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The Pax Romana Roman Law Roman Institutions Roman Tolerance Roman Attitudes Roman Military Roman Peace and Prosperity. Rome & the Roman Empire at its Peak. Population: 100,000,000+ 31 different ethnic groups 10,000 cities and towns 180,000 miles of paved roads Rome itself had:

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The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Pax Romana

Roman Law

Roman Institutions

Roman Tolerance

Roman Attitudes

Roman Military

Roman Peace and Prosperity


Rome the roman empire at its peak

Rome & the Roman Empire at its Peak

  • Population: 100,000,000+

  • 31 different ethnic groups

  • 10,000 cities and towns

  • 180,000 miles of paved roads

  • Rome itself had:

    • 11 Public Baths

    • 22 Aqueducts

    • Coliseum & Circus Maximus


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

I. The Founding of Rome 900 - 509BC

II. The Roman Republic and the Conflict of the Orders

III. Wars 509 BC. - 287 BC including the Mountain People, the Senones, the Samnites, and the Greeks of southern Italy - The Unification of Italy

IV. Expansion outside of Italy - The Punic Wars 264-241BC and 215-201BC

V. Dominion in the Mediterranean - Illyria, Macedonia, Greece, Asia(Turkey), Carthage, and Spain

VI. The Gracchi Brothers, Marius, and Sulla (Liberals vs Conservatives)

VII. Julius Caesar and the first triumvirate - The fall of the Republic


Three key roman eras

Three Key Roman Eras:

  • Settlement & Founding 1000 BC – 600 BC

  • The Monarchial Period

    • 600 to 509 BC

  • The Republic

    • 509 to 44 BC and J. Caesar’s Death

  • The Empire

    • 44 to 476 AD


Rome founding to 509 bc

Rome: Founding to 509 BC.

Early Settlement

And

The Monarchial Period


Nordic waves of settlement

Nordic Waves of Settlement

  • Palafittes 2000 BC

    • Lake/Platform Homes

    • Cremation, Stone Tools

  • Terramare 1500 BC

    • Bronze

  • Villanovan 1000 BC

    • Iron Age Settlements

      Oppidum – main settlements

      Vicus/Vici – Chief & Assembly

      Pagus/Pagi – small district

There’s No

Place Like

Rome


Etruscan invaders

Etruscan Invaders

  • Highly Civilized

  • Urban

  • Traders

  • Manufactures

  • Partiers

  • Gladiatorial Contests

  • Empire Builders

  • Women’s Rights Activists


Latium is settled

Latium is Settled

  • 50 Cities

  • Villanovan Development

  • Cooperative

  • Warlike

  • Rome

  • Latin League Created


Romulus founds rome

Romulus Founds Rome

  • Mars & Rhea Silvia

  • Numitor & Amulius

  • Brothers

    • Romulus

    • Remus

  • Palatine Hill

  • Romulus

  • April 21, 753 BC


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Monarchial Period

600 – 509BC


The king

The King

  • Chief Priest

    • Augurs & Pontifex

    • Auspicium (omen)

  • Chief Legislator

    • Curiate & Senate

  • Chief Executive Imperium

    • Quaestor

  • Picked by the Etruscans


Religion before the greek influence

Religion Before the Greek Influence

Conducted by the King – 3 Times Daily

Worship was at the Sacred Hearth – Sustained by the Vestal Virgins

Worship focused on the NUMIA

formless

sexless

multifunctional beings


Institutions in the monarchial period

Institutions in the Monarchial Period

  • Extended Family

    • Pater Familias

  • Clan Group

  • 30 Curias

  • 3 Tribes

  • 2 Social Classes

    • Patricians

    • Plebeians


Revolution 509 bc

Revolution509BC

Romans v Etruscans

The Republic Created


Troubles on the borders

Troubles on the Borders

  • Civil War in Latium

  • Mountain People:

    • Hernici

    • Aequi

    • Volsci

    • Sabines

  • Etruscans


Civil war in latium

Civil War in Latium

  • 50 Cities fight each other for dominance

  • Questions of Survival

  • Saved by a Treaty and Compromise!

