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Classroom presentations to accompany Understanding Earth , 3rd edition. prepared by Peter Copeland and William Dupré University of Houston. Chapter 5 Volcanism. Volcanoes. Plumbing System of a Volcano. Fig. 5.1. May 1990 Eruption of Kilauea, Hawaii. James Cachero/Sygma.

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classroom presentations to accompany understanding earth 3rd edition

Classroom presentations to accompany Understanding Earth, 3rd edition

prepared by

Peter Copeland and William Dupré

University of Houston

Chapter 5

Volcanism

volcanic rocks
Major difference between plutonic

and volcanic rocks is texture, a

reflection of cooling rate.

Volcanic rocks
material ejected from volcanoes
Nonvolatile materialMaterial ejected from volcanoes
  • Lava: magma that has flowed on the surface of the Earth.
  • Tephra: fragments that solidified in the air during eruption.
slide8

Aa Lava

Pahoehoe

Lava

Fig. 5.3

Kim Heacox/DRX

columbia plateau flow basalts
Columbia Plateau Flow Basalts

Fig. 5.2

Martin G. Miller

tephra
Pyroclastic flow

Air-fall

Mudflow (lahar)

Tephra
pyroclastic flow nue ardente
Mixture of hot gases, ash, and rocks

forming a super-heated and dense

current capable of moving 150 km/hr.

Pyroclasticflow (nueé ardente)
volcanic bomb
Volcanic Bomb

Fig. 5.7

Science Source/Photo Researchers

slide15

Volcanic Breccia

Fig. 5.8

Doug Sokell/Visuals Unlimited

pillow lava
Pillow Lava

Fig. 5.4

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

slide18

Phreatic

Explosion

in the

Pacific

Fig. 5.18

Maritime Safety Agency, Japan

vesicular basalt
Vesicular Basalt

Fig. 5.5

Glen Oliver/Visuals Unlimited

pyroclasic eruption at arenal volcano costa rica
Pyroclasic Eruption at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica

Fig. 5.6

Gregory G. Dimijian/Photo Researchers

eruptive styles and landforms
Shield volcanoes

Stratovolcanoes (composite)

Domes and cones

Fissure eruptions (flood basalts)

Submarine eruptions

Eruptive styles and landforms
shield volcanoes
Low-viscosity lava flows

Low-silica magma — mafic

Basalt

Pahoehoe

Aa

Gently sloping flanks — between 2 and 10 degrees

Tend to be very large

Spatter cone — minor feature

Shield volcanoes
slide24

Olympus Mons

Shield Volcano

NASA, Viking Orbiter 1

cinder cones
Formed of pyroclastics only

Steep sides — ~30 degrees

Relatively small

Short duration of activity

Cinder cones
slide26

Cinder Cone

Fig. 5.12

volcanic domes
Forms above a volcanic vent

Viscous lava — usually silica-rich (or cooler magma)

Associated with violent eruptions

Volcanic domes
slide31

Lava

Dome

Fig.

5.11

Lyn Topinka/USGS

composite volcano
Alternating pyroclastic layers and lava flows

Slopes intermediate in steepness

Intermittent eruptions over long time span

Mostly andesite

Distribution

Circum-Pacific Belt (“Ring of Fire”)

Mediterranean Belt

Composite volcano
mt fujiyama japan
Mt Fujiyama, Japan

Fig. 5.15

Raga/The Stock Market

slide35

Before May, 1980

Emil Muench/Photo Researchers

slide36

After May, 1980

David Weintraub/Photo Researchers

crater lake oregon
Crater Lake, Oregon

Fig. 5.17

Greg Vaughn/Tom Stack

slide40

Shiprock, New Mexico

an exposed volcanic pipe (diatreme)

Fig. 5.19

Fred Padula

fissure eruptions
When low-viscosity lava is

issued from cracks in the Earth

tens of kilometers long.

Fissure eruptions
laki fissure iceland erupted in 1783 extruding the largest lava flow in human history
Laki fissure (Iceland) erupted in 1783 extruding the largest lava flow in human history.

Fig. 5.21

Tony Waltham

lava floods
Mafic lava — solidifies to basalt

Fissure flows

Plateau basalts

Columnar structure or jointing

Lava floods
columbia plateau flow basalts1
Columbia Plateau Flow Basalts

Fig. 5.2

Martin G. Miller

welded tuff california
Welded Tuff: California

Fig. 5.23

1 foot

Gerals and Buff Corsi/Visuals Unlimited

caution volcanologist at work
Caution: Volcanologist at Work

Fig. 5.25

Maurice Krafft/Photo Researchers

volcanic mudflow lahar
A mixture of water and pyroclastic

material in a concrete-like slurry

capable of moving up to 100

km/hour!

Volcanic Mudflow (lahar):
other material ejected from volcanoes
Volatile materialOther material ejected from volcanoes
  • Steam (H2O)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2 )
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  • Many other constituents
slide54

Sulfur-encrusted fumerole:

Galapagos Islands

Fig. 5.26

Christian Grzimek/Photo Researchers

stokkur geyser in iceland
Stokkur geyser in Iceland

Fig. 5.27

Simon Fraser/Photo Researchers

tectonic setting of volcanoes
Convergent plate boundaries

Divergent plate boundaries

Within plate “hotspots”

Tectonic setting of volcanoes
effects of volcanoes on humans
Growth of Hawaii

Geothermal energy

Effect on climate

Volcanic catastrophes

Mt. St. Helens

Vesuvius

Krakatoa

Mt. Pelée

Montserrat

Effects of volcanoes on humans
types of volcanic hazards
Lava Flows: e.g. Hawaii, 1998

Gas: e.g. Lake Nyos (Cameroon), 1984

1700 people killed

Ash fall: e.g. Mt. Pinatubo, 1991

Pyroclastic flows: e.g. Mt. Pelee, 1902

28,000 killed

Lahars (mudflows): e.g. Nevado del Ruiz, 1985

23,000 killed

Tsunami: e.g. Krakatoa, 1883

36,417 killed

Types of Volcanic Hazards
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