Chapter 7 water and atmospheric moisture
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Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture. Water and Atmospheric Moisture. Water on Earth   Unique Properties of Water   Humidity   Atmospheric Stability   Clouds and Fog  . Water on Earth  . Worldwide equilibrium Distribution of Earth’s water today  . Land and Water Hemispheres.

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Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture

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Chapter 7Water and Atmospheric Moisture


Water and Atmospheric Moisture

  • Water on Earth  

  • Unique Properties of Water  

  • Humidity  

  • Atmospheric Stability  

  • Clouds and Fog  


Water on Earth  

  • Worldwide equilibrium

  • Distribution of Earth’s water today  


Land and Water Hemispheres

Figure 7.2


Ocean and Freshwater Distribution

Figure 7.3


Unique Properties of Water  

  • Heat properties 

    • Phase change

    • Sublimation

    • Latent heat 

      • Vaporization

      • Condensation

  • Heat properties of water in nature  

    • Latent heat of sublimation


Three States of Water

Figure 7.5


Uniqueness of Ice Forms

Figure 7.6


Phase Changes

Figure 7.7


Humidity

  • Relative humidity  

    • Saturation

    • Dew point

  • Expressions of relative humidity  

    • Vapor pressure

    • Specific humidity

  • Instruments


Relative Humidity

Figure 7.8


Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

Figure 7.10


Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

Figure 7.10


Humidity Patterns

Figure 7.11


Saturation Vapor Pressure

Figure 7.12


Maximum Specific Humidity

Figure 7.13


Humidity Instruments

Figure 7.14


Atmospheric Stability  

  • Adiabatic processes  

  • Stable and unstable atmospheric conditions  


Buoyancy and Gravity

Figure 7.15


Adiabatic Processes

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic Cooling

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic Heating

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic Processes  

  • Dry adiabatic rate

    • 10 C°/1000 m

    • 5.5 F°/1000 ft

  • Moist adiabatic rate

    • 6 C°/1000 m

    • 3.3 F°/1000 ft


Atmospheric Temperatures and Stability

Figure 7.18


 Three Examples of Stability

Figure 7.19


Clouds and Fog

  • Cloud Formation Processes  

  • Cloud Types and Identification  

  • Fog  


Cloud Formation Processes  

  • Moisture droplet

  • Cloud-condensation nuclei


Moisture Droplets

Figure 7.20


Raindrop and Snowflake Formation

Figure 7.21


Cloud Types and Identification  

Figure 7.22


Cirrus

Figure 7.22


Cirrostratus

Figure 7.22


Altocumulus

Figure 7.22


Altostratus

Figure 7.22


Nimbostratus

Figure 7.22


Stratus

Figure 7.22


Cumulus

Figure 7.22


Cumulonimbus

Figure 7.22


Cumulonimbus Development

Figure 7.23


Fog  

  • Advection fog

  • Evaporation fog

  • Upslope fog

  • Valley fog

  • Radiation fog


Advection Fog

Figure 7.24


Evaporation Fog

Figure 7.25


Valley Fog

Figure 7.25

Figure 7.26


Evaporation and Radiation Fog

Figure 7.28


Radiation Fog

Figure 7.27


End of Chapter 7

Geosystems 7e

An Introduction to Physical Geography


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