Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 127

Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 242 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230. From WAC 296-24, Part D Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging. Objectives.

Download Presentation

Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Forkliftsand Other Powered Industrial TrucksWAC 296-24-230

From WAC 296-24, Part D

Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging


Slide2 l.jpg

Objectives

  • Employers should be able to determine if their Powered Industrial Truck operator training program complies with the new standard’s requirements for

    • Truck-Related Topics

    • Workplace-Related Topics

    • Documentation of Training


Slide3 l.jpg

Changes

  • “Clear Rule Writing”

  • Operator Training

    • Requirements

    • Non-Mandatory Guidelines

  • Operator Restraints

  • WRD On Order Pickers Included

  • Updated National Consensus Standards

  • Other

    • Glycol no longer specified as the only antifreeze agent

  • Other Industry standards affected


What is a powered industrial truck l.jpg

What Is A “Powered Industrial Truck”?

  • “A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks are also commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.”

  • [per American Society of Mechanical Engineers -- ASME]


Which of these does the new standard require operators to be trained on l.jpg

Which Of These Does the New Standard Require Operators To Be Trained On?


Is this a powered industrial truck l.jpg

Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”


Is this a powered industrial truck7 l.jpg

Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”


Is this a powered industrial truck8 l.jpg

Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”


Is this a powered industrial truck9 l.jpg

Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”


Is this a powered industrial truck10 l.jpg

Is This A “Powered Industrial Truck”


Slide11 l.jpg

"Clear Rule Writing"


Turning technique no longer specified l.jpg

“While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level, by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.”

“While negotiating turns, speed must be reduced to a safe level.”

The Old Way - The New Way

“Turning technique no longer specified”


Operator training l.jpg

Operator Training

Mandatory portion: WAC 296-24-23025

Non-Mandatory Appendix: WAC 296-24-23037


Slide14 l.jpg

Mandatory: -296-24-23025 - Operator Training

Safe Operation

Training program implementation

Training program content

Refresher training and evaluation

Avoidance of duplicative training

Documentation

Effective date


Slide15 l.jpg

The Other Part of Operator Training

  • Non-Mandatory Appendix: (para 296-24-23037)

  • Definitions

  • General

  • Basic Principles

  • The Stability Triangle

  • Longitudinal Stability

  • Lateral Stability

  • Dynamic Stability


Effective date march 1 2000 l.jpg

Employer must ensure operators are trained, as appropriate, by the effective date of this section.

Employees hired on or after the effective date of this section must be trained and evaluated prior to being assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.

Effective DateMarch 1, 2000


Other industry standards affected l.jpg

Other Industry Standards Affected

WAC 296-56 Longshore, Stevedore and Related Waterfront

WAC 296-155 Construction

WAC 296-307 Agriculture


Slide18 l.jpg

WHY?

  • Since a large percentage of accidents and fatalities were due to operator inexperience, OSHA mandated that operators must be trained and competent.


Forklift fatalities by percentages l.jpg

Forklift FatalitiesBy Percentages


Forklift accidents by percentage l.jpg

Forklift AccidentsBy Percentage


Overview of requirements l.jpg

Overview of Requirements

  • Employers must ensure operators are:

  • Trained

  • Competent

  • Documented


Training program implementation l.jpg

Training Program Implementation

296-24-23025(2)(a)

  • (a) Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:

    • (i) under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and

    • (ii) Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees


Training must consist of a combination of l.jpg

296-24-23025(2)(b)

Training must consist of acombination of:

  • 1. Formal Instruction

  • 2. Practical Training

  • 3. Evaluation


Practical training l.jpg

Practical Training

Practical Exercise by Student

Instructor or designee Demonstration

Example


Slide25 l.jpg

Training Program Content


Training program content l.jpg

Training Program Content

WAC 296-24-23025(3

  • “… operators must receive initial training in the topics that follow, except in topics that the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer’s workplace.”

    (a) Truck-related topics

    (b) Workplace-related topics


Slide27 l.jpg

Training Program Content

Truck-related topics

  • General principles

  • Specific to type

  • Specific to forks or attachments


Overview of truck related topics l.jpg

Overview of Truck-Related Topics

  • General principles

  • “Must receive” from -296-24-23025(3)(a):

    • Operation instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized operate;

    • Differences between the truck and the automobile

    • Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work

    • Engine or motor operation

    • Steering & maneuvering


Overview of truck related topics continued l.jpg

Overview of Truck-Related Topics -Continued

296-24-23025(3)(a)