Cassian Treaty 493 BC.


War peace

Aequi and Volsci

38 years

Etruscans

At Fidenae

509 BC to 425 BC

Neutrality, Peace, and Protection given by Individual Treaty Negotiation!

Hernici

Sabines

War & Peace


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

  • Freedonium

Etruscans

  • Graftonia

Italy After 509 BC

  • Cedarburgium


Destruction of the etruscans

Destruction of the Etruscans

  • Fidenae Falls!

  • Eturia is open to conquest!!

  • Rome takes Veii!!!

  • Rome meets the Senones – Gauls from the North!!!!!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Senones 387 BC.


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Defeated

and

Occupied

by the

Senones

387 BC.


Reforming rebuilding creating

Government

Military

Social

Architecture

After:

509 BC

387 BC

Reforming-Rebuilding-Creating


Government in the republic

Government in the Republic

Legislative Branch

Executive Branch

Social Classes


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Course of Honors:

All offices are one year terms with 10 years required between offices!

Consul

Dictator

Maius Imperium

Praetor

Aedile

Tribune of Plebeians

Patrician Path

Queastor

Plebeian Path

Military service and Lieutenants Rank


Pent cameral legislatures

Pent cameral Legislatures

  • Curia Assembly

  • Centuriate Assembly

  • Comitia de Tributa

  • Council of Plebeians

  • Senate


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Conflict of the Orders

Plebs vs Pats


Code of the 12 tables

Code of the 12 Tables

  • Written Consistent Law is DEMANDED!

  • The Hortensian Law

  • Plebeian Protest!


Plebeian power

Plebeian Power

  • Reforms in Social Class

  • Reforms in Government

  • Reforms in land ownership

  • Reforms in Credit

Plebs v. Pats

Teachers v. School Board


Military reforms

Military Reforms

  • A New Wall

    • 387 BC to 410 AD

  • The Legion Created

    • Chain of Command

    • Consul to Centurion


Fighting for respect

Fighting for Respect

  • HAVES Rebel!

  • Latin League Loyalty????

  • Yes!

  • Camillus Leads

    • 387 to 358 BC

  • Rome Wins

  • Individual Treaties Written

  • Roman Control of the area around Latium


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Troubles in Campania


Campania

Campania

  • Area directly south of Latium

  • Peoples of Campania

  • Lucanians to the far south and Oscans to the north on the border of southern Latium

  • Samnite?????

  • Samnites don’t live in Campania!

Samnites v Oscan


The samnite wars the unification of central italy

The Samnite Wars & The Unification of Central Italy:

  • First Samnite War 343-341 BC

  • Great Latin War 341-338 BC

  • Second Samnite War 327-304 BC

  • Third Samnite War 298-290 BC

    • Gellius Egnatius & Sentinum 296 BC

    • Via Appia Built

    • Individual Treaty Negotiations


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Via Appia


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Space Shuttle

Determined by the Whom?

Roadways, Railway?

The Romans of Course!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The first all weather

road. Roman Legions

eventually built

180,000 miles of paved

all weather roads.

http://www.history.com/media.do?id=rome_appian_way_broadband&action=clip


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

http://www.italyguides.it/movie/roma/appia/via_appia.mov


The samnite wars the unification of central italy1

The Samnite Wars & The Unification of Central Italy:

  • First Samnite War 343-341 BC

  • Great Latin War 341-338 BC

  • Second Samnite War 327-304 BC

  • Third Samnite War 298-290 BC

    • Gellius Egnatius & Sentinum 296 BC

    • Via Appia Built

    • Individual Treaty Negotiations


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Gauls in the North

Greeks in the South


It s all greek to me

It’s all Greek to me!

