Non-Communicable Diseases - December 1, 2008
Non-communicable. Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis. Cardiovascular Disease. Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of thi
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December 1, 2008
Non-communicable Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment. Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis Cardiovascular Disease Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels. Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease. Types of CVD – Hypertension Arthrosclerosis Angina Pectoris Arrhythmias Heart Attack Congestive Heart Failure Stroke Risk Factors for CVD Tobacco Use High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Physical Inactivity Excess Weight Stress Drug and Alcohol Use Risk Factors – Cannot Be Controlled Heredity Gender – Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack. Age – 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older. Cancer Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells Tumor – abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body. Benign – noncancerous Malignant – cancerous Metastasis – spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body. Types of Cancer Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming tissues Carcinomas – cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs Sarcomas – cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle Risk Factors Tobacco Use – Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke Sexually Transmitted Disease – cervical and liver cancers. Dietary Factors – Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber. Radiation – Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable CAUTION about Cancer Change in bowel habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or a lump Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss. Reduce Your Risk Practice abstinence from sexual activity Be physically active Maintain a healthy weight Eat nutritious foods – low in saturated fat and high in fiber Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation Avoid tobacco and alcohol Recognize the warning signs of cancer Treating Cancer Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread. Surgery Radiation Therapy – radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass. Chemotherapy – chemicals to kill cancer cells. Immunotherapy – activates person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them. Hormone Therapy – medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells. Allergies Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance. Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines – common allergens Histamines – chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production. Typical Symptoms – sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose Severe Symptoms – hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness. Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed. Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S. 5,000 Americans die of the disease Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus. Managing Asthma Monitor the Condition Manage the Environment Manage stress Take medication Diabetes Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy. Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed. The pancreas produced too little or no insulin A hormone that helps glucose enter the body’s cells. If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes. Types of Diabetes Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease) Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics. Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump. Types of Diabetes Type 2 Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40. Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly. Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity. Gestational Diabetes – during pregnancy Symptoms Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Extreme hunger Sudden vision changes Tingling in hands or feet Frequent fatigue Very dry skin Sore that are slow to heal More infections that usual Arthritis
Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports
100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints. 8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis. Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types Osteoarthritis Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other. Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide. Most common in women and in people over the age of 45. Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis Controlling weight Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again Protecting against Lyme Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation. Affects 2.5 million people nationwide Most common in women; Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50 Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) Caused by an autoimmune disease – no cure! Symptoms and Treatment Symptoms Joint pain Inflammation Swelling Stiffness Joint deformity Loss of normal function Medications Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness Exercise Rest Joint Protection Physical and Occupational therapy