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Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230. From WAC 296-24, Part D Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging. Objectives.

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Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks WAC 296-24-230

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Forkliftsand Other Powered Industrial TrucksWAC 296-24-230

From WAC 296-24, Part D

Materials Handling and Storage, Including Cranes, Derricks, Etc., and Rigging


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Objectives

  • Employers should be able to determine if their Powered Industrial Truck operator training program complies with the new standard’s requirements for

    • Truck-Related Topics

    • Workplace-Related Topics

    • Documentation of Training


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Changes

  • “Clear Rule Writing”

  • Operator Training

    • Requirements

    • Non-Mandatory Guidelines

  • Operator Restraints

  • WRD On Order Pickers Included

  • Updated National Consensus Standards

  • Other

    • Glycol no longer specified as the only antifreeze agent

  • Other Industry standards affected


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What Is A “Powered Industrial Truck”?

  • “A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack, or tier materials. Powered industrial trucks are also commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.”

  • [per American Society of Mechanical Engineers -- ASME]









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“While negotiating turns, speed Trained On?shall be reduced to a safe level, by means of turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a moderate, even rate.”

“While negotiating turns, speed must be reduced to a safe level.”

The Old Way - The New Way

“Turning technique no longer specified”


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Operator Training Trained On?

Mandatory portion: WAC 296-24-23025

Non-Mandatory Appendix: WAC 296-24-23037


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Mandatory: -296-24-23025 Trained On? - Operator Training

Safe Operation

Training program implementation

Training program content

Refresher training and evaluation

Avoidance of duplicative training

Documentation

Effective date


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The Other Part of Operator Training Trained On?

  • Non-Mandatory Appendix: (para 296-24-23037)

  • Definitions

  • General

  • Basic Principles

  • The Stability Triangle

  • Longitudinal Stability

  • Lateral Stability

  • Dynamic Stability


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Employer must ensure operators are trained, as appropriate, by the effective date of this section.

Employees hired on or after the effective date of this section must be trained and evaluated prior to being assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.

Effective DateMarch 1, 2000


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Other Industry Standards Affected by the effective date of this section.

WAC 296-56 Longshore, Stevedore and Related Waterfront

WAC 296-155 Construction

WAC 296-307 Agriculture


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WHY? by the effective date of this section.

  • Since a large percentage of accidents and fatalities were due to operator inexperience, OSHA mandated that operators must be trained and competent.


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Forklift Fatalities by the effective date of this section.By Percentages


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Forklift Accidents by the effective date of this section.By Percentage


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Overview by the effective date of this section. of Requirements

  • Employers must ensure operators are:

  • Trained

  • Competent

  • Documented


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Training Program Implementation by the effective date of this section.

296-24-23025(2)(a)

  • (a) Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:

    • (i) under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and

    • (ii) Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees


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296-24-23025(2)(b) by the effective date of this section.

Training must consist of acombination of:

  • 1. Formal Instruction

  • 2. Practical Training

  • 3. Evaluation


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Practical Training by the effective date of this section.

Practical Exercise by Student

Instructor or designee Demonstration

Example


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Training Program Content by the effective date of this section.


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Training Program Content by the effective date of this section.

WAC 296-24-23025(3

  • “… operators must receive initial training in the topics that follow, except in topics that the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer’s workplace.”

    (a) Truck-related topics

    (b) Workplace-related topics


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Training Program Content by the effective date of this section.

Truck-related topics

  • General principles

  • Specific to type

  • Specific to forks or attachments


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Overview by the effective date of this section. of Truck-Related Topics

  • General principles

  • “Must receive” from -296-24-23025(3)(a):

    • Operation instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized operate;

    • Differences between the truck and the automobile

    • Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work

    • Engine or motor operation

    • Steering & maneuvering


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Overview by the effective date of this section. of Truck-Related Topics -Continued

296-24-23025(3)(a)

  • Visibility

  • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations

  • Vehicle capacity

  • Vehicle stability

  • Operator-performed inspection & maintenance

  • Refueling and/or battery charging

  • Operation limitations

  • Any other operation instructions, warning, or precautions


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Overview by the effective date of this section. of Truck-Related Topics - Continued

  • General principles

  • “Must receive” from -296-24-23025(3)(a)

  • Non-mandatory appendix at 296-24-23037

    • Definitions related to stability

    • Basic principles

    • The Stability Triangle

    • Longitudinal Stability

    • Lateral Stability

    • Dynamic Stability


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.What each covers:

  • “Must receive” from WAC 296-24-23025(3)(a)

    • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation and use limitations

  • Non-mandatory appendix

    • How fork and attachment adaptations change the forklift’s steering characteristics and stability

For Example:


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • “Must receive” from WAC296-24-23025(3)(a):

    • Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate

      • General instructions for forklifts

      • General safety items

      • Listed in the operator’s manual


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Example from an Operator’s Manual by the effective date of this section.


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Another Example from an Operator’s Manual by the effective date of this section.


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Differences between the truck and automobile

    • Suggested contents in non-mandatory appendix: 296-24-23037.