  • Roman ally the Lucanians, attack Thurii

  • Thurii claims Roman protection under Noninterference Treaty from 2nd Samnite War


Thurii v tarentum

Thurii v Tarentum

  • Rome calls off its ally Lucania

  • Tarentum and the S. Greeks view this as a violation of the Noninterference Treaty

  • War in the South!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Gauls of Northern Italy

Rome’s at war in the South

Gellius Egnatius was right

Gaul’s attack!


Vadimo 283 bc

Vadimo 283 BC

Po River City

It’s hard to swim with armor!


Pyrrhus of epirus

Pyrrhus of Epirus:

  • Uncle of Alexander the Great

  • Brings 25,000 mercenaries and 20 tanks to Italy

  • Creates a southern coalition against Rome

  • Heraclea in 280 BC

    • Pyrrhic Victory


The unification of italy po to toe

The Unification of Italy Po to Toe!

  • Vadimo on the Po 283 BC

  • Beneventum near the toe 275 BC


Individual treaty negotiation and creation of empire

Individual Treaty Negotiationand Creation of Empire

  • Cassian Treaty 493 BC

  • Socii

  • Annexed

  • Allies

  • Friend

  • Full Citizenship

  • Half Citizenship

  • Dediticci


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Punic Wars

Rome vs Carthage

P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus vs Hannibal


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Not our Hannibal


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Carthaginian Empire at its Peak!


The first punic war battles and leaders

The First Punic WarBattles and Leaders:

  • Leaders:

    • Hiero II of Syracuse

    • Hamilcar Barca

    • Regulus

    • Xanthippus

  • Battles:

    • Mylae 260 BC

    • Economus 256 BC

    • Bagradas 255

    • Aegates Isle 241 BC

Hamilicar Barca


The first punic war 264 241 bc troubles in sicily the creation of an empire

The First Punic War 264 - 241 BCTroubles in Sicily&The Creation of an Empire!


Rome s on a roll

Sardinia

Corsica

Southern France

Saguntum in Spain

War of the Mercenaries in Carthage

Ebro Agreement with Hamilcar Barca

226 BC

Rome’s on a Roll


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Second Punic War 218-201 BCHannibal Destroys the Romans!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Hannibal Attacks and Wins Battles!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

They are mere shadows of men, half dead with hunger, cold, filth and ... bruised on the rocks and cliffs .... Their weapons are shattered and broken, their horses are weak and lame.


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Hannibal’s Victories 218 – 216 BC

Trasimene

Terbia

Cannae

Saguntum


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Real First World War!

Philip of Macedonia

Hannibal

Hasdrabul

v Scipio

M. Claudius Marcellus


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Scipio’s triumph in Rome!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Roman Victory!

Philip Negotiates 204 BC

207 BC Metaurus

206 BC

202 BC Zama

210 BC

Sicily


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Expansion into: Illyria, Macedonia, & Greece


The second punic war 218 201 bc

The Second Punic War 218-201 BC

  • final Battle of Zama in 202 BC the Romans finally defeated Hannibal

  • Hannibal commits suicide 183 BC

The Third Punic War 149-146 BC

  • Rome made a series of escalating demands, ending with the near-impossible demand that the city be demolished and re-built away from the coast, deeper into Africa. The Carthaginians refused this last demand and Rome declared the Third Punic War.

  • Scipio Aemilianus besieged the city for three years before he breached the walls, sacked the city, and burned Carthage to the ground. The surviving Carthaginians were sold into slavery, and Carthage ceased to exist.


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Expansion into Asia Minor


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Expansion into Spain and North Africa


Fighting in 149 bc

Fighting in 149 BC???

  • Macedonia 149-148 BC

  • Greece 149-146 BC

  • Carthage 149-146 BC

  • Spain 154-133 BC

  • Rome is victorious in all!

  • Provinces and Protectorates in the Mediterranean!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

TROUBLES AT HOME

Unemployment & the Rise of the Latifundia

Turmoil in Rome itself:

Patricians, Equites, and Plebeians


Macedonian wars

Macedonian Wars

  • First Macedonian War 214 BC – 204 BC

  • Second Macedonian War 200 BC – 196 BC

  • Third Macedonian War 171 BC – 168 BC

    • Perseus 179 BC kills the “darling of Roman Society” his brother to become King!