  • Visibility

  • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations

  • Vehicle capacity

  • Vehicle stability

  • Operator-performed inspection & maintenance

  • Refueling and/or battery charging

  • Operation limitations

  • Any other operation instructions, warning, or precautions


Overview of truck related topics continued30 l.jpg

Overview of Truck-Related Topics - Continued

  • General principles

  • “Must receive” from -296-24-23025(3)(a)

  • Non-mandatory appendix at 296-24-23037

    • Definitions related to stability

    • Basic principles

    • The Stability Triangle

    • Longitudinal Stability

    • Lateral Stability

    • Dynamic Stability


Truck related topics what each covers l.jpg

Truck-Related TopicsWhat each covers:

  • “Must receive” from WAC 296-24-23025(3)(a)

    • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations

  • Non-mandatory appendix

    • How fork and attachment adaptations change the forklift’s steering characteristics and stability

For Example:


Truck related topics l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • “Must receive” from WAC296-24-23025(3)(a):

    • Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate

      • General instructions for forklifts

      • General safety items

      • Listed in the operator’s manual


Slide33 l.jpg

Example from an Operator’s Manual


Slide34 l.jpg

Another Example from an Operator’s Manual


Truck related topics35 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Differences between the truck and automobile

    • Suggested contents in non-mandatory appendix: 296-24-23037.

      • Rear wheel steering

        • Rear of truck swings out on turns

        • Truck has triangular stability, not four-point

      • Truck may have smaller size, but can have six times the weight!


Truck related topics37 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Truck controls and instrumentation

    • where they are located

    • what they do

    • how they work


Truck related topics38 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Engine or motor operation


Truck related topics39 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Steering and maneuvering


Truck related topics40 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Visibility (including restrictions due to loading)


Truck related topics41 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Other items requiring training:

    • other attachments

      • carton grabbers

      • barrel grabbers

      • barrel grabbers which rotate


Truck related topics42 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Changes in attachments

    • different capabilities of attachment:

      e.g. from single reach to double reach order picker

    • changes in operator controls

    • how change in attachment affects capacity

    • how change in attachment affects stability


Truck related topics43 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Specific to forks or attachments


Truck related topics44 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Specific to forks or attachments

Another example from Operator’s Manual


Truck related topics45 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Specific to forks or attachments


Truck related topics46 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Vehicle capability

    • includes manufacturer’s plate

    • includes charts indicating de-rating at mast height, etc


Slide47 l.jpg

The “Quick Check”on what the operator knows:

Truck-related topics

  • Can read and explain entries on the name plate


Slide48 l.jpg

The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

  • An older kind of plate:


Slide49 l.jpg

  • The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

  • Again: Can they read and interpret?


Slide50 l.jpg

  • The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows:

Truck-related topics

  • Can read and explain entries on the name plate

  • Can locate, explain & interpret specification charts on capacity


Truck related topics51 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics

  • Vehicle stability

  • Non-mandatory appendix: 296-24-23037 contains

  • diagrams to explain the concept.

  • Other diagrams in OSHA training program,

  • on the Internet:

  • www.osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT


Stability of powered industrial trucks l.jpg

Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks

Non-mandatory Appendix 296-24-23027

  • (1) Definitions to help explain the principle of stability

  • (2) General principles of stability

  • (3) Basic principles - the “physics” of stability; momentum, inertia, gravity

  • (4) The Stability Triangle


Stability of powered industrial trucks53 l.jpg

Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks

  • The Stability Triangle

    • (5) Longitudinal Stability

    • (6) Lateral Stability


Slide54 l.jpg

Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks

  • The Stability Triangle

    • (5) Longitudinal Stability

    • (6) Lateral Stability

Load CG

Load CG

Vertical

Stability

Line

(Line of Action)

Combined CG

Combined CG

Vertical

Stability

Line

(Line of Action)

Truck CG

Truck CG

This vehicle is unstable and

will continue to tip over

The vehicle is stable


Truck related topics 296 24 23025 3 a l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • “Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.”

    • Should be conducted per manufacturer’s specs:

      • Vehicle condition

      • Condition and thickness of forks

      • Condition of hoses, mast chains, hydraulic rams

      • Effectiveness of parking brake

      • Tire inflation

      • All other listed inspection points


Slide56 l.jpg

Example: In the simplest form….


Slide57 l.jpg

Anotherexample:


Slide58 l.jpg

And another example...


Slide59 l.jpg

Example


Slide60 l.jpg

.. To some very specific, detailed items.