      • Rear wheel steering

        • Rear of truck swings out on turns

        • Truck has triangular stability, not four-point

      • Truck may have smaller size, but can have six times the weight!


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Truck controls and instrumentation

    • where they are located

    • what they do

    • how they work


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Engine or motor operation


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Steering and maneuvering


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Visibility (including restrictions due to loading)


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Other items requiring training:

    • other attachments

      • carton grabbers

      • barrel grabbers

      • barrel grabbers which rotate


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Changes in attachments

    • different capabilities of attachment:

      e.g. from single reach to double reach order picker

    • changes in operator controls

    • how change in attachment affects capacity

    • how change in attachment affects stability


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Specific to forks or attachments


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Specific to forks or attachments

Another example from Operator’s Manual


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Specific to forks or attachments


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Vehicle capability

    • includes manufacturer’s plate

    • includes charts indicating de-rating at mast height, etc


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The “Quick Check”on what the operator knows: by the effective date of this section.

Truck-related topics

  • Can read and explain entries on the name plate


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The “Quick Check” on what the operator knows: by the effective date of this section.

  • An older kind of plate:


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  • Again: Can they read and interpret?


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Truck-related topics

  • Can read and explain entries on the name plate

  • Can locate, explain & interpret specification charts on capacity


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.

  • Vehicle stability

  • Non-mandatory appendix: 296-24-23037 contains

  • diagrams to explain the concept.

  • Other diagrams in OSHA training program,

  • on the Internet:

  • www.osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT


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Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks by the effective date of this section.

Non-mandatory Appendix 296-24-23027

  • (1) Definitions to help explain the principle of stability

  • (2) General principles of stability

  • (3) Basic principles - the “physics” of stability; momentum, inertia, gravity

  • (4) The Stability Triangle


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Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks by the effective date of this section.

  • The Stability Triangle

    • (5) Longitudinal Stability

    • (6) Lateral Stability


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Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks by the effective date of this section.

  • The Stability Triangle

    • (5) Longitudinal Stability

    • (6) Lateral Stability

Load CG

Load CG

Vertical

Stability

Line

(Line of Action)

Combined CG

Combined CG

Vertical

Stability

Line

(Line of Action)

Truck CG

Truck CG

This vehicle is unstable and

will continue to tip over

The vehicle is stable


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • “Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.”

    • Should be conducted per manufacturer’s specs:

      • Vehicle condition

      • Condition and thickness of forks

      • Condition of hoses, mast chains, hydraulic rams

      • Effectiveness of parking brake

      • Tire inflation

      • All other listed inspection points


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Example: In the simplest form…. by the effective date of this section.


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Another by the effective date of this section.example:


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And another example... by the effective date of this section.


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Example by the effective date of this section.


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.. To some very specific, detailed items. by the effective date of this section.


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Example by the effective date of this section.


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Example by the effective date of this section.


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Example from OSHA: by the effective date of this section.osha-slc.gov/Training/PIT/pit_checklist.html

DAILY INSPECTION CHECKLIST

Electric Forklift Truck

KEY OFF Procedures

•Overhead guard •Hydraulic cylinders •Mast assembly •Lift chains and rollers •Forks •Tires

•Examine the battery •Check the hydraulic fluid level

KEY ON Procedures

•Check the gauges

•Hour meter •Battery discharge indicator

•Test the standard equipment

•Steering •Brakes •Front, tail, and brake lights •Horn

•Safety seat (if equipped)

•Check the operation of load-handling attachments


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries

    • LP bottles

    • Battery charging facilities


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Ramps and other sloped surfaces

  • Dock boards

  • Bridge plates


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Truck-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • “Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate”


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Training Program Content by the effective date of this section.

  • Truck-related topics:296-24-23025 (3) (a)

  • Workplace-related topics

    296-24-23025 (3) (b)


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Overview of Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Surface conditions

  • Composition of loads

  • Load manipulation

  • Pedestrian traffic

  • Narrow aisles and other restricted places

  • Hazardous locations

  • Ramps & other sloped surfaces

  • Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations

  • Other unique or potentially hazardous conditions


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Surface conditions:

    • Type(s) of normal driving surface

      • Performance of truck’s tires on normal surface

    • Surface conditions which may be encountered

      • Water, snow, ice

        • Effects on traction, stopping ability

      • Uneven ground and/or potholes

        • Effects on stability

      • Gravel


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Composition of loads to be carried

  • Examples, from Non-mandatory appendix 296-24-23037:

    • Irregular shaped loads and/or protrusions

      • Changes to Center Of Gravity

    • Partially filled containers of liquid


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Load manipulation, stacking and unstacking

  • For example:

    • Reducing damage to powered industrial truck

    • Avoiding stresses to forks from overload

    • Welds on forks

    • Detection of broken or defective pallets, or pallets with improper repairs


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Pedestrian traffic in areas where vehicle will be operated


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Importance of training on pedestrian traffic: by the effective date of this section.

*

*

Important reminder that the driver is always the one responsible; never the pedestrian!