    • Pydna 168 BC

  • Andriscus & 4th Macedonian War 149 BC

  • First Roman Province


Wars against the greeks

Wars Against the Greeks

  • Greeks assist Rome in 1st & 2nd Macedonian Wars, but gain nothing but peace!

  • Upset the Aetolian Greeks join with the Selucids(Mesopotamia) led by Antiochus III to fight Rome

  • Thermopylae 191 BC – Greeks lose

  • Apamea 188 BC – Selucids lose


Wars in spain

Wars in Spain

  • Lusitanians & Celtiberians resist Rome’s take over after the Second Punic War!

  • 1st Spanish War 197-179 BC

    • 50,000 troops

    • Roman Corduba

  • 2nd Spanish War 154 – 133 BC

    • Viriathus & the assassins

  • 3rd Punic War 149 – 146 BC

Roman Dominion East and West!


Attalus iii of pergamum 133 bc

Attalus III of Pergamum 133 BC

  • Attalus allies with Rome during the Second Punic War 214 BC

  • Attalus supported Rome in all of its Eastern Campagins!

  • Attalus dies 133 BC and gives his country to Rome

  • 129 BC the Province of Asia created!


Greece taken

Greece Taken

  • Civil War in Southern Greece: Who will control the Peloponnesus?

  • Achaeans v Spartans

  • Rome demands peaceful settlement

  • Achaeans refuse: War 149 – 146 BC

  • Illyria, Macedonia, and Greece all Roman protectorates under jurisdiction of Macedonian Governor!


Provincial government

Provincial Government

  • Governor a former Consul or Praetor

  • Ruled by edict

  • 1 year term

  • Financial Administration

  • Maintain Peace

  • Aided by Legates (Jr. Senators) & Queastors

  • Appeal to Rome itself

  • Taxes:

  • Poll Tax

  • Land Tax

  • Taxes in Kind – tithe

  • Publicani – tax collectors


Lex provincia

Lex Provincia

  • 146 BC all laws from the provinces are codified into one set of laws

  • Attempts made to deal with conquerored people on a consistent basis

  • Extortion & Extraction Courts created as Appeals Courts in Rome for provincials.


Cimbri and tuetons

Cimbri and Tuetons

  • Ask for permission to settle in Northern Italy

  • Ask to give horses, cattle, and soldiers to Rome

  • Senate refuses to accept offer – Another failure!

  • Wars begin:

    • 113 BC – 30,000? killed

    • 109 BC – 40,000? killed

    • 105 BC – 80,000 killed


Roman emperors the good the bad and the ugly

Roman Emperorsthe good, the bad and the ugly

  • Julius Caesar

  • Octavian

  • Augustus Caesar

  • Tiberius

  • Claudius

  • Nero

  • Vespasian

  • Nerva

  • Trajan

  • Hadrian

  • Antoninus Pius

  • Marcus Aurelius

  • Commodus


The gracchi brothers

The Gracchi Brothers

Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus


Social chaos or social reform

Social Chaos or Social Reform

  • Limits on Land Ownership

    • 300 Acre tenant farms

    • 60,000 slaves work plantations on Sicily (Revolt 135 – 133 BC)

  • Free Land to the Unemployed

  • Political Rights for Equites – The new rich!

  • Citizenship to All Italians

  • Plebeians v Patricians

  • Senate Control over Roman Affairs


Jugurtha king of numidia

Jugurtha King of Numidia

  • Gold is discovered in the North African Kingdom of Numidia

  • Roman citizens massacred

  • Senate generals bungle the punishment of Jugurtha

  • Viewed as the Senate failure


The rise of marius

The Rise of Marius

  • Roman General

  • Creates a volunteer army to fight Jugurtha

  • Wins the Consulships:

    • 105 to 100 BC

  • Defeats Cimbri in Northern Italy and Tuetons in Southern France – 101 BC


The fall of marius

The Fall of Marius

  • Has political opponents assassinated in the election of 99 BC.

