Attack of the clones
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Attack of the Clones!. REVIEW. Asexual cloning occurs in nature Plants and less complex organisms can all duplicate trough asexual methods Complex, multicellular organisms have lost ability to asexually reproduce Cells have become too specialized . Human Assisted Cloning.

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Attack of the clones

Attack of the Clones!


Review

REVIEW

  • Asexual cloning occurs in nature

  • Plants and less complex organisms can all duplicate trough asexual methods

  • Complex, multicellular organisms have lost ability to asexually reproduce

    • Cells have become too specialized


Human assisted cloning

Human Assisted Cloning

Can be used to save the DNA from endangered species or mass produce organisms with desirable traits

There are two types of cloning we’ll discuss:

Reproduction Cloning

Therapeutic Cloning


Reproductive cloning

Reproductive Cloning

Also called adult DNA cloning

Purpose: to create a genetic duplicate of an existing (or previously existing) organism with desirable traits

Because the cells are specialized, you can’t just turn a single skin cell into a new individual!


Dolly the world s most famous cloned sheep

Dolly, the World’s Most Famous Cloned Sheep

July 5, 1996 – Feb. 14, 2003

cloned from the cell of a mammary gland

Was able to reproduce


How did they do it

How did they do it?

There are 5 steps in the therapeutic cloning process:

Remove nucleus from an egg cell

A mammary gland cell is removedfrom an adult female

Electricity fuses mammary and egg cell

Fused cell begins dividing

Dividing embryo is inserted intosurrogate mother


Problems scientists encountered

Problems Scientists Encountered

only about 10% of clones usually survive

Surviving clones can be abnormally large and experience higher rates of infection and cancer

For example, before Dolly died of a lung disease she appeared to be aging faster than other sheep.


Therapeutic cloning

Therapeutic Cloning

used to correct health problems

uses human embryonic stem cellsand adult stem cells

Stem Cells: cells that have the potential to become many different types of cells

Embryonic Stem Cells: more desirable because they can become any one of our 200 types of body cells


Attack of the clones

Stem cells can be used to replace damaged cells in patients with diabetes, spinal cord injuries, and Parkinson’s disease.

Embryonic stem cells are often used

Adult stem cells are not as adaptable


Attack of the clones

  • Adult stem cells form bone marrow have been used in transplants for 30 years

    • Have recently been used to regenerate nerves and heart tissue, and to treat diabetes

  • Controversial because the best stem cells are

    from embryos which are destroyed when

    harvesting cells


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