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Proto-Orthodox/Early Catholics Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Philip PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Proto-Orthodox/Early Catholics Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Philip Other apocryphal texts, e.g. Acts of Paul , Shepherd of Hermas Heresies:Gnosticism Arianism Monophysitism. God. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon. Aeon.

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Proto-Orthodox/Early Catholics Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas , Gospel of Philip

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Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Proto-Orthodox/Early Catholics

Apocryphal Gospels, e.g. Gospel of Thomas,

Gospel of Philip

Other apocryphal texts, e.g. Acts of Paul,

Shepherd of Hermas

Heresies:Gnosticism

Arianism

Monophysitism


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

God

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Sophia


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

God

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Sophia


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

God

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Aeon

Demiurge


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Gnostics containing divine sparks wanting

to return to divine realm.

Salvation could be achieved by

gaining appropriate

knowledge (gnosis) from

divine realm

Knowledge brought by an

aeon…


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Gnostic views of Christ:

1. Spiritual being who instructed

disciples while masquerading

as a human

2. Spiritual being temporarily

inhabiting human body of Jesus


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Classic features of Gnostics:

1. Elitist

2. Secretive

3. Often ascetic, despite claims of

critics

4. Complex, opaque teachings


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

319 Arius (d. 336), a priest of Alexandria,

excommunicated for claiming Christ

not eternal, but separate entity begotten

by God

Further teachings:

Christ created so that God might create

universe through him

Christ sharing divine power but subject

to sin


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

325 Council of Nicea summoned by Constantine,

produces Nicene creed

330-79 Arianism enjoys imperial favour

381 Council of Constantinople summoned by

Theodosius I (r. 379-95), outlaws

Arianism


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

c. 360 Apollinaris (d. c. 392), Bishop of

Laodicea, teaches that Christ has only one,

divine nature inhabiting human body.

Logos (Word) taking place of soul

In response, Nestorius (d. c. 451), Patriarch of

Constantinople, preaches that Christ has

two natures and two persons, one human,

one divine. Teaching known as

Nestorianism

(Mainstream view is two natures, one human,

one divine, in one person)


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Theologians of Alexandria attack Nestorius’

teaching. Some, led by Eutyches

(d. c. 454), state that Christ has two

natures, one human, one divine, fused

into one = Monophysitism

451 Council of Chalcedon. Monophysitism

and Nestorianism condemned, but

still practiced centuries later (e.g. by

Copts in Egypt)


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Influence of upper, rich classes on

Christian clergy and practice

Latin as language of worship and

writing

Worship becoming highly ritualised

Eucharist as central, ritualised part of

Mass, conducted by educated clergy

Wine only given to laity in 15th c.


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

Cult of SaintsRelics

Accounts of Saints’ Lives

Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

First accounts of saints’ lives written in late

4th/early 5th c.

Growth of Cult of Saints in following

centuries


Proto orthodox early catholics apocryphal gospels e g gospel of thomas gospel of philip

The Nicene Creed

Ambrose (c. 339-397)

Statement of belief from Council of Nicea, 325

Bishop of Milan and staunch defender of the

church, even from demands of emperors


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