  • This was too much for even for the Plebeians

  • Marius retires until the Social War 91-88 BC


The senate and sulla

The Senate and Sulla

  • With support of the military and its leader Sulla, Senate retakes control of the Roman Empire

  • Civil War (The Social War 91 – 88 BC) leads to Italian Civil Rights

    • Marius People’s Choice

    • Sulla Senates Choice

    • A promise of Italian citizenship ends this conflict, Senate turns on Marius

  • Sulla chosen to lead Roman troops Marius Banished/Escapes to North Africa


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Sulla is sent!

Mithridates of Pontus

Attacks Asia Minor!

Marius leads a revolt

in Rome!


Sulla governs in asia minor 87 83 bc

Sulla Governs in Asia Minor 87-83 BC

  • Marius takes over Rome and declares himself dictator

  • Sulla returns to Rome after victories in Asia Minor

  • A Reign of Terror Begins as the Senate is restored to power by Sulla

  • Plebeians stripped of power

Marius kills off Sulla’s Friends,

Opposition party members, and

Senators!


The senate struggles to keep power

The Senate Struggles to Keep Power

  • Lepidus leads a revolt in Northern Italy!

  • Pompey puts down the revolt

  • Sertorius leads a revolt in Spain

  • Pompey puts down the revolt

  • Spartacus leads a revolt of slaves in 70 BC

  • The Senate is unable to put down the revolt without Pompey!


Spartacus

Spartacus

  • A slave and gladiator

  • Led a slave revolt in Italy that Panics all of Italy

  • Senate armies are defeated by a SLAVE!

  • Pompey & Crassus save Rome

  • Spartacus & 5000 of his followers crucified at quarter mile intervals from Rome to Brundisium along Via Appia


Pompey crassus

Pompey & Crassus

  • Run for consulships in 70 BC despite never having served in Government!

  • Both are elected and the Senate enters a period of decline!!


Pirate problems for rome

Pirate problems for Rome

  • 69 BC Senate bungles the Pirate raids on the Italian coast

  • Fear promotes appoint of Pompey as Dictator with a 3 year term!!

  • In 89 days it’s over Pompey wins!!!


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Pompey goes east!

Mithridates of Pontus

Attacks Asia Minor in

a series of conflict

74-66 BC!


Pompey in the east

Pompey in the East

  • By 63 BC defeats Mithridates

  • Annexes Palestine

  • Takes over the Selucids of Mesopotamia

  • Returns to Rome to a hostile Senate: no triumph, no land for his veterans


Elections of 59 bc

Elections of 59 BC

  • Pompey declares as a candidate for consul

  • Julius Caesar governor of Spain and Marion Loyalist declares as other candidate for consul

  • Senate declares consuls of 59 commissioners


Power behind the first triumvirate

Power Behind The First Triumvirate

  • Pompey – The Military

  • Crassus – The Money

  • Caesar – The People


What each member gets

What Each Member Gets:

  • Pompey – his triumph, land for his veterans, and governship of Spain (ruled from Rome)

  • Caesar – five year governship of Gaul “the land of forest and barbarians”

  • Crassus – the right to collect taxes in Asia Minor with a 10% rebate and a chance to attack the Parthians


Caesar in gaul the land of forests barbarians

Caesar in Gaul“the land of forests & barbarians”

  • Fame

  • Fortune

  • An Army within walking distance of Rome

  • An extended Governorship

  • Power


Caesar conquest of gaul

Caesar Conquest of Gaul

  • Defeats Ariovistus in 58 BC to take southern Gaul

  • Defeats the Belgeans 57 BC to annex central Gaul

  • Caesar invades England 55 & 54 BC

  • Germanic tribes unite Caesar is victorious 51 BC


Jealousy in rome

Jealousy in Rome

  • Meeting in Luca 56 BC

    • 5 more years as governor

    • Caesar in Gaul, Pompey in Spain, & Crassus in Syria

  • After victories over the Gauls and the death of Crassus, Pompey and Caesar clash.