Slide61 l.jpg

Example


Slide62 l.jpg

Example


Slide63 l.jpg

Example from OSHA: osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT/pit_checklist.html

DAILY INSPECTION CHECKLIST

Electric Forklift Truck

KEY OFF Procedures

•Overhead guard •Hydraulic cylinders •Mast assembly •Lift chains and rollers •Forks •Tires

•Examine the battery •Check the hydraulic fluid level

KEY ON Procedures

•Check the gauges

•Hour meter •Battery discharge indicator

•Test the standard equipment

•Steering •Brakes •Front, tail, and brake lights •Horn

•Safety seat (if equipped)

•Check the operation of load-handling attachments


Truck related topics 296 24 23025 3 a64 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries

    • LP bottles

    • Battery charging facilities


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 a l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Ramps and other sloped surfaces

  • Dock boards

  • Bridge plates


Truck related topics 296 24 23025 3 a66 l.jpg

Truck-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • “Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate”


Training program content67 l.jpg

Training Program Content

  • Truck-related topics:296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Workplace-related topics

    296-24-23025 (3) (b)


Overview of workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b l.jpg

Overview of Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Surface conditions

  • Composition of loads

  • Load manipulation

  • Pedestrian traffic

  • Narrow aisles and other restricted places

  • Hazardous locations

  • Ramps & other sloped surfaces

  • Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations

  • Other unique or potentially hazardous conditions


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Surface conditions:

    • Type(s) of normal driving surface

      • Performance of truck’s tires on normal surface

    • Surface conditions which may be encountered

      • Water, snow, ice

        • Effects on traction, stopping ability

      • Uneven ground and/or potholes

        • Effects on stability

      • Gravel


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b70 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Composition of loads to be carried

  • Examples, from Non-mandatory appendix 296-24-23037:

    • Irregular shaped loads and/or protrusions

      • Changes to Center Of Gravity

    • Partially filled containers of liquid


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b71 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Load manipulation, stacking and unstacking

  • For example:

    • Reducing damage to powered industrial truck

    • Avoiding stresses to forks from overload

    • Welds on forks

    • Detection of broken or defective pallets, or pallets with improper repairs


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b72 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Pedestrian traffic in areas where vehicle will be operated


Importance of training on pedestrian traffic l.jpg

Importance of training on pedestrian traffic:

*

*

Important reminder that the driver is always the one responsible; never the pedestrian!


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b74 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Narrow aisles

  • Other restricted places; per existing paragraph 296-24-23027(7)

    • including the inside of semi-truck trailers

    • including the inside of railroad cars


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b hazardous classified locations l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b)- Hazardous (classified) locations

  • Ref: 296-24-23005 for 11 different designations of powered industrial truck appropriate to locations with explosive/combustible atmospheres


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b76 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations

    • Closed environments

    • Insufficient ventilation

    • Poor vehicle maintenance


Workplace related topics 296 24 23025 3 b77 l.jpg

Workplace-Related Topics 296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • “Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions…”

Per BLS data: 8% of all fatalities involving forklifts are from “driving off loading dock”


General workplace safety item l.jpg

General Workplace Safety Item:

  • One of the most common, yet most hazardous, practices is having people riding on the forks!!

  • This should be addressed in all training programs


Slide79 l.jpg

When Is

Refresher

Training

Required?


Refresher training l.jpg

Refresher Training

WAC 296-24-23025(4)

  • To Begin with:

  • 296-24-23025(4)(C)An evaluation of each operator’s performance must be conducted at least once every three years…..to determine if they require refresher training.


Refresher training81 l.jpg

Refresher Training

  • If the operator received all required training

    • truck-related

    • workplace-related

  • and is evaluated and found competent,

  • no refresher training is required


Refresher training is required l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • When the operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner

  • How do you know?

    • Incident reports

    • Safety committee minutes

    • Maintenance reports

    • Equipment damage

    • “Shipping damage”

    • Employee complaints


Refresher training is required83 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident require additional training.

  • documented accidents which don’t have corresponding documentation of refresher training and evaluation are asking for trouble!


Quick check on performance of refresher training l.jpg

“Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training:

  • - What mechanism does the company have in place for:

    • Maintenance to report driver-caused damage?

    • Anyone to report a “near miss”?


Quick check on performance of refresher training85 l.jpg

“Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training:

  • Does the supervisor know who caused the damage?

  • Was follow-up evaluation and/or training documented?

Bent support


Refresher training is required86 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • Operator has received an evaluation that reveals the operator is not operating the truck safely.


Refresher training is required87 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

Are there differences?

Are they significant?


Refresher training is required88 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • When a condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.

  • Operations

  • Products/packaging

  • Construction/remodeling

  • Hundreds of other variables


Avoidance of duplicative training wac 296 24 23025 5 l.jpg

Avoidance of Duplicative TrainingWAC 296-24-23025(5)

  • If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in (3) of this section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely, within three years.


