IT’S IN THE EYE OF THE INSPECTOR
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IT’S IN THE EYE OF THE INSPECTOR Overview of visual inspection methods in four countries and lessons learned ISFD4, Toronto 6 May 2008 Jaap Flikweert. Background. Based on study for NL Research programme ‘Inspection of flood defences’ (VIW) (STOWA & Rijkswaterstaat)

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It s in the eye of the inspector

  • IT’S IN THE EYE OF THE INSPECTOR

  • Overview of visual inspection methods in four countries and lessons learned

  • ISFD4, Toronto

  • 6 May 2008

  • Jaap Flikweert


Background

Background

  • Based on study for NL Research programme

  • ‘Inspection of flood defences’ (VIW)

  • (STOWA & Rijkswaterstaat)

  • Co-author: Gerard Moser

  • Sources:

  • Personal involvement in NL & UK

  • Literature study & interviews for FR & DE


Lay out of presentation

Lay out of presentation

  • Why inspect?

  • Role of visual inspection

  • Local context

  • Methods

  • Conclusions on effective use of visual inspection


Asset management

Asset management

  • Flood risk management  Risk-based asset management

  • Balancing risk, cost and performance

  • Why inspect?

  • To measure deterioration

  • To steer intervention

  • To improve performance

  • To reduce risk

graphic: Advantica Ltd.


Asset inspection

Asset Inspection

  • Parallel with human health


Asset inspection1

Asset inspection

Visual, intrusive, remote

Tradition, performance based

Judgement, guidance, calculation


Role of visual inspection

Role of visual inspection

  • Drivers for developments:

    • Defences protect more

    • More complicated structures

    • Professionalisation

    • Technological development

  • Why still visual inspection?

    • Use of local knowledge

    • Cost

    • Human factor

    • Emergency staff available


Local context

Local context


Local context1

Local context


Local context2

Local context

Netherlands:

Flood risk dominant, defences vital, long history

Strict legal framework, flexible application

Focus on meeting standards

Assets managed by professionals

Germany (Federal waterways):

Flood risk significant, defences very important

Strict procedures

Focus on preventing damage

Assets managed by professionals

England:

Flood risk significant, increasing profile, defences locally important

Permissive powers, strict procedures

Focus on cost-effectiveness and risk

Assets managed by professionals

France:

Flood risk significant, defences locally important

Guidance

Focus on introducing defence management

Varying but improving quality of asset management

Scale of flood risk

Rules

Focus

Organi-sation


Methods

Methods

  • Long tradition of visual inspection

  • Recent years: less embedded in asset management


Methods1

Methods

  • Why:

  • Identify & repair small defectsLimited link with asset management  under development

  • How:

  • No detailed rules, left to local judgementGuidance under development

  • Who:

  • Operational staff

  • Recent development: training available


Methods2

Methods

  • Focus on Federal waterways

  • Framework:

  • DIN flood embankments

  • Specific internal directive for inspection

  • Clear hierarchical structure:

  • Inspector: inspect and inform

  • Field officer: check, respond and inform

  • Asset manager: check and respond

  • Indicators are asset specific & failure mode related


Methods3

Methods

  • Why:

  • Identify defects, prevent breach

  • How:

  • Detailed roles

  • Asset specific indicators

  • Who:

  • Specialist full-time inspectors

  • Backed by experts


Methods4

Methods

  • Since mid 90s: Condition Assessment Manual:

  • Condition grade (1-5)

  • Nationally consistent

  • Indicator for performance

  • Developments:

  • Improve link with failure modes


Methods5

Methods

  • Why:

  • Keep track of deterioration

  • Measure maintenance quality

  • How:

  • Detailed prescribed roles

  • Systematic technical guidance

  • Who:

  • Operational staff with specific training


Methods6

Methods

  • Longer tradition of dam management, but flood defence management just starting

  • Opportunity for integrated approach:

  • Performance based

  • Inspection embedded in asset management

  • Guide pratique (Cémagref):

  • Procedures

  • Set of forms


Methods7

Methods

  • Why:

  • Identify defences and determine starting point

  • Move toward keeping track of deterioration

  • How:

  • General guidance on approach

  • Can be applied to set local indicators

  • Who:

  • Variable, depends on asset management organisation


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Each country / culture its own method

  • Visual inspection can have different purposes

  • General move toward performance based inspection

  • Specific role for visual inspection within overall inspection, given technological developments:

    • Taking the pulse

    • Trigger for expert inspection

    • Input for modelling


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