  • Pompey joins the Senate in a Civil War begins.


Civil war 49 45 bc caesar victorious

Civil War 49-45 BCCaesar Victorious

  • Ordered home to stand trial – Caesar returns with his Gallic Legions

  • Pompey & Senate abandon Rome and flee to Greece

  • Pharsalus 48 BC – Pompey flees to Egypt

  • Caesar Vacations in Egypt

  • Caesar returns to Rome master of an Empire!


The death of caesar

The Death of Caesar

  • Appointed Dictator, Consul, & Censor - Caesar appears to many to be an Emperor!

  • March 15, 44 BC

  • Killed by his friends

  • Killed to prevent one man rule

  • Caesar’s death ends the Republic his assassins attempt to save!

http://www.history.com/media.do?id=tdih_mar15_broadband&action=clip


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

END OF THE REPUBLIC


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Rome


Brutus cassius

Brutus & Cassius

  • Caesars assassins attempt to reestablish the Republic

  • Marc Antony pardons the assassins

  • 19 year old Octavian the adopted son of Caesar demands revenge


The second triumvirate

The Second Triumvirate

  • Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus join forces to take on Caesar’s assassins

  • Assassins flee East

  • Triumvirate solidifies control of the West

  • Philliphi 42 BC Triumvirate defeats assassins


Antony octavian

Antony & Octavian

  • After Philliphi, Lepidus forced out

  • Antony takes the East

  • Octavian takes the West

  • Troubles for Octavian:

  • Luis Antony attempts assassination

  • Sextus Pompey leads revolt in Sicily


Brundisium conference

Brundisium Conference

  • Antony to marry Octavia, Octavian’s sister

  • Each to keep a segement of the Empire: Antony east and Octavian west!


Antony has a parthian problem

Antony has a Parthian Problem

  • Parthians attack Roman holdings in the East

  • Antony is discouraged fighting

  • Needing a vacation he goes to Egypt and meets???

  • Cleopatra


Antony fool or romantic

Antony – Fool or Romantic

  • Falls for Cleopatra

  • Divorces Octavia

  • Gives Egypt its independence

  • Angers Rome & Octavian who declare war

  • Actium 31 BC.


The julio claudians

The Julio Claudians

  • Julius Caesar, Claudius and their relatives

  • Rule Rome from 44 BC – 68 AD.

  • Julius to 59 BC - 44 BC

  • Octavian/Augustus 44 BC – 14 AD

  • Tiberius 14 – 37 AD

  • Caligula 37 – 41 AD

  • Claudius 41 – 54 AD

  • Nero 54 – 69 AD


Augustus the principate

Augustus & the Principate

  • With Antony’s death Octavian becomes master of Rome

  • Octavian begins the Principate

  • Octavian begins the Pax Romona

  • The Julio-Claudian Dynasty 45 BC – 69 AD


Augustus

Augustus

  • Found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble.

  • Paid Virgil to write the Aneid

  • Brought Peace – Tranquility – Security to Rome and the Empire (31 BC – 14 AD)

  • Secured natural defensible borders

  • Reduced army from 500,000 to 300,000


Achievement of augustus

Achievement of Augustus

  • Peace

  • Prosperity

  • Natural Defensible Borders

  • Shrinks army from 500,000 to 300,000

  • Lives so long only ruler some people will know! 44 BC – 14 AD


The 5 good emperors

The 5 Good Emperors

Nervan-Antonian dynasty

  • Nerva - first emperor to select his successor by their capabilities and potential, rather than paternal relations

  • Trajan – greatest extent of empire

  • Hadrian – world traveler, Hadrian’s Wall (England)

  • Antoninus Pius – promoted arts, science, theatre

  • Marcus Aurelius – stoic, worked for the people

  • Commodus – end of the “good”


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

Marcus Auerilius

- Commodus was a political and military outsider, as well as an extreme egotist with neurotic problems. For this reason, Marcus Aurelius' death is often held to have been the end of the Pax Romana


Roman coliseum

Roman Coliseum

  • The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is a giant amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. Originally capable of seating 45,000-50,000 spectators.

