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1. Non-Communicable Diseases December 1, 2008
2. Non-communicable Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment.
Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis
3. Cardiovascular Disease Disease the affects the hear or blood vessels.
Approximately 61 million Americans have some form of this disease.
Types of CVD
Congestive Heart Failure
4. Risk Factors for CVD Tobacco Use
High Blood Pressure
Drug and Alcohol Use
5. Risk Factors Cannot Be Controlled Heredity
Gender Men are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease as well as greater risk of having a heart attack.
Age 80% of people who die of cardiovascular diseases are 65 or older.
6. Cancer Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
Tumor abnormal mass of tissue that has not natural role in the body.
Metastasis spread of cancer from the point it originated to other parts of the body.
7. Types of Cancer Lymphomas cancers of the immune system
Leukemias cancers of the blood-forming tissues
Carcinomas cancers of the gland and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs
Sarcomas cancers of the connective tissues, including bones, ligaments, and muscle
8. Risk Factors Tobacco Use Lung, bladder, pancreas, and kidney cancer; 1 in 5 deaths are attributed to smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
Sexually Transmitted Disease cervical and liver cancers.
Dietary Factors Colon, Breast, and Prostate; 30% of all cancers linked to poor food choices, specifically ones high in fat and low in fiber.
Radiation Skin Cancer; 80% of skin cancers are preventable
9. CAUTION about Cancer Change in bowel habits
A sore that does not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or a lump
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious change in a wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
Other symptoms can include fatigue and unexplained weight loss.
10. Reduce Your Risk Practice abstinence from sexual activity
Be physically active
Maintain a healthy weight
Eat nutritious foods low in saturated fat and high in fiber
Protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation
Avoid tobacco and alcohol
Recognize the warning signs of cancer
11. Treating Cancer Treatment depends on several factors such as: type of cancer, location, and whether the tumor has spread.
Radiation Therapy radioactive substances used to kill cancer cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.
Chemotherapy chemicals to kill cancer cells.
Immunotherapy activates persons immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.
Hormone Therapy medicines that interfere with production of hormones; kill or slow the growth of cells.
12. Allergies Specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance.
Pollen, foods, dust, mold, chemicals, insect venom, and medicines common allergens
Histamines chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.
Typical Symptoms sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose
Severe Symptoms hives, itching or swelling of a stung area or the mouth, difficulty breathing, raspy voice, swelling of the tongue, dizziness.
13. Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed.
Affects more than 17 million people in the U.S.
5,000 Americans die of the disease
Certain substances, called triggers, irritate the bronchial tubes resulting in the tightening of the walls and production of mucus.
14. Managing Asthma Monitor the Condition
Manage the Environment
15. Diabetes Chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy.
Each year, approximately 1 million new cases are diagnosed.
The pancreas produced too little or no insulin
A hormone that helps glucose enter the bodys cells.
If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the bloodstream, thus a blood test is needed to diagnose diabetes.
16. Types of Diabetes Type 1 (Autoimmune Disease)
Accounts for 5-10% of all diabetics.
Appears suddenly and progresses quickly; can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart.
People can treat diabetes with daily doses of insulin via injections or pump.
17. Types of Diabetes Type 2
Accounts for 90-95% of all cases; appears most often after the age of 40.
Body is unable to make enough insulin or use the insulin properly.
Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity.
Gestational Diabetes during pregnancy
18. Symptoms Frequent urination
Unexplained weight loss
Sudden vision changes
Tingling in hands or feet
Frequent fatigue Very dry skin
Sore that are slow to heal
More infections that usual
19. Arthritis Arthritis epidemic may result from the number of people participating in adventure sports 100 + diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints.
8.4 million ages 18-44 have arthritis.
Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis most common types
20. Osteoarthritis Disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down resulting in the bones rubbing against each other.
Accounts for half of all arthritis cases affecting about 20 million nationwide.
Most common in women and in people over the age of 45.
21. Reduce the Risk of Osteoarthritis Controlling weight
Preventing sports injuries/allowing injuries to heal completely before playing again
Protecting against Lyme Disease
22. Rheumatoid Arthritis Characterized by the destruction of the joints due to inflammation.
Affects 2.5 million people nationwide
Most common in women;
Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 20 and 50
Can affect young children (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)
Caused by an autoimmune disease no cure!
23. Symptoms and Treatment Symptoms
Loss of normal function Medications
Relieve pain, reduce inflammation and swelling, and stiffness
Physical and Occupational therapy