Required documentation l.jpg

WAC 296-24-23025(6)

Required Documentation

  • Operator’s name

  • Date of training

  • Date of evaluation

  • Identity of trainer/evaluator

  • Strongly recommended: outline of topics - both truck-specific and workplace-specific


Operator restraints wac 296 24 23027 powered industrial truck operations l.jpg

Operator Restraints WAC 296-24-23027 Powered industrial truck operations

Rule of thumb: Any sit down model of powered industrial truck manufactured since 1993 is required to have an operator restraint provided by the manufacturer.


Slide92 l.jpg

  • 296-24-23027(15) An active operator protection restraint device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


Older models l.jpg

Older Models

We don’t require retrofitof operator restraints

  • But once they’ve been added they must be maintained and used


Slide94 l.jpg

Other changes

to the

standard


Slide95 l.jpg

WRD 78-25A Forklift-type Equipment

Used by “Order Pickers.”

This WRD has been included in the standard


Powered industrial trucks used as order pickers l.jpg

Powered industrial trucks used as order pickers

  • ... which do not have standard guardrails on all open sides, must be equipped with an approved fall arrest system


Order pickers l.jpg

Order Pickers

  • Acceptable fall protection


Order pickers98 l.jpg

Order Pickers

  • Not acceptable fall protection


Slide99 l.jpg

Summary

  • Topics Covered:

    • Clear Rule Writing

    • Operator Training Requirement

    • Operator Restraints

    • Order Pickers


We acknowledge the cooperation of l.jpg

We acknowledge the cooperation of:

  • CB Equipment Co, Kent

  • Hyster Sales and Service, Tukwila

  • Bottom Line Loss Control

  • Valley Rentals, Tumwater

  • Home Depot, Lacey

  • Ivy Hi-Lift, Tacoma

  • Nordic Cold Storage, Seattle


End of presentation l.jpg

End of Presentation


Components of a forklift truck l.jpg

Components of a Forklift Truck*

*One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks


Classes of commonly used powered industrial trucks l.jpg

Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks*

  • The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes.

    • Class I - Electric motor rider trucks

    • Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks

    • Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks

    • Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires)

    • Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires)

    • Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors

    • Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks

* Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.


Class i electric motor rider trucks l.jpg

Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks

  • Counterbalanced rider type, stand up

  • Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down

  • Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)

  • Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform)


Refresher training is required105 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:


Refresher training is required106 l.jpg

Refresher Training Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

Are there differences?

Are they significant?


Class i electric motor rider trucks107 l.jpg

Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks


Class i electric motor rider trucks108 l.jpg

Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks

  • Counterbalanced Rider Type, Stand-Up


Truck classifications l.jpg

Truck Classifications

  • Specific to type

    • Type I: Sit-down rider, electric


Class ii electric motor narrow aisle trucks l.jpg

Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks

  • High lift straddle

  • Order picker

  • Reach type outrigger

  • Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickers

  • Low lift pallet and platform (rider)


Class ii electric motor narrow aisle trucks111 l.jpg

Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks


Class ii narrow aisle trucks l.jpg

Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks


Truck classifications113 l.jpg

Truck Classifications

  • Specific to type

    • Type II: Electric, narrow-aisle


Class iii electric motor hand or hand rider trucks l.jpg

Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks

  • Low lift platform

  • Low lift walkie pallet

  • Reach type outrigger

  • High lift straddle

  • High lift counterbalanced

  • Low lift walkie/rider pallet


Class iii electric motor hand or hand rider trucks115 l.jpg

Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks


Class iii hand hand rider trucks l.jpg

Class III - Hand & Hand/Rider Trucks


Truck classifications117 l.jpg

Truck Classifications

  • Specific to type

    • Type III: Electric pallet jack


Class iv internal combustion engine trucks cushion solid tires l.jpg

Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)


Class iv internal combustion engine trucks cushion solid tires119 l.jpg

Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires


Class v internal combustion engine trucks pneumatic tires l.jpg

Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)


Class v internal combustion engine trucks pneumatic tires121 l.jpg

Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)


Truck classifications122 l.jpg

Truck Classifications

  • Specific to type

    • Type V: Internal combustion, pneumatic tire


Class vi electric internal combustion engine tractors l.jpg

Class VI - Electric & Internal Combustion Engine Tractors

Sit-down rider


Class vii rough terrain forklift trucks l.jpg

Straight-mast forklift

Extended-reach forklift

Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks

All rough terrain forklift trucks


Rough terrain straight mast forklifts l.jpg

Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts


Rough terrain extended reach forklifts l.jpg

Rough Terrain Extended-Reach Forklifts


Slide127 l.jpg

Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks

  • Department of Labor and Industries

  • WISHA ServicesTraining and Outreach


  • Login