Chapter 3
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Chapter 3. The Greek. Paragraph 3.1. The Greek World. Autonomous city-states. Greece consists of a mainland and hundreds of islands . The mainland was devided by plains , valleys , hills and mountains .

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Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

The Greek


Paragraph 3 1

Paragraph 3.1

The Greek World.


Autonomous city states

Autonomouscity-states

  • Greece consists of a mainlandandhundreds of islands.

  • The mainland was devidedbyplains, valleys, hillsandmountains.

  • When the Greeks made villages, the agricultural society becameanagricultural-urban society.

  • But itbecamenot 1 country, like Egypt.


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  • It becamedevided in 150 completelyautonomouscommunities.

  • = citiesthat are ruledlike small kingdoms.

  • A citylikethat was called a polis.

  • ( plural: poleis)

  • It was a city-state.

  • Notbiggerthan 1 citywithitssurroundings.

  • Theyall had theirownarmy, governmentandrules.


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  • Our word “politics” comesfrom the word polis.

  • Politics means: the government of a state.

  • Athens was the largest polis.

  • Otheroneswere Sparta andCorinth.


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  • Everycity-state had anacropolis.

  • It was a rock or hill, with extra defencessoit was easy todefend.

  • When the city-state was attacked the peoplecouldhidethere.

  • On the acropoliswere the most important buildings, liketemples.


Agriculture and colonisation

Agricultureandcolonisation

  • Greek farmers cultivated ( =grew) olives, grapesforwine, fruit, vegetablesandgrain.

  • But because of all the hills most land couldn’tbeusedforagriculture.

  • When the populationgrew, the Greeksneeded more arable land for food.

  • So the Greeks went lookingfor new land.

  • = expeditions.


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  • For 200 years the Greekswould built new Greeksettlements= colonies.

  • Mainlyaround the Mediterraneanand Black Sea.

  • The coloniesbecameautonomouspoleis, but werefriendlyto the originalcity-state where the Greekscamefrom.


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  • The Greekscalledthemselves “Hellenes” and Greece was called “Hellas”.

  • The name “Greece” was given later, by the Romans.


Industry

Industry

  • Everycity-state had an agora.

  • It was an open square in the middle of the city-state.

  • It was the commercial, socialandpoliticalcentre of the state.

  • There was a market, but alsogovernment buildings, templesandstoa’s. (= galleryto walk)


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Stoa

  • Friendscould meet here

  • Scholarsdebated or read

  • Merchants traded.

  • Around the agora wereall kind of craftsmen:

  • Industry: ( = making products) Potters, blacksmith, baker, mason, weaver, painter, shipbuilder.


Means of existence

Means of existence

  • Agriculture

  • Trade andindustry

  • Fishing was also important.

  • Travellingby water was easy.


International trade

International trade

  • Because of the colonisation, the area whereGreekscouldselltheirproducts ( area of distribution) grewbigger.

  • Merchants couldselltheirproductsall over the Mediterraneansea.

  • Andtheyalsoboughtthings:

  • Papyrus andgrainfrom Egypt.

  • Timberandfurfrom Italy,

  • Spicesfromindia, likepepperandcinnamon.


Meeting of cultures

Meeting of cultures

  • Because of trademany cultures would meet.

  • The Greeksadoptedandcopiedthingsfrom the other cultures;

  • Phoenicianalphabetbecame later the Greekalphabet. (became later the Latin alphabet of the Romans)

  • The Greeksalsocopiedusingmoneyfrom Turkey. No more bartering ( = ruilen) but a monetaryeconomy.


Athenian society

Athenian society

  • The city-state Athens consisted of 4 groups.

  • All had ownrights.

  • First group: free, adult men thatwere born in Athans. The more land theyowned, the more status they had. People who had a paid job werelower.

  • Second group: foreignersfromothercity-states. Theycouldn’town land.


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  • Thirdgroup: women. Couldn’town a house or land. Had few rights. Take care of the house andchildren.

  • Fourthgroup: slaves. Theywere private property and had no rights.

  • Slaveswerequitenormal in Greece.

  • 1/3 of allpeoplewereslaves.

  • Sometimescapturedpeopleduring a war andsoldthem al slaves.


Slaves

Slaves

  • Dit a lot of work, so important to the economy.

  • Worked in silvermines, on the fields, helped the house, andwereteachers.

  • Werealsocivilservantsthathelpedgoverning the country.


Spartan society

Spartan society

  • Sparta controlled large part of the Peloponnese, southern part of the Greekislands. ( = peninsula)

  • There was no acropolis.

  • Theyneeded a very strong army.

  • When boys were 7 yearsold, theyweretrainedforbeing a soldier.

  • Theylived in barracks in bad circumstances.


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  • We stilluse the word “Spartan” for a toughsituation.

  • Girls weretreated the same.

  • A second group in Sparta were the captives: peoplefromareasthatwerecapturedby Sparta. Theyweresubjugatedby Sparta (= ruled) the peoplewerecalled: helots.

  • Thirdgroup: inhabitants of small city-statesthatlistenedto Sparta. Theywerecalled: “dwellersaround”, and had theirowngovernment but paidtaxesto Sparta.


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