  • The Colosseum remained in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games being held there as late as the 6th century — well after the traditional date of the fall of Rome in 476.

  • As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, reenactments of famous battles, and dramas.

  • Built in 72 AD – 80 AD

  • Vespasian and Titus


The pax romana roman law roman institutions roman tolerance roman attitudes roman military

The Forum built in the reign of Trajan and Trajan’s Column!


Tiberius 14 ad 37 ad a question of leadership

Tiberius 14 AD – 37 ADA question of leadership

  • Picked by Augustus

  • Augustus picks Germanicus to follow Tiberius

  • Germanicus is young, cool and hip…Tiberius is old and sad

  • Germanicus dies while on a mission to Armenia for Tiberius

    • Many believe Tiberius set him up

    • Agrippina makes a big stink!


Tiberius 14 ad 37 ad a question of who will lead next

Tiberius 14 AD – 37 ADA question of who will lead next?

  • With Germanicus dead, Tiberius’ son Drusus seems to have the inside

  • Sejanus leader of the Praetorian sees a chance too!

  • Sejanus seduces the wife of Drusus who poisons her husband for love!

  • By 31AD Tiberius has elevated Sejanus to Consul (#2)


Tiberius 14 ad 37 ad a question of who will lead next1

Tiberius 14 AD – 37 ADA question of who will lead next?

  • Dumb moves in History

    • Sejanus dumps Drusus wife!

    • Tiberius receives an anonymous letter

  • A Reign of Terror is Begun!

  • Tiberius nominates two successors

  • Gaius/Caligula gets job by winning of the support of the Praetorian Guards.


Caligula little boots 37 41 ad

Caligula Little Boots 37 – 41 AD

  • Starts out really well, rules in the spirit of Augustus now deified

  • Becomes ill and goes just a little nutty

  • Nominated horse to consulship

  • Spends money on foolish projects and on….extravagancies

  • Praetorians & Senate move against the whole family in 41 AD.


Claudius 41 54 ad

Claudius 41 – 54 AD

  • Not bad for a guy who hides behind and curtain crying

  • Not bad for a guy who is slightly off mentally

  • Clever enough to offer a raise to the military

  • Clever enough to create a bureaucracy to run the state


Claudius 41 54 ad flaws

Claudius 41 – 54 AD & Flaws

  • Had not dated much, who’d go out with a nut?

  • Out one night he met Messalina on a street corner, love at first sight!

  • Marrying Messalina is a disgrace and eventually her behavior causes her to disappear

  • Marries his niece, Agrippina II

  • Adopts Agrippina’s son Ahenobarbarous…mistake


Nero 54 69 ad

Nero 54 – 69 AD

  • Troubles with Mom

  • Losing my mind

  • All I Love is the theater

  • Rule of 63 AD

  • Trouble and Revolt


Year of the 4 emperors

Year of the 4 Emperors

  • Nero was nuts and had to go!

  • Galba leader of the Armies of N. Italy replaces Nero

  • Galba goes Nero

  • Otho declared Emperor

  • Cuts Praetorians pay and raises taxes and puts the state in order


Vespacian

Vespacian

  • Founder of the Flavian Dynasty

  • Rulers from 69 AD – 96 AD

  • Turns power over to sons Titus and Domitian


The flavian dynasty

The Flavian Dynasty

  • Vespacian dies the same day Mt. Vesuvius erupts

  • Titus takes over

  • Destroys temple in Jerusalem and invades Scotland and Wales

  • Killed by his brother Domitian


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