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Narrow aisles

  • Other restricted places; per existing paragraph 296-24-23027(7)

    • including the inside of semi-truck trailers

    • including the inside of railroad cars


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)- Hazardous (classified) locations

  • Ref: 296-24-23005 for 11 different designations of powered industrial truck appropriate to locations with explosive/combustible atmospheres


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • Potential carbon monoxide hazard locations

    • Closed environments

    • Insufficient ventilation

    • Poor vehicle maintenance


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Workplace-Related Topics by the effective date of this section.296-24-23025 (3) (b)

  • “Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions…”

Per BLS data: 8% of all fatalities involving forklifts are from “driving off loading dock”


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General Workplace Safety Item: by the effective date of this section.

  • One of the most common, yet most hazardous, practices is having people riding on the forks!!

  • This should be addressed in all training programs


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When Is by the effective date of this section.

Refresher

Training

Required?


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.

WAC 296-24-23025(4)

  • To Begin with:

  • 296-24-23025(4)(C)An evaluation of each operator’s performance must be conducted at least once every three years…..to determine if they require refresher training.


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.

  • If the operator received all required training

    • truck-related

    • workplace-related

  • and is evaluated and found competent,

  • no refresher training is required


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.Is Required

  • When the operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner

  • How do you know?

    • Incident reports

    • Safety committee minutes

    • Maintenance reports

    • Equipment damage

    • “Shipping damage”

    • Employee complaints


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.Is Required

  • The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident require additional training.

  • documented accidents which don’t have corresponding documentation of refresher training and evaluation are asking for trouble!


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“Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: by the effective date of this section.

  • - What mechanism does the company have in place for:

    • Maintenance to report driver-caused damage?

    • Anyone to report a “near miss”?


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“Quick Check” On Performance of Refresher Training: by the effective date of this section.

  • Does the supervisor know who caused the damage?

  • Was follow-up evaluation and/or training documented?

Bent support


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.Is Required

  • Operator has received an evaluation that reveals the operator is not operating the truck safely.


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Refresher Training by the effective date of this section.Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

Are there differences?

Are they significant?


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Refresher Training Is Required by the effective date of this section.

  • When a condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.

  • Operations

  • Products/packaging

  • Construction/remodeling

  • Hundreds of other variables


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Avoidance of Duplicative Training by the effective date of this section.WAC 296-24-23025(5)

  • If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in (3) of this section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely, within three years.


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WAC 296-24-23025(6) by the effective date of this section.

Required Documentation

  • Operator’s name

  • Date of training

  • Date of evaluation

  • Identity of trainer/evaluator

  • Strongly recommended: outline of topics - both truck-specific and workplace-specific


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Operator Restraints by the effective date of this section.WAC 296-24-23027 Powered industrial truck operations

Rule of thumb: Any sit down model of powered industrial truck manufactured since 1993 is required to have an operator restraint provided by the manufacturer.


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Older Models device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

We don’t require retrofitof operator restraints

  • But once they’ve been added they must be maintained and used


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Other changes device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

to the

standard


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WRD 78-25A Forklift-type Equipment device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

Used by “Order Pickers.”

This WRD has been included in the standard


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Powered industrial trucks used as order pickers device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • ... which do not have standard guardrails on all open sides, must be equipped with an approved fall arrest system


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Order Pickers device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Acceptable fall protection


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Order Pickers device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Not acceptable fall protection


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Summary device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Topics Covered:

    • Clear Rule Writing

    • Operator Training Requirement

    • Operator Restraints

    • Order Pickers


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We acknowledge the cooperation of: device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • CB Equipment Co, Kent

  • Hyster Sales and Service, Tukwila

  • Bottom Line Loss Control

  • Valley Rentals, Tumwater

  • Home Depot, Lacey

  • Ivy Hi-Lift, Tacoma

  • Nordic Cold Storage, Seattle


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End of Presentation device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Components of a Forklift Truck* device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

*One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks


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Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks* device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes.

    • Class I - Electric motor rider trucks

    • Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks

    • Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks

    • Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires)

    • Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires)

    • Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors

    • Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks

* Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.


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Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Counterbalanced rider type, stand up

  • Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down

  • Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)

  • Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform)


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Refresher Training device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:


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Refresher Training device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.Is Required

  • When the operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck:

Are there differences?

Are they significant?


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Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Counterbalanced Rider Type, Stand-Up


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Truck Classifications device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Specific to type

    • Type I: Sit-down rider, electric


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Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • High lift straddle

  • Order picker

  • Reach type outrigger

  • Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickers

  • Low lift pallet and platform (rider)


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Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Truck Classifications device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Specific to type

    • Type II: Electric, narrow-aisle


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Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Low lift platform

  • Low lift walkie pallet

  • Reach type outrigger

  • High lift straddle

  • High lift counterbalanced

  • Low lift walkie/rider pallet


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Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Class III - Hand & Hand/Rider Trucks device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.


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Truck Classifications device (such as a seatbelt or lap-bar) or system must be used, when provided.

  • Specific to type

    • Type III: Electric pallet jack


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Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)



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Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)



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Truck Classifications Tires)

  • Specific to type

    • Type V: Internal combustion, pneumatic tire



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Straight-mast forklift Tires)

Extended-reach forklift

Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks

All rough terrain forklift trucks




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Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks Tires)

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