Inter application communication mechanism and gui
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Inter-application communication mechanism and GUI. In OLE’s terminology, both ‘ object linking ’ and ‘ object embedding ’ mean what we call object containment in this section.

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Inter-application communication mechanism and GUI

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Inter-application communication mechanism and GUI

  • In OLE’s terminology, both ‘object linking’ and ‘object embedding’ mean what we call object containment in this section.

    • With OLE’s object linking, the containment of a component only holds a reference pointer to the original component, while with OLE’s object embedding, the contained component is an independent copy of the original component.

Interoperability and meme media:component-based architecture

Current computers handle various types of intellectual resources. Unless a system provides a dedicated functional linkage between any pair of these object types, it fails to integrate these objects. Different pairs require different types of linkages. If there are n different types, we require O(n2) different types of linkages. This is the essential challenge of integration systems that are open to the future addition of new intellectual resource types.

Interoperability and meme media :Media-based architecture

Meme-media architectures solve this problem by separating media from their contents, and standardizing the logical structure and the interface of the primitive media objects.

Each primitive media object consists of its wrapper and its content. Its wrapper defines its standard media structure and interface.

In a media-based architecture,only one type of functional linkage is used to connect any pair of wrappers

Interoperability and meme media:Media-based architecture

Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media

  • Multimedia studies are focused on how to deal with various forms of information on computers.

    • Multimedia researches have been extending their scope to deal with texts, charts, drawings, tables, images, movies, sounds, script programs, and environments.

    • They have developed dedicated technologiesto edit, distribute, and manage each of these different forms of information.

  • Additionally, they have developed a compound document architecture.

  • Recent multimedia studies are focused on multimedia-document editors with scripting languages, multimedia exchange formats based on various compression technologies, and multimedia databases using various retrieval technologies.

  • Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media

    • Hypermediastudies are focused on associative, referential, and/or quotation relationships among multimedia documents, and navigational exploration along some of these relationships.

    • They focus on nonlinear organization of a multimedia-document space for writing and reading.

      • Ted Nelson, who coined the term “hypertext”, also coined the word “docuverse” to denote this nonlinear writing, reading, publishing, annotating, and/or quoting space of documents.

      • He considered not only a personal ‘docuverse’ but also a worldwide ‘docuverse’.

      • Later, the WWW and the Web browser technologies had partially implemented his dream on a world-wide docuverse.

    Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media

    • Meme-media studies are focused on new types of media that work as memes carrying various kinds of knowledge.

    • They address uniform and integrated ways to edit, distribute, and manage all kinds of intellectual resource on present networked computer systems.

      • These resources include multimedia documents, application tools, knowledge rules, and design models.

  • Meme-media studies are aimed at forming an open set of primitive media components and a standard functional-composition mechanism allowing the easy composition/decomposition of multimedia documents and tools through direct manipulation.

  • Meme-media studies are also focused on a worldwide marketplace architecture for the publication of various intellectual resources on meme media, their reuses, their re-editing, and the redistribution of re-edited intellectual resources; it is assumed that all these operations are performed by end-users through direct manipulation.

  • Meme media and meme pools

    • Meme media requires the development of three subsystems.

    • A meme-media editing system provides us with an open library of primitive meme media objects, and enables us to create composite meme media objects by easily and directly combining these components.

    • A meme-pool system provides a worldwide marketplace of meme-media objects. We are especially interested in such a meme-pool system that works on the Internet.

    • A meme-media management system works as a database system for media objects. We have to consider two types of meme-media management systems: one for the local management of meme-media objects, and the other for the global clearing service.

    From information architectures to media architectures

    • Today's advanced information society has three major problems.

      • information explosion

      • software crisis

      • Current computer systems are still poor vehicles for our culture.

    Information explosion

    • Today's information explosion has come from the following two causes:

      • people's insufficient understanding of the ecology of information in the research and development of conventional information processing technologies, and

      • people's insufficient attention to the important roles of media in human societies.

    Software Crisis

    • While information productivity has been remarkably improved in these decades, software productivity still remains the same as ten or twenty years ago.

    • The ever-increasing demand for new software systems is caused by seriously increasing backlogs.

    • The remarkable improvement of information productivity during the past couple of decades can be attributed to the development of document editing, reproduction, and distribution technologies.

    • These technologies are not yet well developed for software.

    Software Crisis

    • There have been many projects aimed at improving software productivity.

    • Software developers tried to provide software components and to distribute them for their reuse. However, none has managed to achieve particular success.

    • They only considered the distribution of components. They assumed that the composite products need not be decomposable.

    • The distribution of components is not sufficient to promote their reuse. We need to distribute a complete application product in its decomposable form so that other people can easily decompose this into subsystems not only to reuse some of them for other purposes, but also to learn how to use each component with others.

    Roles of media

    • A medium adds varieties of functions to an information fragment.

    • Media of the same type treat varieties of information in a uniform way, and provide them with a standard access and operation protocol.

    • A medium integrates varieties of information.

    History of books

    • The Egyptian book took the form of a scroll.

    • A text of long works was divided among several scrolls, keeping the length of each portion more or less the same, while respecting chapter-breaks. Short texts, on the other hand, were joined together in a single scroll, indicating a tendency to adopt a uniform length.

    • The nature of the scroll forced authors to publish their works in relatively short sections, hence the divisions into somewhat short books of the major works of Latin authors.

    • One of the most important characteristics of media is that the form of media influences not only the style of its knowledge content, but furthermore the way that both writers and readers think about that content.

    History of books

    • A strip bearing the identification of the work was glued on to the outside of the scroll; it was called the ‘index’ or ‘titulus’. When, much later on, works came to be given a title, this was written at the inner end of the scroll, probably because placing it within the roll served to protect it.

    • The folded and sewn manuscript book is properly called a ‘codex’. During the early first century AD the scroll or ‘volumen’ met competition from, and was then replaced by, the codex.

    • Though it is not clear when the codexsuperseded the scroll, from the fourth century onward, the codex gradually took the place of the volumen as the normal form for books.

    • The format, that is, the height and the width of the page, became known as ‘forma’ or ‘volumen’ during the Middle Ages. The oldest format was square. This was followed by a rectangular shape with the height greater than the width.

    History of books

    • Like their predecessors papyrus scrolls, medieval manuscripts usually did not have title pages. Instead, a phrase from the beginning of the text was written at the head of the text.

    • The name of the author was not stated.

    • Attention was drawn to the opening phrase by the use of red ink and large capital letters. Information about the author and the work’s title were placed at the end of the book.

    • Since the large number of quires needed to make a codex could easily be gathered in the wrong order when bound, copyists developed the custom of numbering the quire with marks on the last page.

    • In the thirteenth century, after the founding of the first universities had increased the demand for books, a system was needed that would also indicate the order of the pages within each quire, to permit the designer and illuminator to work in sequence on the same volume without any confusion. By the end of the thirteenth century, the folios were sometimes numbered throughout a volume.

    History of books

    • The history of books is a good example to see how long it takes to develop one type of media. Note that this long history was required to develop the structure of media, namely the presentation structure of information, but not the representation structure of information.

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