galapagos Islands

Fig. 5.26

Christian Grzimek/Photo Researchers


Stokkur geyser in iceland
Stokkur geyser in Iceland lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.27

Simon Fraser/Photo Researchers


Tectonic setting of volcanoes

Convergent plate boundaries lava flow in human history.

Divergent plate boundaries

Within plate “hotspots”

Tectonic setting of volcanoes


The world s active volcanoes
The World’s Active Volcanoes lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.28


Cross section of the east pacific rise
Cross Section of the East Pacific Rise lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.29


Volcanism associated with plate tectonics
Volcanism Associated with lava flow in human history.Plate Tectonics

Fig. 5.30


Effects of volcanoes on humans

Growth of Hawaii lava flow in human history.

Geothermal energy

Effect on climate

Volcanic catastrophes

Mt. St. Helens

Vesuvius

Krakatoa

Mt. Pelée

Montserrat

Effects of volcanoes on humans


Types of volcanic hazards

Lava Flows: lava flow in human history.e.g. Hawaii, 1998

Gas: e.g. Lake Nyos (Cameroon), 1984

1700 people killed

Ash fall: e.g. Mt. Pinatubo, 1991

Pyroclastic flows: e.g. Mt. Pelee, 1902

28,000 killed

Lahars (mudflows): e.g. Nevado del Ruiz, 1985

23,000 killed

Tsunami: e.g. Krakatoa, 1883

36,417 killed

Types of Volcanic Hazards


San juan mexico buried by paricutin lava flows
San Juan, Mexico, lava flow in human history.Buried by Paricutin Lava Flows

E. Tad Nichols


Scientists Investigate Mt. Pinatubo’s Caldera lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.31

Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis


U s active volcanoes
U.S. Active Volcanoes lava flow in human history.


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