Non-Communicable Diseases. December 1, 2008. Non-communicable . Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment. Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis. Cardiovascular Disease . Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.
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December 1, 2008
- Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.
- Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis
- Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.
- Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease.
- Types of CVD –
- Angina Pectoris
- Heart Attack
- Congestive Heart Failure
Risk Factors for CVD
- Tobacco Use
- High Blood Pressure
- High Cholesterol
- Physical Inactivity
- Excess Weight
- Drug and Alcohol Use
Risk Factors – Cannot Be Controlled
- Gender – Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack.
- Age – 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older.
- Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
- Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body.
- Benign – noncancerous
- Malignant – cancerous
- Metastasis – spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body.
Types of Cancer
- Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system
- Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming tissues
- Carcinomas – cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs
- Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle
- Tobacco Use – Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
- Sexually Transmitted Disease – cervical and liver cancers.
- Dietary Factors – Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber.
- Radiation – Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable
CAUTION about Cancer
- Change in bowel habits
- A sore that does not heal
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- Thickening or a lump
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
- Obvious change in a wart or mole
- Nagging cough or hoarseness
- Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss.
Reduce Your Risk
- Practice abstinence from sexual activity
- Be physically active
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Eat nutritious foods – low in saturated fat and high in fiber
- Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation
- Avoid tobacco and alcohol
- Recognize the warning signs of cancer
- Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread.
- Radiation Therapy – radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.
- Chemotherapy – chemicals to kill cancer cells.
- Immunotherapy – activates person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.
- Hormone Therapy – medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells.
- Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.
- Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines – common allergens
- Histamines – chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.
- Typical Symptoms – sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose
- Severe Symptoms – hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness.
- An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed.
- Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S.
- 5,000 Americans die of the disease
- Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus.
- Monitor the Condition
- Manage the Environment
- Manage stress
- Take medication
- Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy.
- Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed.
- The pancreas produced too little or no insulin
- A hormone that helps glucose enter the body’s cells.
- If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes.
Types of Diabetes
- Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease)
- Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics.
- Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.
- People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump.
Types of Diabetes
- Type 2
- Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40.
- Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly.
- Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.
- Gestational Diabetes – during pregnancy
- Frequent urination
- Excessive thirst
- Unexplained weight loss
- Extreme hunger
- Sudden vision changes
- Tingling in hands or feet
- Frequent fatigue
- Very dry skin
- Sore that are slow to heal
- More infections that usual
Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports
- 100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints.
- 8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis.
- Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types
- Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other.
- Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide.
- Most common in women and in people over the age of 45.
Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis
- Controlling weight
- Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again
- Protecting against Lyme Disease
- Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation.
- Affects 2.5 million people nationwide
- Most common in women;
- Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50
- Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)
- Caused by an autoimmune disease – no cure!
Symptoms and Treatment
- Joint pain
- Joint deformity
- Loss of normal function
- Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness
- Joint Protection
- Physical and Occupational therapy