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Nursing Management of Clients with Stressors of Endocrine Function DIABETES MELLITUS. NUR133 Lectures # 12&13 K. Burger, MSEd, MSN, RN, CNE. Definition & Classification.

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nursing management of clients with stressors of endocrine function diabetes mellitus

Nursing Management of Clients with Stressors of Endocrine FunctionDIABETES MELLITUS

NUR133

Lectures # 12&13

K. Burger, MSEd, MSN, RN, CNE

definition classification
Definition & Classification
  • A group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
  • The disease is further characterized by metabolic abnormalities and by long-term complications to other body systems
  • EVERY BODY SYSTEM IS AFFECTED BY DIABETES
classification
Type 1Diabetes Mellitus

Lack of insulin or production of defective insulin

Age of onset: <20 yrs

Often present with DKA

Always requires exogenous insulin Rx

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Reduced ability to respond to insulin and/or secrete sufficient amounts

Age of onset: adults*

Obesity = co-factor

Rx: variable

Classification
dka versus hhns
Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Usually preceded by polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia

BG > 300

Ketosis

Fruity breath

Lethargy

Kussmaul’s Resp

Hyperglycemic-Hyperosmolar

Non-ketotic Syndrome

Gradual Onset

BG as high as 800

Hi blood osmolarity

No ketosis

Dehydration

Confusion – Coma

Muscle jerking-seizures

DKA versus HHNS
interventions for dka hhns
Interventions for DKA / HHNS
  • Restore fluid volume rapidly to maintain perfusion to vital organs ( NS IV @ 1L/hr)*
  • Then continue to balance fluids (1/2 NS @ reduced rate )
  • Administer IV insulin
  • Administer HCO3 in extreme cases
  • Monitor K levels
  • Monitor for s/s cerebral edema*
metabolic acidosis alkalosis the elevator effect

.

.

Metabolic Acidosis/AlkalosisThe elevator effect

Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolic Alkalosis

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H + HCO3

prior to lecture
PRIOR to LECTURE
  • Students are to complete: Winningham & Preusser CASE STUDYEndocrine Disorders – Case Study #4
  • BE PREPARED!
  • YOU WILL BE CALLED ON IN CLASS TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS!
case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

The client, Y.L. has been complaining of chronic fatigue, increased thirst, constantly being hungry, and frequent urination. She denies any pain, burning, or low back pain on urination. She tells you she has a vaginal yeast infection that she has treated numerous times with OTC medication. She admits to starting smoking since going back to work full time as a clerk in a loan company. She also complains of having difficulty reading numbers and reports making frequent mistakes. She says by the time she gets home and makes supper for her family, then puts her child to bed, she is too tired to exercise. She reports her feet hurt; they often “burn or feel like there are pins in them.” She reports that after her delivery, she went back to her traditional eating pattern, which you know is high in carbohydrates Her current weight is 173 lb. Today her BP is 152/97 mm Hg and her plasma glucose is 291 mg/dL.Lab values are as follows:

FBG 184 mg/dL, A1c 10.4, UA +glucose, -ketones, cholesterol 256 mg/dL, triglycerides 346 mg/dL, LDL 32 mg/dL, ratio 8.0. Y.L. is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

The PCP decides to start MDI (multiple dose injection) insulin therapy and have the patient count carbohydrates. Y.L. is scheduled for education classes and is to work with the diabetes team to get her blood sugar under control.

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc1
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #1

Identify the three methods used to diagnose

Diabetes mellitus.

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc2
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #9

What symptoms did YL report that lead you

to believe she has some form of neuropathy?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc3
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #10

What findings in YLs history place her at

increased risk for the development of other

forms of neuropathy?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc4
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #11

What are some changes that YL can make

to reduce the risk or slow the progression of

both macrovascular and microvascular

disease?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc5
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION # 8

YLs culture prefers foods high in

carbohydrates. What is carbohydrate counting

and why would this method work well for YL?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc6
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION#12

YL is enrolled in a smoking cessation class.

