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Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture. Water and Atmospheric Moisture. Water on Earth   Unique Properties of Water   Humidity   Atmospheric Stability   Clouds and Fog  . Water on Earth  . Worldwide equilibrium Distribution of Earth’s water today  . Land and Water Hemispheres.

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Chapter 7 water and atmospheric moisture

Chapter 7Water and Atmospheric Moisture


Water and atmospheric moisture
Water and Atmospheric Moisture

  • Water on Earth  

  • Unique Properties of Water  

  • Humidity  

  • Atmospheric Stability  

  • Clouds and Fog  


Water on earth
Water on Earth  

  • Worldwide equilibrium

  • Distribution of Earth’s water today  


Land and water hemispheres
Land and Water Hemispheres

Figure 7.2



Unique properties of water
Unique Properties of Water  

  • Heat properties 

    • Phase change

    • Sublimation

    • Latent heat 

      • Vaporization

      • Condensation

  • Heat properties of water in nature  

    • Latent heat of sublimation




Phase changes
Phase Changes

Figure 7.7


Humidity
Humidity

  • Relative humidity  

    • Saturation

    • Dew point

  • Expressions of relative humidity  

    • Vapor pressure

    • Specific humidity

  • Instruments


Relative humidity
Relative Humidity

Figure 7.8




Humidity patterns
Humidity Patterns

Figure 7.11


Saturation vapor pressure
Saturation Vapor Pressure

Figure 7.12


Maximum specific humidity
Maximum Specific Humidity

Figure 7.13



Atmospheric stability
Atmospheric Stability  

  • Adiabatic processes  

  • Stable and unstable atmospheric conditions  



Adiabatic processes
Adiabatic Processes

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic cooling
Adiabatic Cooling

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic heating
Adiabatic Heating

Figure 7.17


Adiabatic processes1
Adiabatic Processes  

  • Dry adiabatic rate

    • 10 C°/1000 m

    • 5.5 F°/1000 ft

  • Moist adiabatic rate

    • 6 C°/1000 m

    • 3.3 F°/1000 ft



Three examples of stability
 Three Examples of Stability

Figure 7.19


Clouds and fog
Clouds and Fog

  • Cloud Formation Processes  

  • Cloud Types and Identification  

  • Fog  


Cloud formation processes
Cloud Formation Processes  

  • Moisture droplet

  • Cloud-condensation nuclei


Moisture droplets
Moisture Droplets

Figure 7.20




Cirrus
Cirrus

Figure 7.22


Cirrostratus
Cirrostratus

Figure 7.22


Altocumulus
Altocumulus

Figure 7.22


Altostratus
Altostratus

Figure 7.22


Nimbostratus
Nimbostratus

Figure 7.22


Stratus
Stratus

Figure 7.22


Cumulus
Cumulus

Figure 7.22


Cumulonimbus
Cumulonimbus

Figure 7.22



Fog  

  • Advection fog

  • Evaporation fog

  • Upslope fog

  • Valley fog

  • Radiation fog


Advection fog
Advection Fog

Figure 7.24


Evaporation fog
Evaporation Fog

Figure 7.25


Valley fog
Valley Fog

Figure 7.25

Figure 7.26



Radiation fog
Radiation Fog

Figure 7.27


End of chapter 7

End of Chapter 7

Geosystems 7e

An Introduction to Physical Geography


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