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Non-Communicable Diseases - December 1, 2008

Non-communicable. Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis. Cardiovascular Disease. Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of thi

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Non-Communicable Diseases

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Non-Communicable Diseases

December 1, 2008

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  • Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.

  • Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis

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Cardiovascular Disease

  • Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.

  • Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease.

  • Types of CVD –

    • Hypertension

    • Arthrosclerosis

    • Angina Pectoris

    • Arrhythmias

    • Heart Attack

    • Congestive Heart Failure

    • Stroke

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Risk Factors for CVD

  • Tobacco Use

  • High Blood Pressure

  • High Cholesterol

  • Physical Inactivity

  • Excess Weight

  • Stress

  • Drug and Alcohol Use

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Risk Factors – Cannot Be Controlled

  • Heredity

  • Gender – Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack.

  • Age – 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older.

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  • Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells

  • Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body.

    • Benign – noncancerous

    • Malignant – cancerous

      • Metastasis – spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body.

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Types of Cancer

  • Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system

  • Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming tissues

  • Carcinomas – cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs

  • Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle

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Risk Factors

  • Tobacco Use – Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke

  • Sexually Transmitted Disease – cervical and liver cancers.

  • Dietary Factors – Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber.

  • Radiation – Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable

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CAUTION about Cancer

  • Change in bowel habits

  • A sore that does not heal

  • Unusual bleeding or discharge

  • Thickening or a lump

  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

  • Obvious change in a wart or mole

  • Nagging cough or hoarseness

    • Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss.

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Reduce Your Risk

  • Practice abstinence from sexual activity

  • Be physically active

  • Maintain a healthy weight

  • Eat nutritious foods – low in saturated fat and high in fiber

  • Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation

  • Avoid tobacco and alcohol

  • Recognize the warning signs of cancer

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Treating Cancer

  • Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread.

    • Surgery

    • Radiation Therapy – radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.

    • Chemotherapy – chemicals to kill cancer cells.

    • Immunotherapy – activates person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.

    • Hormone Therapy – medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells.

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  • Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.

  • Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines – common allergens

  • Histamines – chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.

  • Typical Symptoms – sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose

  • Severe Symptoms – hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness.

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  • An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed.

    • Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S.

    • 5,000 Americans die of the disease

  • Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus.

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Managing Asthma

  • Monitor the Condition

  • Manage the Environment

  • Manage stress

  • Take medication

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  • Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy.

    • Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed.

  • The pancreas produced too little or no insulin

    • A hormone that helps glucose enter the body’s cells.

  • If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes.

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Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease)

    • Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics.

    • Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.

    • People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump.

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Types of Diabetes

  • Type 2

    • Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40.

    • Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly.

    • Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.

  • Gestational Diabetes – during pregnancy

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  • Frequent urination

  • Excessive thirst

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • Extreme hunger

  • Sudden vision changes

  • Tingling in hands or feet

  • Frequent fatigue

  • Very dry skin

  • Sore that are slow to heal

  • More infections that usual

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Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports

  • 100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints.

  • 8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis.

  • Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types

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  • Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other.

  • Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide.

  • Most common in women and in people over the age of 45.

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Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis

  • Controlling weight

  • Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again

  • Protecting against Lyme Disease

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation.

  • Affects 2.5 million people nationwide

  • Most common in women;

  • Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50

  • Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)

  • Caused by an autoimmune disease – no cure!

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Symptoms and Treatment

  • Symptoms

  • Joint pain

  • Inflammation

  • Swelling

  • Stiffness

  • Joint deformity

  • Loss of normal function

  • Medications

    • Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness

  • Exercise

  • Rest

  • Joint Protection

  • Physical and Occupational therapy