Why is it so important that she stop smoking?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc7
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION # 2

Identify (3) functions of insulin

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc8
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #3

Insulin’s main action is to lower blood sugar

levels. Several hormones produced in the

body inhibit the effects of insulin. Identify (3)

antidiabetic agents
ORAL

Sulfonylurea Agents

Biguanides

Alpha-glucosidaseInhibitors

Thiazolidinediones

Meglitinides

INSULINS

Rapid Acting

Short Acting

Intermediate Acting

Long Acting

Combination

ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS
oral antidiabetics sulfonylureas
ORAL ANTIDIABETICSSulfonylureas
  • Chlorpropamide ( Diabinese ) 1st generation
  • Glipizide ( Glucotrol ) 2nd generation
  • Glyburide ( Micronase ) 2nd generation
  • Work best in early stages of disease
  • Stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin
  • Also have some effect on glucose absorption & storage in tissues
  • Most commonly prescribed type oral rx
sulfonylurea drugs nursing implications
Sulfonylurea DrugsNursing Implications
  • Hypoglycemia is most common side-effect
  • Can also cause blood dyscrasias
  • Geriatric clients and anyone with decreased organ function more susceptible to above
  • Cross allergies to loop diuretics and sulfonamides
  • Diabinase and other 1st generation sulfonylureas should not be taken with alcohol; potential severe reaction
  • Glucotrol has most rapid onset and shorter duration
  • Usually taken 30 minutes before meals
biguanides
Biguanides
  • Metformin ( Glucophage )
  • Reduces the production of glucose
  • Decreases intestinal absorption of glucose
  • Increases the uptake of glucose
  • Does NOT produce hypoglycemia
  • Often given in combination with other orals
biguanides nursing implications
BiguanidesNursing Implications
  • Onset within 1 hr, duration 24 hrs
  • Hold med temporarily if pt going for diagnostic studies involving iodinated contrast materials
  • Should not be used in renal impaired client
  • Side effects are mostly GI related but usually transient:
    • Abdominal bloating
    • Nausea
    • Diarrhea
alpha glucosidase inhibitors
Alpha –glucosidase Inhibitors
  • Miglitol ( Glyset )
  • Delays glucose absorption after a meal
  • Taken with first bite of each meal
  • GI side effects: abd pain, diarrhea, flatususually lessen over time
  • Contraindicated for persons with inflammatory bowel disease
thiazolidinediones
Thiazolidinediones
  • Rosiglitazone ( Avandia )
  • Decrease insulin resistance
  • Stimulate peripheral glucose uptake
  • Inhibit glucose production in the liver
  • Side effects: weight gain, edema, anemia
  • Potential for hepatic toxicity; liver enzymes need to be monitored
meglitinides
Meglitinides
  • Repaglinide ( Prandin )
  • Nateglinide ( Starlix )
  • Rapidly increases release of insulin from pancreas
  • Must be taken with meals 0-30min ac
  • Meal must have adequate CHO
insulin therapy
Rapid - Lispro

Short - Regular

Intermediate -NPH

Long - Lantus

Insulin Therapy
case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc9
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #4

YL was started on lispro (Humalog) and

glargine (Lantus) insulin. What is the most

important point to make when teaching the

patient about glargine?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc10
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #5

Because YL has been on regular insulin in the

past, you want to make sure she understands the

difference between regular and lispro. What is the

most significant difference between these two

insulins?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc11
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #6

What is the peak time and duration for lispro

insulin?

case study 4 diabetes mellitus winningham pruesser 2005 elsevier inc12
Case Study 4Diabetes MellitusWinningham & Pruesser (2005) Elsevier, Inc.

QUESTION #7

YL wants to know why she can’t take NPH and regular insulin. She is more familiar with them and has taken them in the past. Explain why the MD chose lispro and glargine insulin over NPH and regular insulin.

insulin rx considerations
Insulin Rx Considerations
  • Rotation within one anatomic site is preferred to moving from site to site.
  • Abdomen provides best absorption
  • Be alert to Dawn and/or Somagyi Phenomena
  • Refrigerate unused insulin
  • Insulin in use can be left out up to 28 days
  • Do not re-use needles. Dispose properly
alternative methods of insulin administration
Alternative Methods of Insulin Administration
  • External pumps
  • Internal pumps
  • Injection devices
  • Inhaled ( under development )
common nursing implications for antidiabetic medications
Common Nursing Implications for Antidiabetic Medications
  • Monitor for hypo/hyperglycemia
  • Many drug interactions; both agonist and antagonist
  • Use cautiously in geriatric clients and those with organ impairment
  • Monitor A1c levels q2-3months
  • Monitor BG levels daily
  • Patient teaching is KEY!!!
self study hypoglycemia versus hyperglycemia signs symptoms
Hypoglycemia

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

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Hyperglycemia

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

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Self-StudyHypoglycemia versus HyperglycemiaSigns & Symptoms
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