Affective emotional conditioning
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Affective/Emotional Conditioning. Advertisement (US) --> change in feeling state (UR) Watson & Raynor (1920) Taste aversion Emotional state “automatic” Lack of conscious control. Affect. Little agreement in literature on terminology Bower & Forgas (2000)

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Affective/Emotional Conditioning

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Affective emotional conditioning

Affective/Emotional Conditioning

  • Advertisement (US) --> change in feeling state (UR)

  • Watson & Raynor (1920)

  • Taste aversion

    • Emotional state “automatic”

    • Lack of conscious control


Affect

Affect

  • Little agreement in literature on terminology

  • Bower & Forgas (2000)

    • Emotion: intense, short-lived, has identifiable cause

    • Mood: subtle/diffuse, long-lasting, non-specific causation

    • “Affect” encompasses both emotion and mood


Advertising

Advertising

  • To influence consumers’ brand opinions

  • Use affect to change brand evaluation

  • Performance content

    • Content to convince consumers that the brand is best

  • Performance void

    • Visual and/or audio to induce positive feelings


Classical conditioning framework

Classical Conditioning Framework

  • CS = brand

  • US = something that produces affective state (i.e., the UR)

  • CR = induced affective state; influences operant decision to purchase

  • Affective Classical Conditioning (ACC)


Example visuals as us

Example: Visuals as US

  • Generate positive feelings

    • e.g., kitten

  • For some brands, may also imply brand benefits or quality

    • e.g., for tissues, kitten may also indicate softness

    • e.g., for water filter, mountain stream may indicate purity

  • See: Mitchel & Olson (1981)


Methodology issue

Methodology Issue

  • To control for visuals, use US that produces affect with no potential brand meaning

  • But, CS and US need to have shared relevance/relatedness in advertising

    • Hard to generate artificial neutral stimuli


Ad framing

Ad Framing

  • Presenting positive or negative consequences

  • Aims to alter affect in consumer

  • Positive ad framing

    • Make purchase and receive positive affect

  • Negative ad framing

    • Don’t purchase and receive negative affect


Which is better

Which is Better?

  • Kahneman & Tversky (1979): Prospect Theory

    • Argue in favour of negative ad framing

    • People should react more strongly to potential loss than to potential gains

    • Displeasure of losing perceived as more consequential than pleasure of gaining

  • However, majority of research generally shows positively framed messages to be more effective


Affect priming

Affect Priming

  • Ad framing presents information producing affect-congruent associations

  • Affect priming is subsequent activation of affect paired with brand

  • Associationist’s principle of “similarity”

    • Similar affect-related associations more easily linked


Effects of affect

Effects of Affect

  • Schwarz & Bless (1991)

  • If individuals feel positive, they believe the environment is safe

  • Safe subjects are less likely to engage in message elaboration

  • More likely to rely on “peripheral cues” for judgments, less message elaboration.


Affective emotional conditioning

  • Martin, Ward, Achee & Wyer (1993)

    • Happy people engaged in a task

      • Believe task is enjoyable, produces the affect itself, continue task longer

    • Sad people engaged in the same task

      • Attribute negative affect to task and quit sooner

  • Mathur & Chattopadhyay (1991)

    • Happy TV program contexts lead to more attention to ad and message elaboration than sad program context

    • Transfer to advertisements?


Affect source

Affect Source?

  • From advertisement?

  • From brand?

  • From context in which advertisement is embedded?

    • For TV commercial, the TV program

    • For print advertisement, the magazine, newspaper, etc.

  • All could be producing ACC effects


Emotional perspectives

Emotional Perspectives

  • Affective conditioning hypothesis

    • “Subconscious”

  • Mood judgment interpretation

    • Cognitively “active”


Emotional arousal

Emotional Arousal

  • From advertisement?

  • From brand?

  • From context in which advertisement is embedded?

    • For TV commercial, the TV program

    • For print advertisement, the magazine, newspaper, etc.


Effects of arousal

Effects of Arousal

  • Yerkes-Dodson effect

    • Inverted U

    • Aids memory retention/recall to some point

Memory/response

Arousal/intensity


Excitation transfer of arousal paradigm

Excitation Transfer of Arousal Paradigm

  • Study effect of arousal on behaviour

  • Emotion produced by interaction of:

    • Physiological arousal

    • Cognitive processing of situation

  • Emotional effects can be delayed and can linger

    • Underlying physiology (neurotransmitters, hormones)

  • Associate arousal with brand/product


Importance of timing

Importance of Timing

  • Park & McClung (1985)

    • Highly arousing TV program may interfere with commercial’s effectiveness

  • View arousing TV program, view commercial

  • No delay: arousal attributed to program

  • Short delay: mistakenly attribute arousal to commercial

  • Implication

    • Be careful when/where you place embedded advertisements


In the pod

In the “Pod”

  • First few may not benefit from residual arousal

  • Later commercials will

  • Control over ad placement in pod?


Product evaluation

Product Evaluation

  • Hedonic criteria

    • Product enhances positive affect via self-esteem, social validation, reputation, immediate gratification, etc.

  • Utilitarian criteria

    • Product solves a problem

  • Evaluation parallels “transformational products” and “informational products”


Product type affect effects

Product Type, Affect Effects

  • Adaval (2001)

  • Affect effects re: purchasing appear when product evaluation for hedonic criteria

  • Less relevant for utilitarian criteria; product performance more significant


Chang 2008

Chang (2008)

  • Sneakers with fictitious brand name in artificial ad

  • Positively and negatively framed ad messages (re: self-esteem, social recognition)

  • Folder with sneaker ad and other distracter ads given to subjects

  • Questionnaire on affect and thoughts on ads and products

  • Positively framed ads elicit higher levels of positive affect than negatively framed ads


Gresham shimp 1985

Gresham & Shimp (1985)

  • Attitude to ads (AAd)

  • Attitude to brands (AB)

  • What mediates processes for AAd to influence consumer’s AB?

    • Central issue for advertisement theory

  • Four possibilities


Four possibilities

Classical conditioning

Brand paired with affectively-valenced ad

Cognitive Response

AAd influences AB indirectly via impact on brand cognitions

Effects of arousal

Reciprocal Causation

AAd & AB are mutually causative

Positive/negative attitude held to both product and ad

Causative strength varies with consumer and situation

No relationship

AAd & AB influence choice independently

Four Possibilities


Requirements for classical conditioning

Requirements for Classical Conditioning

  • Affective reaction to ad changes buyers’ AB without altering their cognitive structure (CSB)


Hypothesis 1

Hypothesis 1

  • Positive/negative affective ads --> significant influence on AB

  • But, could AB affect AAd?


Hypothesis 2

Hypothesis 2

  • Experimental group (positive/negative affective ad) will have more/less positive AB than control group

  • But, also must show AB affected by AAd, not by changes in CSB


Hypothesis 3

Hypothesis 3

  • No significant difference in experimental and control subjects’ CSBs


Study

Study

  • Rated 15 TV commercials (supermarket products) on affective scale

    • Positive, neutral, negative

  • 5 experimental groups

    • One ad from each group

    • Questionnaires for AAd, AB, and CSB

  • 1 control group

    • Questionnaires for AB and CSB


Results

Results

  • Statistically speaking, inconclusive

  • More generally, trends offer support for classical conditioning interpretation


Design problems

Design Problems

  • Used “mature” brands

    • e.g., Zest, Schlitz, Dr. Pepper

    • Consumers familiar with product

    • Drives AB --> AAd

  • Recommendation

    • Develop new TV ads for fictional products

    • Tricky and expensive


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